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Full text of "Soldiers in King Philip's war; being a critical account of that war, with a concise history of the Indian wars of New England from 1620-1677, official lists of the soldiers of Massachusetts colony serving in Philip's war, and sketches of the principal officers, copies of ancient documents and records relating to the war, also lists of the Narraganset grantees of the united colonies, Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Conneticut; with an appendix, 3d ed., with additional appendix containing corrections and new material"

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SOLDIERS 



KING PHILIP'S WAR 

BEING . , 

A CRITICAL ACCOUNT OF THAT WAR 



A CONCISE HISTORY OF THE INDIAN WARS OF 
NEW ENGLAND FROM 1620-16 77 

OFFICIAL LISTS OF THE SOLDIERS OF MASSACHUSETTS COLONY 

SERVING IN PHILIP'S WAR, AND SKETCHES OF THE PRINCIPAL 

OFFICERS, COPIES OF ANCIENT DOCUMENTS AND 

RECORDS RELATING TO THE WAR 



LISTS OF THE NARRAGANSET GRANTEES OF THE UNITED 
COLONIES 

MASSACHUSETTS, PLYMOUTH, AND CONNECTICUT 



WITH AN APPENDIX 
THIRD EDITION 

WITH ADDITIONAL APPENDIX CONTAINING CORRECTIONS AND NEW MATERIAL 

BY 

GEORGE MADISON BODGE, A. B. 

MEMBER OF THE NEW ENGLAND HISTORIC-GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY, AND EX-CHAPLAIN 
OF THE MASSACHUSETTS SOCIETY OF COLONIAL WARS 

ILLUSTRATED 



BOSTON, MASS. 

PRINTED FOR THE AUTHOR 

1906 



Copyright, 1896 and 1906 



GEORGE MADISON BODGE 



TMK ROCKWELL AND CHURCHILL PRESS 
BOSTON 



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151705» 



TO 

MR. JOHN WARD DEAN, 

AT WHOSE SUGGESTION THIS WORK WAS AT FIRST UNDERTAKEN, 

AND TO WHOSE KINDLY ADVICE AND 

HELPFUL INTEREST 

IS LARGELY DUE ITS MEASURE OF SUCCESS, 

t^ie (gofume 

IS AFFECTIONATELY I xN SCRIBED 

BY THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 



The principal purpose of the author, in preparing this volume, 
has been the presentation of a concise and accurate account of 
the events of the Indian wars in New England, with lists of offi- 
cers, soldiers, military committees, scouts, and others engaged 
therein, as full and correct as possible. Material has been drawn 
from all available sources, viz. : The official records of the 
three colonies, Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Connecticut; 
Rhode Island, as a non-combatant community, not being counted 
into the league. In addition to these sources, the Colonial Ar- 
chives have been diligently searched for unpublished documents, as 
well as the Registry, Probate, and Court Records, and documents 
of the several counties. I have consulted all known published 
histories and accounts of the early times : Bradford, the Mortons, 
Prince, and Winthrop ; with diaries and " personal accounts," — 
like those published by Capt. John Mason, Capt. John Under- 
bill, Lieut. Lion Gardener, P. Vincent, and others, together with 
later historians, — Hubbard, the Mathers, father and son, and 
later yet, and of less authority, those like Benjamin Church. 
Then again Town and Church Records, family bibles, and local 
traditions have all been noted, and brought to give evidence. 

The basis, however, of the main body of the work, the services 
of the soldiers in Philip's War, is drawn from the ancient account- 
books of Mr. John Hull, Treasurer-at-war of Massachusetts 
Colony, from 1675-1678. 

A word of explanation concerning these precious old books may 
be in order here. In former times the books and papers kept by 
public officers were retained by them, at the close of their official 
terms, as their private property. It is not known just how these 
books were handed down, but the Journal, the most important, 
was discovered in the possession of Dr. Daniel Gilbert, Boston, 



by Mr. Isaac Child, and at his suggestion, kindly transferred 
to the New England Historic Genealogical Society, about fifty 
years ago. Two Ledgers, belonging to the same set of accounts, 
were acquired by the same society later, and have since been pre- 
served in their safe, with many other precious documents. The 
old Journal was in a dilapidated condition when found by Mr. 
Child, and the society employed him to repair and index the 
volume, which he did with great patience and skill. Many parts 
of the book are now almost illegible, and few except experts can 
reconstruct the names ; while other parts are as plain as on the 
day of writing. This Journal contains accounts of debt and 
credit with everybody who had any dealing with the Colony of 
Massachusetts in relation to the war of 1675-78. The pages of 
the Journal, after the first and up to the fourteenth, are missing, 
but the first Ledger, fortunately, covers these pages so that it 
is possible to restore them entire. The first accounts show the 
names of those who furnished money, means, and material for 
the war. Then follow the individual accounts of the officers, 
soldiers, and others of every class, who served the Colony in this 
war, under the general account, " Military Service." These 
credits show that every soldier, on presenting himself to the pay- 
master, must produce a certificate of service, or "debenture," 
signed by his commanding officer. Mr. Hull's system of book- 
keeping was a quaint sort of " double-entry," or " mixed-method." 
It was very exhaustive, giving to every species of transaction a 
separate ledger account, as well as to every individual mentioned 
in the Journal. Some of these accounts are very curious and 
suggestive, for instance : " Bisket," " Liquors," •' Ammunission," 
" Wast-Coats and Drawers," " Tobaco & Pipes," " Wounded 
Men," " Contingencies," " Woolves," " Quakers," " Captives," 
" Distressed-Dutchmen," " Scalpes," " Perquisites," " Queries." 
Many pages are lost from the last part of this book, while the 
time covered by the part left is much the most important of the 
war. The Journal accounts extend from June 25, 1675, to Sep- 
tember 23, 1676. The first Ledger, beginning with the above 
Journal, contains now two-hundred and twenty double pages, on 
which is posted about half the matter in the Journal accounts. 
Both these books must have been originally much larger than at 
present. There is a later mixed Journal-Ledger, covering the 
years 1677 and 1678, in part, and indicating a closing-up of the 



war accounts. Further explanation is given on page 446 of this 
volume. 

In searching these books for the name of one who served in the 
Indian war, the present writer discovered the importance of the 
accounts in the matter of the Indian war of 1675. Every soldier 
who served in that war is credited with military service, and the 
name of the officer under whom or the garrison at which he 
served is given in the credit. The date at which payment is 
made is given in the '' Cash " account, but the time and place of 
service is not designated, nor is the residence or any further 
information about the soldier given. Some of the soldiers served 
at different times and under different officers. The best method 
therefore of arranging the men in companies was found to be that 
of following the names of the officers as they occur in the credits. 
The names were thus gathered from the Journal, and placed in 
companies with their officers. Then the fortunes of each com- 
pany were followed as carefully as possible throughout the sev- 
eral campaigns of the war. But it was found that a great 
amount of unpublished material is still preserved in our State 
Archives, County and Town Records, and elsewhere ; and this, 
in the light of the great number of names identified in these 
credits as soldiers, becomes available and interesting as history. 
Additional material has been gathered and incorporated here 
from all sources, whenever it would add to the sum of knowledge 
concerning the war. 

The officers and soldiers, many of them, served in several, 
some in all, the different campaigns ; and thus, in following their 
fortunes, it was necessary to go over the same events many times, 
so as to marshal the various companies in order in the military 
operations. 

It will be seen that by this method of arrangement a great 
amount of important material has been massed together con- 
veniently for the study of history, while the story of the war has 
not been followed by consecutive events, but according to the 
experience of individual officers and companies. This incon- 
venience has been obviated by the preparation of the Introductory 
Chapter, which presents the course of events in consecutive 
order. 

The first edition of the work was published in 1892, and soon 
exhausted. By numerous applications for the book, and by the 



advice of many who knew the value of the work, I decided to 
issue a second edition, though this involved the expense of 
reprinting the volume entire. Contemplating at first only the 
reissue of the former work, I expected that two months would 
be sufficient time to complete the matter. I soon saw, however, 
the opportunity to immensely increase the value of the book hy 
including, in the Introductory Chapter, an account of the Indian 
wars of New England from the beginning. The time and labor 
involved in this addition are not seen in the result, but my 
readers will be saved much time and perplexity by the matter 
here gathered. 

In revising and recasting the former work, I corrected all proof 
by original documents, and was delighted to find that very few 
corrections were needed. Having in mind the new demand for 
critical accuracy imposed by the growing interest in American 
genealogy and biography, and especially in the patriotic societies, 
like the " Society of Colonial Wars," I have spared no pains to 
make my book absolutely correct. I have tested the lists of 
names, the dates, and other matter, from Hull's accounts, and am 
confident that they are entirely accurate. I have realized the 
importance of absolute accuracy here, since any one who can 
trace descent from one of these who are credited with military 
service, has an indisputable claim to membership in the above- 
named society. 

Much new material has been added in the body of the work, 
besides the new chapters at the end. The footnotes from the 
former edition have been mostly embodied in the text. The lists 
of the Narraganset Grantees have been collected by me after a 
diligent research extending over many years. The old Proprietors' 
Records are widely scattered, and several are in private hands, 
but, with one exception, my lists are copied directly from the 
original, and that list, — " Narraganset No. 1," was copied and 
published by such a careful hand, and is so fully confirmed by 
Hull's credits, that I consider it of the highest authority. These 
lists form an entirely new department, while logically following 
the previous story of the great war of 1675-7. 

There is no doubt that Plymouth and Connecticut Colonies 
had treasurers' accounts, like these of Massachusetts, and it is an 
irreparable loss to history that none are found preserved. In 
order to remedy this defect in a slight degree I have tried to 



gather items relating to the wars in those colonies from every 
available source. The " Voluntown lists " of Connecticut, and 
those of Numbers 4 and 7 of Massachusetts, relating to Plymouth 
Colony, will be found important additions. 

Into the Appendix, as well as the "list of later credits," I 
have tried to crowd all items bearing directly upon the Indian 
wars of New England, in order to make my volume complete in 
itself. I have given the lists of governors and deputy-governors 
of the three colonies from 1620 to 1687. The " triple alliance " 
for war with the Indians shut out the Rhode Island Colony, 
" on doctrinal grounds," so that she won no glory in the war 
save that which crowns the " Good Samaritan." 

The Indexes have been prepared with utmost care for the 
convenience and help of the readers, but no extended analysis 
of the relations of names has been attempted. Cross-references 
have been made in cases where the relation might not be readily 
noted. 

My new volume has grown to nearly one hundred pages 
beyond the first promise to my subscribers, with an added 
expense of several hundred dollars and a delay of some six 
months. I am consoled by the thought that my present loss is 
to be a permanent gain to my readers. 

In the course of my labors I have received encouragement and 
kindly assistance from many, some of whose names are mentioned 
in connection with special favors : To Mr. John Ward Dean and 
Mr. W. P. Greenlaw, of the New England Historic Genealogical 
Society ; Dr. Samuel A. Green, Mr. Charles J. Hoadly, Mr. J. C. J. 
Brown, Hon. George Sheldon, Mr. H. E. Waite, Mr. Walter K. 
Watkins, Capt. Philip Reade, Mr. Seymour Morris, Mr. Howland 
Pell, and many others, I wish here to renew the assurance of my 
appreciation of their courtesy and kindness. To the members 
of my own family, too, for their continued patient help, my word 
of appreciation may properly be spoken here ; and especially 
along these pages I shall always find familiar traces of the faith- 
ful " vanished hand " of my beloved daughter. May Alice Bodge, 
whose loving earthly service closed just before this volume was 
completed. And to the advance subscribers, who have responded 
with such ready interest to my prospectus, I wish to say that my 
own satisfaction with the volume will be measured largely by 
the satisfaction and help which they receive from it. 



One other element of satisfaction will enter into my enjoyment 
of the completed work : I have been able, in the course of it, to 
settle some disputed questions by the discovery of new testi- 
mony, to assign to their proper places of honor some of the old- 
time leaders, and to do some measure of tardy justice to many a 
brave and true but long-forgotten name, by summoning again, 
from their two centuries of oblivion, these dusky battalions of 
the "First American Army," and marshalling them, "roster, 
rank, and file," upon the permanent page of American history. 

GEORGE M. BODGE. 

Leominster, Mass., August 10, 1896. 




CONTENTS 



INTEODUCTORY CHAPTER. 

PAGE 

Giving a Concise History of the Indian Wars in 

New England, 1620-1677 1 

CHAPTER I. 
Beginning of Hostilities, Capt. Henchman's Company, 45 

CHAPTER II. 
Capt. Samuel Mosely and his Company ... . . 59 

CHAPTER III. 
Cavalry Companies, or "Troops," op Capt. Prentice, 

Lieut. Oakes, and Capt. Nicholas Paige . . 79 

CHAPTER IV. 
Major Thomas Savage, his Forces and Operations . 87 

CHAPTER V. 
Capts. Thomas Wheeler and Edward Hutchinson, at 

Brookfield 102 

CHAPTER VI. 
Major Simon Willard, his Military Operations and 

Men 119 

CHAPTER VII. 
Capts. Richard Beers, Thomas Lathrop, and their 

Companies 127 

CHAPTER VIII. 
Major Samuel Appleton, his Operations and Men . 142 



Xll CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. PAGE 

Capt. Isaac Johnson and his Company .... 169 

CHAPTER X. 
Capt. Joseph Gardiner and his Company . . . 164 

CHAPTER XL 
Capt. Nathaniel Davenport and his Company . . 168 

CHAPTER XII. 
Capt. James Oliver and his Company .... 173 

CHAPTER XIII. 

Narraganset Campaign ; The •' Swamp Fort " Battle, 179 

CHAPTER XIV. 
Close of the Narraganset Campaign ; The " Hungry 

March " 199 

CHAPTER XV. 
Capt. Brocklebank's Company ; Marlborough Garrison, 206 

CHAPTER XVI. 
Capt. Samuel Wadsworth ; The Sudbury Eight . . 218 

CHAPTER XVII. 
Capt. William Turner; The Falls Fight . . . 232 

CHAPTER XVIII. 
Capts. Jonathan Poole, Thomas Brattle, and Com- 
panies 258 

CHAPTER XIX. 
Capt. Joseph Sill and his Company .... 266 

CHAPTER XX. 
Various Officers and Companies 276 

CHAPTER XXI. 
Major Richard Walderne's Operations and Men . 293 

CHAPTER XXII. 
Capt. William Hathorne and his Men .... 318 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XXIII. PACK 

Capt. Joshua Scottow and his Black Point Garrison, 325 

CHAPTER XXIV. 
Gapts. Benjamin Swett and Michael Peirse . . , 342 

CHAPTER XXV. 
Lancaster and other Garrisons; "Assignment of 

Wages " 351 

CHAPTER XXVI. 
Philip, Canonchet, and other Hostile Indians . . 377 

CHAPTER XXVII. 

The " Christian Indians " of New England . . . 389 

CHAPTER XXVIII. 

Narraganset Townships, Additional Credits, etc. . 406 



APPENDIX A. 

Additional Matter relating to the Three Colonies : 

Plymouth Colony 455 

Governors, 1620-1692. Capt. Myles Standish. List of Cap- 
tains and Lieutenants of Militia. Organization of Militia, etc. 
Active Military Service in 1637 and 1645. Military Supplies, 1645. 
Additional Items concerning Philip's War, in Plymouth Colony. 

Connecticut Colony 464 

Governors and Lieutenant-Governors, 1639-1689. Military 
Affairs in Connecticut Colony. Lists of Soldiers. First Con- 
necticut Cavalry. Military Officers previous to and during 
Philip's War. Windsor Troopers, 1676. Roster of Officers of 
Connecticut Militia. 

Massachusetts Colony 469 

Governors and Deputy-Governors. Earliest Military Affairs. 
Captains Underhill and Patrick. Arms and Ammunition. Official 
Roster of Militia, 1630-1637. Ancient Manual of Arms. Major- 
Generals of Massachusetts, 1644-1686. Organization of the 
Colonial Militia, some Years previous to and during Philip's War. 
Capt. Mosely's " Volunteers." Sale of Indian Captives by Massa- 
chusetts Colony. 

Appendix B of Third Edition with Special Index . . 481 

Index of Names 487 

Index of Places 500 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PoBTRAiT OP Rev. George M. Bodge 

Scene op Brookfield Ambuscade, Aug. 4, 1675 

Indian Assault on Ayres' Inn 

Map, including Line of March op Colonial Forces 

Map showing Location of Great Swamp Fight 

Memorial of Great Swamp Fight 



PASK 

Frontispiece 
Facing 111 
« 112 
" 184 
'' 186 
« 190 




INTEODUCTOEY CHAPTEE. 



CONTAINING A CONCISE HISTORY OF THE INDIAN 
WARS OF NEW ENGLAND FROM 1620 TO 1677. 

THE first event in the Indian wars of New England, as related 
to its settlement by our forefathers, occurred on the 8th of 
December, 1620, while a company of the Pilgrims were 
coasting along the shores towards Plymouth Bay, in their shal- 
lop. The story is briefly, but graphically, told by Nathaniel 
Morton, for many years clerk of the Colony, and the author of 
what he called " New England's Memorial." 

After relating their experiences in Cape Cod Harbor, during the 
month of November, he says : 

" On the 6th of December they concluded to send out their 
shallop again on a third discovery. The names of those who 
went upon this discovery were 

" Mr. John Carver, Mr. William Bradford, Mr. Edward Wins- 
low, Capt. Miles Standish, Mr. John Howland, Mr. Richard 
Warren, Mr. Stephen Hopkins, Mr. Edward Tilly, Mr. John 
Tilly, Mr. Clark, Mr. Coppin, John Allerton, Thomas English, 
and Edward Doten, with the master gunner of the ship, and three 
of the common seamen. These set sail on Wednesday, the sixth 
day of December, 1620, intending to circulate the deep bay of 
Cape Cod, the weather being very cold, so as the spray of the sea 
lighting on the coats they were as if they had been glazed ; not- 
withstanding, that night they got down into the bottom of the 
bay, and as they drew near the shore, they saw some ten or 
twelve Indians, and landed about a league off them (but with 
some difficulty, by reason of the shoals in that place) where they 
tarried that night. Next morning they divided their company to 
coast along, some on shore and some in the boat, where they saw 
the Indians had been the day before, cutting up a fish like a 
grampus ; and so they ranged up and down all that day, but 
found no people, nor any place they liked, as fit for their settle- 
ment; and that night, they on shore met their boat at a certain 
creek where they made them a barricado of boughs and logs, for 
their lodging that night, and, being weary, betook themselves to 
rest. 



THE PILGRIMS "WARS. 



" The next morning about five o'clock (seeking guidance and 
protection from God by prayer,) and refreshing themselves in 
way of preparation, to persist on their intended expedition, some 
of them carried their arms down to the boat, having laid them 
up in their coats from the moisture of the weather ; but others 
said tliey would not carry theirs until they went themselves. 
But presently, all on a sudden, about the dawning of the day, 
they heard a great and strange cry, and one of their company 
being on board, came hastily in and cried, Indians ! Indians ! 
and withal, their arrows came flying amongst them ; on which 
all their men ran with speed to recover their arms ; as by God's 
good providence they did. In the meantime some of those that 
were ready, discharged two muskets at them, and two more 
stood ready at the entrance of their rendezvous, but were com- 
manded not to shoot until they could take full aim at them ; and 
the other two charged again with all speed, for there were only 
four that had arms there, and defended the barricado which was 
first assaulted. The cry of the Indians was dreadful, especially 
when they saw the men run out of their rendezvous towards the 
shallop, to recover their arms, the Indians wheeling about upon 
them ; but some running out with coats of mail and cuttle-axes 
in their hands, they soon recovered their arms, and discharged 
amongst them, and stayed their violence. Notwithstanding there 
was a lusty man, and no less valiant, stood behind a tree within 
half a musket shot, and let his arrows fly amongst them ; he was 
seen to shoot three arrows, which were all avoided, and stood 
three shot of musket, until one taking full aim at him, made the 
bark or splinters of the tree fly about his ears, after wliich he gave 
an extraordinary shriek, and away they went all of them ; and so 
leaving some to keep the shallop, they followed them about a 
quarter of a mile, that they might conceive that they were not 
afraid of them, or any way discouraged. 

"Thus it pleased God to vanquish their enemies, and to give 
them deliverance, and by his special providence so to dispose, that 
not any of them was either hurt or hit though their arrows came 
close by them ; and sundry of their coats, which hung up in the 
barricado, were shot through and through. For which salvation 
and deliverance they rendered solemn thanksgiving unto the 
Lord." 

This was the first battle with the Indians, and the scene of it 
was called by them at that time " First Encounter." This 
spot is in the present town of Easthara. They picked up eigh- 
teen of the Indian arrows and sent them home to England by 
" Master Jones." Some of the arrows were headed with brass, 
some with hart's horn, and some with eagle's claws. It was 
late at night, and in a heavy storm, that they with much 
difficulty made what is now Pljonouth Harbor, and lay-to 
under the lee of the Island, which they named " Clark's Island," 



THE PILGRIMS AND MASSASOIT. 6 

because Mr. Clark of their company was the first to step ashore 
next morning. Here they remained the next day, and here, on 
the next, kept the memorable Sabbath. 

The following Monday they explored Plymouth Bay and re- 
solved on this locality for their settlement, and so returned to 
their ship at Provincetovvn Harbor. 

The Landing of the Pilgrims was made on Dec. 21, 1620, at 
the place known to the Indians as Patuxit, now Plymouth. 

During the terrible scenes of the following Winter, the Indians, 
from time to time, showed themselves at a long distance watch- 
ing their movements,but not troubling. In March, however, the 
famous Samoset came boldly into their midst and addressed them 
in broken English. He made them understand that he was from 
the Eastern part of the coast, and had known certain English 
fishermen, from whom he had learned the language. He was 
very friendly and helpful to the Pilgrims ever afterwards, in 
many ways. He told them of another Indian, Squanto or Tis- 
quanto, of the tribes near this place, who had been in England, 
and could speak English better than himself. Kindly entertained 
by the English, he came to them again shortly afterwards, bring- 
ing some other Indians with him, and announced a visit to be 
made in a few days by tlie great Sachem, Massasoit, who came 
five days later, with the above-mentioned Squanto, and the chief 
of his friends and attendants. Massasoit was Sachem of what 
had been a large and powerful people, but now greatly weakened 
by the fearful devastations of a plague, which had swept away a 
large part of his tribes along the coast, a few years only before 
the English landed at Plymouth. His residence, at this time, 
was at Sowams, or Sowamset (now a part of Barrington, R.I.). 
His dominion extended over the Massachusetts tribes as far as 
the Charles River, and it is supposed that the Pawtucket was 
the boundary between his people, known as the Wainpanoags, 
and the Narragansets. The Cape Indians gave him allegiance, 
and all that part of Rhode Island east of Narraganset Bay. One 
residence of his was at Mount Hope, not far from the present 
city of Fall River, which became afterwards the permanent resi- 
dence of his son Philip, or Metacom. On the occasion of Massa- 
soit's visit, a treaty of peace was arranged between him and the 
English. This treaty was for help against other tribes and out- 
side enemies : a league, indeed, for natural protection. It was 
the first treaty ever made in New England, and was the most 
important. The Wampanoags, in their present weakened condi- 
tion, feared the power of the strong and warlike Narragansets, so 
that this league of defence was as necessary to them as to the 
English; and to the small band of Pilgrims it meant nothing less 
than their salvation, since it threw their frontier fifty miles away 
instead of one, and united their interests with a great tribe, who 
were made strong by this league itself. After this treaty, 



4 THE pilgrims' WAKS. 

Squanto remained at Plymouth as the interpreter and counsellor 
of the English. The treaty was faithfully kept by Massasoit 
while he lived. The dominion properly belonging to the Wam- 
panoags was known as Pokanoket. 

The next trouble had with the Indians, after this treaty, was 
caused by an Indian chief named Corbitant, who lived near 
Nemasket, now Middleborough. Squanto had been joined at 
Plymouth by another friendly and influential Indian named 
Hobomak, and the two were sent out as agents of the English, 
among the tribes, to manage their trade in fur and other com^ 
modities. Corbitant provoked a quarrel, and attempted to stab 
Hobomak, who escaped to Plymouth and reported the assault, 
and his fears that Squanto had been slain. Immediately Capt. 
Miles Standish and fourteen men marched to the Indian town 
and beset the wigwam of Corbitant, but found him gone. But 
they found Squanto had not been killed. In the attack upon 
Corbitant's wigwam, two or three of the natives were unin- 
tentionally wounded, and these were brought to Plymouth, and 
kindly cared for by the English. After this, several of the sur- 
rounding chiefs came in and declared their friendship, and 
Corbitant himself, through Massasoit, sought to make peace with 
them. In September of this year (1621) a shallop was fitted 
out with ten men, and Squanto as guide and interpreter, and 
explored Massachusetts Bay along the shores of Dorchester, 
Boston, and the peninsula between the Mystic and the Charles 
Rivers. They were welcomed to this vicinity by Obbatinewat, 
the Sagamore of Shawmut. He accompanied them across the 
Charles River, and they tried to find the Squaw-Sachem of the 
remnants of the Massachusetts tribes, widow of the great Sachem, 
Nanepashemet, but were unsuccessful. 

During November, 1621, a messenger came from the Narra- 
gansets, bearing a challenge to war, as Squanto explained it, — 
a snake-skin filled with arrows. For answer. Gov. Bradford 
filled the snake-skin with powder and bullets and sent it back to 
the Sachem, Canonicus, with the word that he was ready for 
either war or peace. Then the Pilgrims fortified their houses 
with palisades and set a guard at night, and arranged their 
fighting force in order for defence. During the Summer of 1622 
they built a timber fort, " strong and comely, with flat roof and 
battlements ; " upon this, ordnance was mounted, and a watch 
kept. The fort also served as a place of worship. The 
" unruly " company, which came in Robert Cushman's ship, in 
1621, and had lived upon the hospitality of the Pilgrims through 
the Winter and Spring, reducing their Colony to the verge of a 
famine, went away in August, to forma new plantation at a place 
since called Weymouth, under the grant to Mr. Thomas Weston. 
These colonists proved to be an indolent and wayward set, 
abused the confidence of the Indians, and finally caused a 



CAPT. STANDISH AT WEYMOUTH. O 

threatened outbreak, which rumor having come to the ears of 
the Governor, by a message from Massasoit, by Hobomak, Capt. 
Miles Standish, with a company of eight men, with Hobomak as 
guide, — for he would not excite the suspicions of the Indians 
with a larger company, — marched to Wessaguscus (Weymouth), 
whence a certain Phineas Prat had Hed, half famished, and disclosed 
a pitiful story of the destitution of Mr. Weston's colony. Capt. 
Standish found these men in great suffering, but not suspecting 
any plot of the Indians. Hobomak had discovered that the gen- 
eral assault upon the settlers was to be begun here upon the 
weakened and helpless men of Wessaguscus, and then this should 
be the signal for a general attack of all the tribes in the league, 
no less than seven distinct tribes being in the plot. 

Soon after the arrival of the Captain and his men, an Indian 
came into the settlement as if for trade, and soon went away 
without molestation; but the Captain suspected that he knew 
the purpose of their coming. Soon after, Peksuot, a chief of 
bold spirit, came in and told Hobomak that he understood that 
Capt. Standish had come to kill him and the rest of the 
Indians there, and dared him to begin. Then Wittuwamet and 
other Indians, in increasing numbers, began to come amongst 
them, growing more and more insulting, flourishing their knives 
and boasting of their strength. Finally, after bearing with their 
insults a long time, the Captain and his men managed to get 
Peksuot and Wittuwamet into a room together, with a few 
others, and then made a sudden attack upon them, disarmed and 
killed them, Peksuot being slain with his own knife, in the hands 
of the Captain, and Wittuwamet by the others. They then 
gave orders to Weston's men to kill the Indians with them, of 
whom they killed two. Then the Captain and his men began a 
general hunt for all Indians about, intending to make a sweep 
of all; but the Indians, getting news of the intention, fled. 
Winslow and Standish have been blamed for this sanguinary 
performance, but it was probably a question of killing or being 
killed, with them. 

The English believed that for their own safety they must try 
to strike terror to the tribes, so they set the head of Wittuwamet 
upon the battlements of their block-house. The terror inspired 
by the English guns was so great, that many of the Indians fled 
into the swamps and woods, and many perished from cold and 
hunger, in their wanderings. 

However harsh these measures may appear to us now, we have 
to remember the precarious situation in which the Pilgrims were 
placed, — a small hamlet on the shore of a vast unknown wilder- 
ness, with countless hosts of savages swarming about, and only 
restrained by a wholesome fear of the English firearms and the 
sturdy courage of Standish and his "men-at-arms." The Pil- 
grims themselves had hitherto treated all Indians who came in 



6 THE PEQUOD WAR. 

a friendly manner, with kindness and justice. The roystering 
sailors, who had spent a Winter in the Colony, and the unruly 
elements of Weston's men, had cajoled, cheated, quarrelled with, 
and abused the Indians who came to trade, and those Indians, 
who were jealous of Hobomak and Squanto and Massasoit, took 
these occasions to organize a revolt, by wliich there was good 
evidence to show that they meant the total destruction of the 
English settlements. Wary and prompt action was a necessity 
at that time. The event proved the strategic wisdom of the 
action, however unchristian it seems ; for such dread of the 
English, and respect for their prowess, was inspired, that for 
many years there were no notable revolts of the neighboring 
Indians. 

The Pequod Indians caused the next trouble for the Colonies, 
and at one time seemed so formidable as to threaten their de- 
struction. The Massachusetts Colony had been founded in 
1630, and other flourishing plantations had been established at 
Salem and in the vicinity of Boston. The Dutch had settled 
at Manhattan, and made some attempts on the lower Connecticut 
River. In a few years Massachusetts had grown to be recog- 
nized as the leading Colony. In 1634 the Pequod Indians first 
began to be troublesome. The}'' were a strong and warlike tribe, 
who had come down the Connecticut River, years before, and 
seized upon the best lands at its lower parts. They had, with 
great cruelty, driven out the original tribes, and planted their 
principal town on the river, " twelve miles to the Eastward of the 
Connecticut River," which from them took the name of the 
" Pequod River." They had committed depredations upon 
the Dutch, and were at war with the great Narraganset nation. 
The Sachems of the Pequods were Tatobam, and afterwards 
Sassacus ; and of the Narragansets, Canonicus and Miantonomo. 
The first overt act against the English was the killing of Capt. 
John Stone, whose vessel was coasting near the mouth of the 
Connecticut River, in 1634. Capt. Stone was formerly of the 
West Indies, but was known, rather unfavorably, both at Plym- 
outh and Boston. He had committed some outrage against the 
Dutch, and was accused of piracy. He started on a trading 
voyage from Boston to the Eastward as far as York, where he 
took on Capt. John Norton as an associate in trade, or as pas- 
senger, and sailed towards Virginia; but went into the Con- 
necticut, and there, upon some trouble with the Pequods, was 
overcome and slain with all his crew. 

The Pequods, soon afterwards, sent messengers to the Massa- 
chusetts Colony to engage in a treaty of peace and friendship. 
When the above crime was laid to their charge, they claimed 
that it was done in self-defence. The magistrates demanded that 
those who had part in the murder should be surrendered, but 
were not very strenuoiis in pressing the claim, as the Indians told 



OLDHAM KILLED AT BLOCK ISLAND. i 

them that only two of those who had part in the act were left. 
The Indians made presents of "much wampum and beaver." 
The treaty was concluded, and it was promised that the English 
would send a ship to trade with them, and would negotiate a 
treaty for them with the Narragansets, which they much desired, 
but were too proud to propose, but were willing the English 
should offer their foes a part of the wampum and beaver which 
they brought. The Pequods had, at first, and up to about 
1633-4, held the Narragansets in subjection, but the latter were 
now at war and asserting their independence. The Pequods 
had, some time before, cut off a party of Indians who were on 
their way to trade with the Dutch, at their trading-house upon 
the Connecticut Rivei% and in retaliation the Dutch had captured 
their old Sachem, Tatobam, and a small party of Indians with 
him, whom they killed. Tatobam was killed after Capt. Stone's 
death, and was succeeded by Sassacus. The promised vessel was 
sent out to the Pequods to trade. There is reason to think that 
this vessel was in charge of Mr. John Oldham, a man who had 
formerly caused trouble at Plymouth, being concerned in the 
revolt of Rev. John Lyford, and afterwards exiled from that 
Colony, and located at Watertown. He was of turbulent temper, 
but good ability. From some cause he did not succeed in making 
any advantageous trade with tlie Pequods, but secured a load of 
corn from the Indians nearer home, and excited the jealousy of 
certain of the Narragansets, so that when, next year, he was 
cruising about with but two Indians and two English lads in his 
crew, and ran in at Block Island to trade, a large body of the 
Island Indians came on board and killed him. They overpowered 
his crew and took his vessel, which they were robbing, when dis- 
covered by John Gallop, of Boston Harbor, a skipper and pilot, 
who with his vessel, coasting along, discovered Oldham's vessel 
near the shore, and hailed, but received no answer, and then 
observed that the craft was in possession of the Indians, who 
were trying to get her under sail. Gallop, perceiving that they 
had stolen Oldham's vessel, immediately sailed up towards them, 
though having only his two boys and a servant for a crew, and 
but two guns and two pistols, with buckshot for bullets. Sail- 
ing close alongside, he opened fire and drove the Indians below 
deck ; and making fast, went on board and discovered the body 
of Oldham, wrapped in fishing-nets. There are two different 
stories of this affair by contemporary writers ; one is that told by 
Gov. John Winthrop, and the other by Rev. Thomas Cobbet, 
of Ipswich, who had it directly from John Gallop, Jr., who was 
with his father in the affair ; and afterwards, as Captain of a 
Connecticut company, on Dec. 19, 1675, was killed at the 
great Swamp Fight with the Narragansets. Capt. Gallop 
killed, or drove overboard, most of the Indians, captured four, 
one of whom he killed, and carried one away. By stress of 



THE PEQUOD WAR. 



weather he was obliged to cut adrift the craft, which he stripped 
of her rigging, leaving the other two Indians in the hold alive. 
He sailed to Saybrook Fort, just built, at the mouth of the Con- 
necticut, and there delivered his prisoner. The two Narragan- 
sets, who had been vsdth Oldham, had already escaped and 
reported to Canonicus, who was Sachem of the Block Island 
Indians, and he dispatched these two with the prisoner, and a 
letter of explanation, written by Roger Williams, of Providence, 
his friend, to Gov. Winthrop, of Massachusetts, sajdng that 
he had already sent Miantonomo, with a strong force, to punish 
the Block Islanders, and bring the murderers to justice. The Massa- 
chusetts magistrates demanded of Canonicus the restoration of the 
goods taken from Oldham, the return of the two lads taken with 
him, and vengeance upon the murderers. They suspected one 
of the messengers, who had been with Mr. Oldham, but respect- 
ing the rights of a messenger, sent him back safely. It was 
found, by those who came with the boys from Miantonomo, that 
seven of the Indians who had been killed by Capt. Gallop 
were chiefs, and that the others, except the prisoner sent to them, 
had escaped to the Pequods, who now sheltered them. 

An embassy, consisting of Lieut. Edward Gibbons and John 
Higginson, of Boston, with the Sachem of Massachusetts, Cut- 
shamakin, was sent to treat directly with Canonicus, about John 
Oldham's murder. They reported favorably of the honesty and 
kindness of the old Sachem, on their return, but the magistrates 
determined to send out an expedition, and themselves wreak 
vengeance upon the people of Block Island. This expedition 
was raised from Massachusetts, by order of the new governor, 
Henry Vane. The Colonial records do not contain the account 
of its raising and outfit. But Gov. Winthrop tells the story. 
The force to be raised was ninety men, to be divided into four 
companies, under command of Capt. John Underhill, Nathaniel 
Turner, Ensign William Jennison, and Ensign Richard Daven- 
port, and over all John Endecott, Esq., was appointed gen- 
eral, to command the expedition. This force sailed in " three 
pinnaces " and " two shallops." They took two Indians as guides. 
They had commission to land at Block Island, and put all the 
men they could find to death, but to spare the women and chil- 
dren and bring them away captive, and take possession of the 
Island, and thence go to the Pequods and require satisfaction of 
them, and demand the surrender of the murderers of Capt. Stone 
and other English victims, and a thousand fathom of wampum, 
for damages, with some of their children as hostages, and if they 
should refuse, to take these things by force. All who went in 
this expedition were volunteers. They executed their commis- 
sion in part. Setting sail on Aug. 24, 1636, they arrived at Block 
Island on the 31st, where they landed with much difficulty, find- 
ing about forty Indians on the shore waiting to receive them, 



EXPEDITION" AGAINST THE PEQUODS. 9 

with their bows and arrows, which were harmless, our men 
having corselets. Two only were wounded, one in the neck 
and another in the foot. As soon as the English made a landing, 
the Indians all fled. The Island is described as about ten miles 
long, four broad, " full of small hills and all overgrown with 
brushwood of oak." They could only march single file, and it 
was impossible to get at the savages. They found two large 
plantations, some three miles apart, and about sixty wigwams, 
some well-built and large. There were about two hundred acres 
of corn, some gathered in heaps, some left standing. They 
spent two days in a vain search for the inhabitants, and then 
burnt their wigwams and all their " matts," destroyed what corn 
they could, spoiled seven canoes, and killed one Indian, as was 
afterwards reported. Then they sailed to the Connecticut, and 
being reinforced at Saybrook Fort with Lieut. Gardener, with 
twenty men and two shallops, they sailed to Pequod Harbor, 
where an Indian came, in a canoe, to ask " who they were, 
and what they wanted." The General told him that they came 
from the Governor of Massachusetts to speak with their Sachems. 
He said that their Sachem, Sassacus, had gone to Long Island, 
and was told to go and summon the other Sachems. Then the 
English landed upon a rough and rocky shore, and soon the mes- 
senger returned, and great numbers of the savages began to gather 
about them until there seemed to be some three hundred, and 
still the Sachems did not appear. At last, after several hours, 
the General saw that they were but dallying, and announced his 
demands, and said if they were not complied with at once, he 
would fight them, and bade them begone and take care of them- 
selves, for he had come now to fight. But he would not allow any 
shot to be fired until they had time to withdraw from the par- 
ley. Then our forces followed them, but they did not make any 
stand ; only they would turn and shoot their arrows from behind 
rocks and trees, but did no harm, while some of the English 
killed two of theirs. So the English marched up to their town, 
and burnt all their wigwams and matts ; but the corn was still 
standing in the field, and could not be readily destroyed. 
Returning at night to their vessels, on the next day they went 
ashore on the west side of the river, and having destroyed some 
wigwams and canoes, but finding no Indians, sailed away home- 
ward. They arrived at Boston in September, without the loss of 
a single man in the whole expedition. Cutshamakin, a chief of 
the Massachusetts tribe, early residing in that part of Dorchester 
which became Milton, went in this expedition as an interpreter ; 
and while scouting with the English, waylaid, killed, and scalped 
a Pequod. He carried the scalp to Canonicus, who sent it about 
to his chiefs, thus signifying his approval of the deed and his 
loyalty to the English. To the Pequods this meant a declaration 
of war, and threw them at once into active hostilities against the 



10 THE PEQUOD WAR. 

English and their allies. Not more than a dozen of their men 
had been killed in the raid into their country, which they under- 
stood to be a search for " Block Island fugitives ; " but this exploit 
of Cutshamakin's meant war. This whole expedition cost Mas- 
sachusetts only two hundred pounds, as the officers and soldiers 
served without pay. 

The Pequods now tried to make peace with the Narragansets, 
but in vain. They sought to break up the new English settle- 
ments, now being established on the Connecticut by settlers from 
Plymouth and Massachusetts, at Windsor, Wethersfield, and 
Hartford, and had shown their hostility to the garrison at Say- 
brook ; and now, when the Massachusetts troops retired, these 
new towns and the garrison were left in a very critical situation; 
and Lieut. Gardener complained of the affair to the Colonies. 
When the English had reeuibarked at Pequod Harbor, two of 
his soldiers had, somehow, been left behind, and were severely 
wounded. The Saybrook garrison were in a state of siege for 
many months ; and whenever they ventured from the fort, were 
followed by the savages, with intent to lure them into ambush. 
The only safety of the English, here, lay in their possession of 
firearms, wliich struck terror to their enemies, and even with 
these the Saybrook men came near being cut off on several oc- 
casions. The authorities at Plymouth did not approve of the 
action of Massachusetts, and wrote them, stating that they had 
not accomplished any advantage by this expedition, but rather 
stirred up strife to no good end ; which letter was answered by 
Massachusetts justifying their course. Lieut. Gardener wrote 
a full and straightforward account of this expedition, which was 
published. One young man, of Saybrook, Samuel Butterfield, 
was captured at a short distance above the fort, and the place was 
long known as Butterfield's Meadow. Another small party, a 
few days later, was beset by a great company, and two were cut 
off. John Tilly, master of a ship, a very strong man, was capt- 
ured and tortured to death by the savages. In April, 1637, the 
Indians waylaid some of the people of Wethersfield, near the fort, 
as they were going to the fields, and killed six men and three 
women, and at the same time made captive two girls. Some of 
their victims were killed with tortures, which roused the Colonies 
to plans of retaliation, as well as measures for their safety. The 
two girls were redeemed and returned by the Dutch, through 
Lieut. Gardener. 

April 10, 1637, Capt. Underbill with a company of twenty 
men was sent to strengthen the garrison at Saybrook Fort, then 
in command of Lieut. Lion Gardener. This was done at the 
charge of the "gentlemen of Saybrook," and for the protection of 
their plantations, by a vote of the Massachusetts Colony. Nego- 
tiations were begun between Massachusetts and Plymouth about 
joining in war against the Pequods, while plantations upon the 



MASON MARCHES AGAINST THE PEQUODS. 11 

Connecticut were constantly increasing, by additions from Bos- 
ton and surrounding towns. Capt. John Mason, who in 1632, 
as a lieutenant, had been sent to the Eastward in search of the 
noted pirate. Dixy Bull, was made captain of the militia, in No- 
vember, of the same year; removed to Windsor, Conn., with 
Mr. Warham, in 1635, and there became the captain of their 
military company, and the hero of the "Pequod War." 

The three Colonies, having agreed to unite in a war against the 
Pequods, and having engaged the Narragansets and other minor 
tribes to serve with them, took measures to carry out their plans. 
Massachusetts agreed to raise one hundred and sixty men, under 
the command of Capt. Daniel Patrick, of Watertown, and Capt. 
William Trask, of Salem ; while Capt. Israel Stoughton, of Dor- 
chester, was chosen commander-in-chief of the expedition, and 
Rev. John Wilson, pastor of the church in Boston, went as chap- 
lain. Plymouth agreed to send fifty men, under Lieut. William 
Holmes, as commander, and Rev. Tliomas Prince, as chaplain and 
counsellor. Thirty of these men were to be sent for land service, 
and as many others as should be required to manage the barques. 
The list of names, and further particulars about tlie preparations, 
will be found in the Appendix. It may be said here that before 
these were ready, the war was nearly finished, so they were not 
sent. 

The towns on the Connecticut River, Windsor, Hartford, and 
Wethersfield, being most concerned in this war, were most for- 
ward in its prosecution. May 1, 1637, the General Court at 
Hartford voted "an offensive war against the Pequods." On 
May 10, 1637, ninety men had been raised in these three towns, — 
forty-two from Hartford, thirty from Windsor, and eighteen from 
Wethersfield, — equipped for war, and under the command of 
Capt. John Mason, of Windsor, and Lieut. Robert Seely (Sealy), of 
Wethersfield, embarked on board " one Pink, one Pinnace, and 
one Shallop," with the Sachem Uncas and seventy of his Mohegan 
Indians along as allies. The water of the river being low, the 
vessels often ran aground, which made the progress so slow that 
the Indians grew impatient and asked to be set ashore to go 
on foot to Say brook Fort, which was done. When the Indians 
reported at the fort, Lieut. Gardener distrusted their hon- 
esty, and demanded some proof of their good faith. So 
Uncas sent out a war-party, who found six of the Pequods, four 
of whom they killed, one escaped, and another they brought 
captive to the fort, where he was put to death. This victim's 
name was Kiswas. On Wednesday Capt. Mason with the Con- 
necticut force arrived at the fort, and on Friday set sail for Nar- 
raganset. At Saybrook Fort Lieut. Gardener had reinforced 
their company with Lieut. Underbill and twenty of his best 
men, with such supplies as they needed, and sent Mr. Thomas 
Pell with them as surgeon. Twenty of the least serviceable of 



12 THE PEQUOD WAK. 

Capt. Mason's men were sent back to the plantations to 
strengthen them. The Mohegans sailed with them. They ar- 
rived at Narraganset on Saturday evening and there " kept the 
Sabbath." They lay wind-bound off shore until Tuesday even- 
ing, when they landed and marched about five miles inland to 
the residence of the Narraganset Sachem, Canonicus, to whom 
Capt. Mason apologized for marching into his country with an 
armed force without giving him previous notice. He requested 
permission of the Sachem to pass with his troops through his 
dominions, and declared his purpose of making war on the 
Pequods, on account of the outrages against the English. Canon- 
icus received them kindly, but warned them that the Pequods 
were strong and crafty warriors, many hundred in number, 
and now securely entrenched in two great forts. Having gained 
the permission desired, they marched, on Wednesday morning, 
to a place called Niantick, on the Pequod frontier, where the 
Narragansets had a fort. The Indians here appearing somewhat 
inhospitable, Capt. Mason placed guards about their fort, so 
that they might not be able to carry news of his design to the 
enemy. Here they passed the night. In the meantime a mes- 
senger had come from Capt. Patrick, who was at Providence, 
with a company of forty men from Massachusetts, a part of the 
force to be sent from that Colony upon the present expedition. 
He requested Capt. Mason to wait for him to join his force, 
but did not tell when he would come. 

Capt. Mason and his officers in council decided that secrecy 
and haste were more valuable than the additional numbers, and 
so determined to push forward with their present force. In the 
morning there came a party of the Narragansets from Mianto- 
nomo, nephew and associate Sachem of Canonicus, who offered to 
join and assist in their design. Then the Indians in the fort 
came out and engaged with them for the same end. About eight 
o'clock on Tuesday morning, with seventy-seven English and a 
company of near five hundred Indians, they marched twelve 
miles to a ford of the Pawcatuck River, where they halted for a 
rest. Here many of the Narragansets turned back. The heat 
being extreme, another halt was made about three miles farther 
on, and a council was called to decide the method of attack. 
Uncas, and the renegade Pequod " Wequash," their guide, were 
consulted; who told them of two strong forts of the Pequods, 
several miles apart, and they decided, at first, to attack both at 
the same time ; but finding the farthest so distant, and the troops 
so weary with the heat and the long march, that they could 
hardly reach it before midnight, they were forced to choose the 
nearest. This was a disappointment, as they heard that Sassa- 
cus, the chief Sachem of the Pequods, was at the distant fort. 
Marching silently towards the nearest fort, they halted, about 
one hour after dark, in a small valley and there made their camp. 



CAPTURE OF THE PEQUOD FORT. 13 

Posting their guards around the camp, and at some distance in 
front, they rested upon their arms until dawn. Their outposts 
reported that they could hear the Pequods, in their fort, shout- 
ing and rejoicing after their manner, till past midnight ; the 
cause being the supposed flight of the English, whose vessels 
they had seen sailing to the Eastward. At break of day the 
soldiers were mustered quickly and silently for the battle, the 
Indians keeping far in the rear. After marching about two 
miles, and not yet seeing signs of the fort, Capt. Mason called 
Uncas and Wequash to him, and they pointed out the fort at the 
top of a high hill close at hand. He told them to ask the 
Indians not to fly and leave them until they had seen whether 
Englishmen would fight. Then forming their line of battle, they 
marched in two divisions, Capt. Mason intending with the first 
to gain the entrance at the North-east, and Capt. Underbill that 
at the South side. Capt. Mason's company approached within 
one rod of the palisade, before any alarm was sounded from the 
fort. Then, as he relates, they " heard a dog bark, and an Indian 
crying Owanux ! Owanux ! which is. Englishmen ! English- 
men ! " And now I will quote from Capt. Mason's own words : 



"We called up our Forces with all expedition, gave Fire through the 
Pallizado upon them ; the Indians being in a dead, indeed in their last 
Sleep. Then we wheeling off fell upon the main Entrance, which was 
blocked up with Bushes about Breast high, over which the Captain 
passed, intending to make good the Entrance, encouraging the rest to 
follow. Lieutenant Seeley endeavoured to enter ; but being somewhat 
cumbred stepped back and pulled out the Bushes and so entered, and 
with him about sixteen Men. We had formerly concluded to destroy 
them by the Sword and save the Plunder. 

Whereupon Captain Mason seeing no Indians entred a Wigwam ; where 
he was beset with many Indians, waiting all opportunities to lay Hands 
on him, but could not prevail. At length WilUam Heydon espying 
the Breach in the Wigwam, supposing some English might be there, 
entred ; but in his Entrance fell over a dead Indian ; but speedily 
recovering himself, the Indians some fled, others crept under their 
Beds : The Captain going out of the Wigwam saw many Indians in the 
Lane or Street ; he making towards them, they fled, were pursued to the 
End of the Lane, where they were met by Edward Pattison, Thomas 
Barber, with some others ; where seven of them were Slain, as they 
said. The Captain facing about, Marched at slow Pace up the Lane he 
came down, perceiving himself very much out of Breath ; and coming 
to the other End near the Place he first entred, saw two Soldiers stand- 
ing close to the Pallizado with their Swords pointed to the Ground : The 
Captain told them that We should never kill them after that manner : 
The Captain also said, We must Burn them ; and immediately stepping 
into the Wigwam where he had been before, brought out a Firebrand, 
and putting it into the Matts with which they were covered, set the 
Wigwams on Fire. Lieutenant Thomas BuU and Nicholas Omsted 



14 THE PEQUOD WAR. 

beholding, came up ; and when it was thoroughly kindled, the Indians 
ran about as most dreadfully Amazed. 

And indeed such a dreadful Terror did the Almighty let fall upon 
their Spirits, that they would fly from us and run into the very Flames, 
where many of them perished. And when the Fort was thoroughly 
Fired, Command was given, that all should fall off and surround the 
Fort ; which was readily attended by all ; only one Arthur Smith being 
so wounded that he could not move out of the Place, who was happily 
espied by Lieutenant Bull, and by him rescued. 

The Fire was kindled on the North East Side to windward ; which 
did swiftly overrun the Fort, to the extream Amazement of the Enemy, 
and great Rejoycing of our selves. Some of them climbing to the Top 
of the Pallizado ; others of them running into the very Flames ; many 
of them gathering to windward, lay pelting at us with their Arrows ; 
and we repayed them with our small Shot : Others of the Stoutest 
issued forth, as we did guess, to the Number of Forty, who perished 
by the Sword. 

What I have formerly said, is according to my own Knowledge, there 
being sufficient living Testimony to every Particular. 

But in reference to Captain Underbill and his Parties acting in this 
Assault, I can only intimate as we were informed by some of them- 
selves immediately after the Fight. Thus, They Marching up to the 
Entrance on the South West Side, there made some Pause ; a valiant, 
resolute Gentleman, one Mr. Hedge, stepping towards the Gate, say- 
ing, If we may not Enter, wherefore came we here ; and immediately 
endeavoured to Enter ; but was opposed by a sturdy Indian which did 
impede his Entrance ; but the Indian being slain by himself and Ser- 
geant Davis, Mr. Hedge Entred the Fort with some others ; but the 
Fort being on Fire, the Smoak and Flames were so violent that they 
were constrained to desert the Fort. 

Capt. Underbill also wrote a full account of the battle, 
which differs but little from that of Capt. Mason. He says 
that they found the South entrance stopped up with " arms of 
trees." It seems that the Indians had made a rude " abattis " 
with the tops of trees turned outward, the trunks buried with 
rocks and earth. This made a very effectual barrier to an attack 
from without, when defended from within. Capt. Underbill 
advanced to these and tried to pull them away, and then com- 
manded his men to lay hold of them, which they did, and 
removed them and entered the fort, without his command. 
Among those first entering was " one Master Hedge," who was 
attacked by a powerful savage, and was shot through both arms. 
Capt. Mason speaks of this young man as having performed a 
very brave act, and a contemporary writer, in London, gives 
account of the battle, in which he rather slurs Capt. Underbill, 
and makes this Hedge the leader of the attack at the South 
entrance. Capt. Underbill resented this story bitterly, and 
denied that he asked the question " Shall we enter ? " as this last 
writer reported. He says that with his soldiers he entered the 



BURNING OF THE PEQUOD FORT. 15 

fort, and with Capt. Mason entered the wigwam, and received 
a wound from an arrow, in his left hip, though having on "a 
sufficient buff coat." He describes the fight as very desperate 
and brave on the part of the Indians. " Most courageously these 
Pequeats behaved themselves," he says. And he declares that 
their bows and arrows were by no means to be despised, as they 
used them there. "But seeing the fort was too hot for us," he 
says, " we devised a way by which we might save ourselves, and 
prejudice them." Capt. Mason set fire to the wigwams with 
a firebrand, and he " with a train of powder," the two columns 
of fire meeting in the centre of the fort. The fire was so hot 
that it burnt the bowstrings of the Indians and left them defence- 
less. If any escaped the English, they fell into the hands of the 
Mohegans or Narragansets, to be cut down without mercy. He 
says, " Many courageous fellows fought most desperately through 
the palisadoes, while scorched and burnt by the flames ; mercy 
did they deserve for their valor, could we have had opportunity 
to bestow it." " It may be demanded. Should not Christians 
have more mercy and compassion? But I would refer you to 
David's war. Sometimes the Scripture declareth women and 
children must perish with their parents. We had sufficient light 
from the word of God for our proceedings." 

The number of the Pequods slain in this terrible fight has 
been variously estimated. Capt. Mason thought six or seven 
hundred. The Mohegans reported that there were four hundred 
killed. Only seven escaped and seven taken captive. The whole 
dreadful deed was completed in one hour from the beginning of 
the attack. 

Only two of the English were killed and about twenty 
wounded. But after the fight, though victorious, the English 
found themselves in trying conditions ; they were severely 
oppressed with the heat, and thirsty, with no supply of water 
and with scant supply of food. They were told that Sassacus, 
with a large force of Pequods, was hastening from the other fort, 
and the Narragansets were in great trepidation to be gone. 
They were uncertain about what time their vessels would appear, 
or where. Just as the Pequods began to appear, and, maddened 
by the awful calamity which had befallen their people, to attack 
them with fury, they saw their vessels coming toward them with 
a fair wind. The rear-guard, under Capt. Underbill, met the 
enemy's attack so warmly, that they became more wary, and, 
manoeuvring to outflank the English, came upon the Mohegans 
and Narragansets, driving them to the shelter of the English 
muskets. They kept up a fierce fight until within two miles of 
the vessels in Pequod River, then withdrew. 

Arriving at the shore, Capt. Mason and his little army, well- 
nigh spent with their marching and fighting, were refreshed with 
supplies from their vessels. Here they found Capt. Patrick, with 



16 THE PEQUOD WAK. 

his company of forty men, who had joined our vessels with his 
own, a little before. He was evidently offended that he was not 
waited for at Narraganset, and chagrined at the great success of 
Capt. Mason. From Pequod Harbor the Narragansets were sent 
home bv sea, while Capt. Mason, with the few able-bodied men 
of his company, marched overland to Saybrook Fort, with Capt. 
Patrick and his company along. Capt. Underbill and his men, 
and the wounded, went by water. At the fort all were enter- 
tained by Lieut. Gardener. Thence they returned to their homes 
on the Connecticut, where they were received with great rejoicing. 
Capt. Underbill, with his company of twenty men, whose term 
at Saybrook had expired, sailed homeward to Massachusetts, and 
on the voyage met the company of one hundred men, under Capt. 
Israel Stoughton, sailing out to fight the Pequods. Capt. Patrick 
awaited this force at Saybrook. 

The Indian fort which was destroyed was at a place called 
" Mistick," on a hill in the present town of Groton, Conn., known 
since as " Pequot Hill." The battle was fought on Friday, 
May 26, 1637. 

It is said that the evening before the battle, a hundred and 
fifty warriors from the other fort had come to this, in order 
to start in force upon the war-path the next day ; either to follow 
the English troops toward Narraganset, or to fall upon their set- 
tlements on the Connecticut River. By this chance these had been 
included in the general massacre. Capt. Mason relates that after 
leaving their pursuit of the English near Pequod Harbor, the 
Pequods returned in a body to the fort in which Sassacus re- 
mained, where many of them began to upbraid him as the cause of 
all their troubles, and demanded the destruction of himself and his 
family. Wiser counsels prevailed, however, and they resolved to 
leave their country, now encompassed by merciless, and,they con- 
ceived, resistless, enemies. Burning their villages and everything 
that could not be taken along with them, they retreated with 
their main body to the Westward across the Connecticut River, 
where they killed three Englishmen, after a stubborn fight, and 
hung their bodies upon trees on the shore. 

The main body under the Sachem, Sassacus, moved slowly 
along the shore of the Sound, depending largely upon shell-fish 
for food. Another division of the tribe, probably following the 
other Sachem, Mononotto, pushed farther into the country. 
Mohegan and Narraganset scouts, at a safe distance, kept track of 
them. 

About one month after the battle, Capt. Stoughton, with 
several vessels and one hundred and twenty men from Massachu- 
setts Colony, arrived at Pequod Harbor. Here they were joined 
by Capt. Patrick's company. While here, the Mohegans told 
them of a large party of fugitives gathered at a place some twelve 
miles up the river. The English marched up in force, surrounded 



stoughton's forces arrive. 17 

these, and captured them without an attempt at resistance. The 
number taken was about one hundred and four. Twenty-four of 
these were men ; and twenty-two of these were taken on board the 
vessel of the skipper, John Gallop, and " executed " just out- 
side the harbor. Two were spared on condition of guiding the 
English to the hiding-place of Sassacus. Proving unable or 
unwilling to perform this service, they too, it is said, were put to 
death. Of the eighty women and children, thirty-three were 
allotted to their Indian allies, and the rest were sent home to 
Boston, to be sold as slaves. In a written report of his progress, 
made to Gov. Winthrop, Capt. Stoughton says : 

By this Pinnace you shall receive forty-eight or fifty women and 
children, unless there stay any here to be helpful, etc., concerning which 
there is one, that is the fairest and largest that I saw amongst them, to 
whom I have given a coat to cloatheher. It is my desire to have her for 
a servant, if it may stand with your good liking, otherwise not. There 
is a little squaw that steward Culacut desireth, to whom he hath given 
a coate. Lieut. Davenport desireth one, to wit, a small one. He de- 
sireth her if it will stand with your good liking. Sosomon, the 
Indian, desireth, a young little squaw, which I know not. 

In closing his report Capt. Stoughton says : 

At the present Mr. Haynes, Mr. Ludlow, Capt. Mason, and thirty 
men are with us in Pequot River ; and we shall next week join in seeing 
what we can do against Sassacus, and another great sagamore, 
Monowattuck. Here is yet good work to be done and how dear it wUl 
cost is unknown. Sassacus is resolved to sell his life, and so the other 
with his company as dear as they can. 

Capt. Mason writes that the Connecticut towns sent him in 
command of forty men to cooperate with Capt. Stoughton, in the 
further pursuit of the Pequods. From Pequod Harbor the Eng- 
lish forces moved along the Sound, landing from time to time. 
At " Quinnipiack " (New Haven) they saw a great smoke at 
some distance in the woods, and landed, thinking that they had 
discovered the enemy ; but their Indian scouts soon found that it 
was only some friendly Indians burning brush. A Mohegan, 
called Jack Eatow, going ashore, captured two Pequods, and 
brought them on board. 

There is a story that Uncas, on the way thither, captured a 
small party of the enemy, one of whom, a sachem, he beheaded, 
and lodged his head in a tree, where it hung for years. This 
was upon a high bluff on the shore, a few miles below Guilford, 
which has been known since as " Sachem's Head." Moving 
westward, one of their Pequod spies proved faithful to them, and 
faithless to his people. In token of his treacheiy, they named 
this traitor " Luz " with grim humor ; and he guided them to a 



18 THE PEQUOD WAR. 

great company of the Indians, at a place called " Unquowa," now 
within the town of Fairfield, Conn. 

A large party of the fugitive Pequods had imposed themselves 
by force upon the local tribe, and were now with them at their 
village, which was situated close to a great swamp. This swamp 
is described as about one mile in circumference, and divided, by a 
narrow strip of solid land, into two unequal parts. When the 
advance-guard of the English approached, all the Indians with 
one accord fled in dismay into the dense recesses of the swamp. 
Sergt. Palmer, with a squad of the advance-guard, hastened 
around by the smaller division of the swamp, to cut off escape by 
that side. Lieut. Richard Davenport, of Salem, Capt. Trask's 
company, with a few men rushed into the bushes, thinking to 
push through to the wigwams which were on the other side, sud- 
denly found themselves sinking in the miry ground, entangled in 
the dense underbrush, and fiercely attacked by the savages. 
Lieut. Davenport, Sergts. John Wedgewood and Thomas Sher- 
man and others, were severely wounded, and only with the great- 
est difficulty rescued from their perilous plight by the bravery of 
Sergts. Edward Riggs, of Roxbury, and Thomas Jeffrey, of Dor- 
chester. The main body of the troops then advancing, the whole 
swamp was surrounded. 

The line surrounding the swamp was, according to Capt. 
Mason, a very long one, being formed at a wide distance from 
the edge of the bushes ; but was soon lessened by cutting through 
the narrow strip, thus shortening the "leaguer," and shutting the 
Indians into the smaller swamp. 

The brief skirmish at the beginning admonished the English 
that they were now facing a brave and desperate foe, no longer 
entirely at their mercy. There was a rumor also, brought back 
by the two captive girls to Wethersfield, that the Pequods had 
some sixteen muskets, which they might craftily discharge upon 
their assailants unexpectedly. So they decided to hold a parley 
with the foe. Thomas Stanton was sent to speak with them, 
readily understanding their language, and offering to go upon 
this service. He soon returned with about two hundred old men, 
women, and children, including the local tribe. Then the war- 
riors sent the challenge from the swamp, that they would fight it 
out with the English to the end. And Stanton, going once more 
to them, to urge terms of their surrender, was met with a fierce 
volley of arrows so as scarcely to escape with his life. Then the 
guards were set, and close watch kept all night with frequent 
shooting on both sides. In the deepest darkness, about an hour 
before the dawn, the savages massed their numbers, and, after 
some desperate fighting, broke through Capt. Patrick's lines, and 
escaped. 

Capt. Mason speaks of Capts. Trask and Patrick, and also 
Sergt. Stares, as having taken part in this fight, besides those 



CLOSE OF THE PEQUOD WAR. 19 

above named. On searching the swamp, they found but few 
slain. One hundred and eighty women and children were divided 
between Massachusetts and Connecticut to be used as servants. 
Two women and fifteen boys were sent to Bermuda, by Mr. 
William Peirce, to be sold as slaves, but were carried by mistake 
to " Providence Isle." Among the women taken was the wife of 
the Sachem Mononotto, with her two children, whose demeanor and 
behavior were such as to win the respect of even the most violent 
Indian-haters. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, I 
would suggest that Mononotto was in command of the Indians in 
the swamp at Fairfield, and led the party, estimated by Capt. 
Mason at seventy, which escaped. Sassacus and a party of his 
warriors escaped to the Mohawks, but were set upon and killed 
by them, and their scalps were brought to the authorities at Con- 
necticut, from whom pieces were taken to Boston, by Mr. Pinchon 
and Mr. Ludlow, who went hither to consult about the disposal 
of the conquered remnants of the fallen tribe. They reported 
the Pequods entirely dispersed and subdued, so as to be easily 
managed by the people of Connecticut with the aid of the Mohe- 
gans and Narragansets. Capt. Stoughton remained in the 
Pequod country till near the last of August, and continued to 
send his reports of proceedings, by which we see that they were 
scouting, and destroying the enemy's crops and keeping the 
wretched fugitives from returning to their former homes. Soon 
after August 20th they sailed for home, landing at Block Island on 
the way, and burning and destroying the poor homes and grow- 
ing crops of the helpless Indians with useless cruelty. Then 
they sailed homeward from their rather inglorious campaign, and 
arrived in Boston on August 26. 

This, in brief, is the story of the "Pequod War," gathered 
from all available authorities known. To the comparatively 
weak colonies of that day it threatened destruction. The prompt 
and daring, though sanguinary work, of Capt. Mason and his 
men, with the superiority of their arms, together with the hos- 
tility of the other tribes for the Pequods, enabled them to strike 
the crushing blow, which, practically, finished the war. 

The result of this war was that the Indians of New England 
were so dismayed at the resistless force of the English soldiers, that 
for nearly forty years there was no further formidable outbreak, 
though they knew that they were wronged, cheated, and oppressed 
in many ways by the colonists. Some time after the war was 
over, the actual number of the Pequods still surviving was found 
to be about two hundred. In 1638, a treaty was concluded 
between the Colonies, Narragansets, and Mohegans, by which 
the surviving Pequods were equally distributed between the two 
larger tribes, forced to adopt their names, and drop their own 
forever. 

The Pequod lands became the property of Connecticut Colony. 



20 THE PEQUOD WAK. 

These were hard conditions for a proud and warlike race to sub- 
mit to. Especially hard was the case of those who were obliged 
to submit to the rule of Uncas, whom they regarded as the real 
cause of their downfall. They were a constant source of disturb- 
ance between the two ruling tribes. At one time a party of them 
withdrew from Uncas, and joining with a few Niantics, returned 
to their old home and settled. Capt. Mason was sent out, and 
with the aid of Uncas and his hundred Mohegans, and forty of 
his own men, he despoiled them of their corn, newly harvested, 
and drove them from their wigwams, which were burned. 

The Pequods, about equally distributed between the Mohegans 
and Narragansets, were a constant source of jealousy and trouble. 
Canonicus and Miantonomo, as well as their ally, Ninigret, the 
Niantic Sachem, distrusted Uncas as the pliant tool of the English, 
and a constant spy upon themselves, reporting all their acts sus- 
piciously and falsely. At last, in 1643, upon some special provo- 
cation from Uncas, Miantonomo resolved to punish his enemy. He 
led a large company of his warriors secretly into the Mohegan 
country ; but the crafty Uncas was on his guard, having his spies 
set as usual upon every move of the Narragansets. Selecting an 
advantageous place, with his accustomed cunning, he concealed 
a large number of his warriors behind rocks and bushes, and then 
showed himself with a few, and signalled for Miantonomo to meet 
him for a parley between the lines, pretending to propose a per- 
sonal duel to settle the trouble. When he had lured his enemy 
into the desired place, he gave his men the signal, by falling flat 
upon the ground, and they at once leaped out from their coverts 
and shot a furious volley of arrows at Miantonomo and rushed 
forward to surround'him. He, however, having on an English 
corselet, was not harmed by their arrows, and turning fled towards 
his own lines. His warriors did not withstand the furious charge 
of the Mohegans, and in the flight he became separated from 
them, and, cumbered by the heavy corselet, was overtaken and 
overpowered by his foes. 

Uncas would have administered punishment straightway, prob- 
ably, had not a swift messenger come to him from Mr. Samuel 
Gorton, of Warwick, threatening dire vengeance from the English 
should he harm the captive Sachem in the least. While it is 
probable that Mr. Gorton's threat saved the Narraganset Sachem 
from immediate death, his friendship was harmful to the captive's 
interests with the colonial authorities, who looked upon Gorton 
as a heretic and outlaw. Uncas turned his captive over to the 
custody of the court oflicers at Hartford, to await the session of 
the United Commissioners in September, he being in the mean- 
time committed to prison. Then this " Star Chamber " of the 
Puritans took up the case, and by the most infamous decree which 
blots the pages of New England history, condemned the brave 
Sachem of the noblest of the native tribes to a cruel and shameful 



ENGLISH PROTECT UNCAS. 21 

death. Nothing can excuse the heartless prejudice and cold- 
blooded injustice of the decision. He had been the faithful aUy of 
the English from the beginning. He had not truckled to them, like 
the crafty and treacherous Uncas, but his course had been always 
honorable and self-respecting. By the Court's decree Miantonomo 
was given over, with cold brutality, to his mortal enemy to be 
executed according to his will. And so he was led back into the 
Mohegan limits, and near the scene of his capture, was killed with 
a blow of the tomahawk, in the hands of a brother of Uncas. The 
place of his execution is in the eastern part of the present town 
of Norwich, Connecticut. The Narragansets never sought to 
retaliate upon the English for this act of injustice. They under- 
stood Uncas to be the author of their chief's overthrow, and bided 
their time to mete out vengeance to him. There was always, 
however, a feeling that the Narragansets had not forgotten nor 
forgiven the death of their chief, and this suspicion was diligently 
encouraged by the Mohegans. After the death of Miantonomo, 
his young brother, Pessacus, succeeded him, and Ninigret, his 
kinsman, and chief of the Niantics, became an influential leader 
among the Narragansets ; and many of the Pequods assigned to 
them had joined his tribe and added much to its warlike qualities. 
While Miantonomo was in prison at Hartford, the Narragansets 
had been encouraged by Uncas that he would liberate him upon 
the payment of certain sums of wampum. These sums had been 
gladly raised and paid to the crafty Uncas, who, in the end, repu- 
diated the agreement, in which course he was afterwards supported 
by the English, as in all other matters. In the spring of 1644, 
Ninigret, having secured a number of guns and drilled some of 
his men in their use, fell upon a large company of Mohegans and 
slew a number, wounded many more, and so frightened Uncas that 
he was obliged to call on his English friends to protect him. 

He was shut up in his fort for a long time, fearing capture or 
death from his foes. The English, nothing loath to find a pretext 
for war against the Narragansets at any time, immediately began 
to raise an armament to vindicate the cause of their favorite. 
But Ninigret and Pessacus, the chief Sachems, now, of the Nar- 
ragansets, appeared by their deputies at Hartford, and arranged to 
cease hostilities until after planting next year. They promptly 
renewed the war next year, or at least some slight acts were so 
construed by Uncas in his report to the Colonies. Again the 
Colonies advanced to his assistance, and promised to put forty 
soldiers in the field at once for the defence of Uncas. These were 
sent at once under the command of Lieut. Humphrey Atherton 
and Sergt. John Davis. The commission of Atherton was simply 
to protect Uncas in his fort, against his enemies. This company 
was sent from Boston, and companies from Hartford and New 
Haven were to join them in the Mohegan country. These were 
only the advance of a much larger force which the Commissioners 



22 THE PEQUOD WAK. 

decided to raise. Great preparations were made, and officers com- 
missioned for an invasion in force of the Narraganset country. 

Major Edward Gibbons, of Charlestown, was appointed Com- 
mander-in-chief, John Leverett, Captain of the Massachusetts 
company ; Francis Loyal, Surgeon, and a levy of men was ordered 
and companies were organizing and drilling in Boston, when a 
delegation of Narraganset chiefs appeared before the Court to 
explain matters and assert their friendship for the English, but 
declaring their hostility to Uncas. Another partial treaty was 
concluded by the Indians agreeing to pay a large indemnity for 
the expenses of the preparation for war. 

After the partial treaty of 1645, Pessacus withheld the Nar- 
ragansets for several years, though Ninigret was constantly on the 
alert to find cause and opportunity to strike the hated Mohegans. 
Uncas, on his part, was constant in his complaints and rumors 
of his enemy's evil designs. The smaller Colonies, Connecticut and 
New Haven, were urgent in demanding the action of the United 
Commissioners against the Niantics, and this, of course, involved 
the other Narragansets. The payment of wampum to settle the 
expense of the preparations of the Colonies against the Niantics 
in 1645, to which Ninigret had agreed, was held over him as a 
constant demand, severe, if not actually dishonest. Some of the 
Pequods had escaped from servitude and taken refuge with him, 
as a kinsman. The Long Island Indians, too, made complaints of 
certain depredations against them ; and at last, in 1653, the Com- 
missioners decided to declare war, and evidently meant to crush 
the whole Narraganset people and reduce them to servitude as 
they had the Pequods formerly. The Commissioners of Massa- 
chusetts were in the minority, and were overborne by those of 
the other three Colonies, who were strenuous for war. The Gen- 
eral Court of Massachusetts supported their own Commissioners 
in their decision that there was not a sufficient cause, as yet, for 
war. As this Colony, on account of wealth and population, was 
to furnish two-thirds of all means and men, her decision for the 
time prevailed. Next year, however, September, 1654, the Massa- 
chusetts Commissioners so far retracted as to join in sending for 
Ninigret to attend them at Hartford and answer the complaints 
against him. He refused to attend and declared his war against 
the Long Island Indians to be just, as they had killed a Sachem's 
son and sixty of his men. He demanded that the English " let 
him alone." It was, thereupon, voted to send a force of twenty 
troopers and forty foot soldiers to enforce the Commissioners' 
demands. It was also voted to levy two hundred and seventy 
foot and forty horsemen out of the several colonies to prosecute 
the war. Major Simon Willard, of Groton, was appointed to the 
chief command of this force. The Massachusetts troops mustered 
at Dedham October 9th and marched to Providence, and thence 
along the westerly shore of Narraganset Bay to the Niantic 



TROUBLE WITH NINIGRET. 23 

country. The officers of the Troopers were Capt. "Wm. Davis, of 
Boston ; Lieut. Peter Oliver and Cornet John Stedman, while 
Richard Waite was Commissary. The following officers were 
appointed over such companies as were " to go out if neede should 
require : " 1st. James Oliver, captain ; Roger Clap, lieutenant ; 
John Hull, ensign ; and 2d, Sam'l Appleton, captain ; Rich. 
Sprague, lieutenant ; Benjamin Sweet, ensign. Sergt. John 
Barrell was commissary to the Foot Companies. 

The New Haven and Connecticut contingent of forty men did 
not reach them until the 16th, when Ninigret had had ample time 
to retreat into his fastnesses, whence he could not be dislodged. 

It seems by Major Willard's letter from " Paucatuck 19'^ of 
S**" Mo., 1654," that he was hampered by his lack of commission, 
as it was taken for granted that Ninigret would be found at his 
usual place ; he lacked information as to the charges against the 
Sachem, the Connecticut men by Thomas Stanton being depended 
upon to furnish details, who was unable. The Major, however, 
acting with prudence and candor through friendly Pequods, suc- 
ceeded in getting Ninigret to surrender all the Pequod subjects 
who would leave him, and to permit them to set up an inde- 
pendent tribal estate under the direction of the Commissioners. 

Additional details of this affair, and the men engaged, will be 
given in the Appendix. Major Willard secured a fairly satisfac- 
tory covenant with Ninigret, and also an advantageous arrange- 
ment with the subject Pequods, and returned to Boston and dis- 
banded his forces on October 24th, being upon the service sixteen 
days. 

The Pequods were settled in separate communities, and rulers 
appointed of their own, under the Colonial authorities. Cusha- 
washett, alias Harmon Garrett, was appointed over the villages 
at Paquatucke and Weguapeuge, and Robin, alias Casasinaraon, 
at Nemeacke and Naweacke. Later these were settled, the first 
in Stonington, and the latter in what is now the town of Led- 
yard. In 1850 the Ledyard settlement still retained 989 acres 
of land, and twenty-eight persons of the greatly degenerated 
Pequod stock ; in the Stonington, 240 acres and fifteen persons. 



THE WAR WITH PHILIP OF MOUNT HOPE. 

The next Indian war of New England, which claims attention, 
is that of 1675-77, known as " King Philip's War ; " so called 
from the name of the recognized leader of that war, whose 
Indian name was Metacom or Pometacom, or Metacomet, but 
whom the English called Philip. He was the second son of 
Massasoit, who at the settlement of the English at Plymouth 
and Boston seems to have been chief sachem of all the various 
tribes and fragments of tribes living between the Charles 
River and Narraganset Bay, and including that part of 
Rhode Island east of the Bay, and also the Cape Cod tribes. 
The rule of Massasoit was probably rather indefinite both as to 
limits of territory and extent of authority over the subordinate 
chiefs. While Massasoit seems to have been the acknowledged 
head of the tribes within the limits above named, the league 
between the chiefs of the tribes was evidently very loose, and held 
mostly for convenience in defence, and perhaps for the settlement 
of difficulties between individual tribes. The territory of this 
Sachem was bounded upon the west by the Nipmucks and Narra- 
gansets. But a very great proportion of this had been sold by 
the Sachems before the opening of the war. Massasoit had sev- 
eral children, three of whom are known to us by name : Wam- 
sutta and Metacom, who came to Plymouth about 1656, and at 
their own request received English names from the Governor, 
who " christened " them " Alexander " and " Philip." A sister of 
these was the wife of Tuspaquin, chief of the Namaskets ; she 
was caUed by the English " Amie." Mention is made of another 
son and also a daughter, but I have not proper authority for their 
names. Alexander married a Sachem's daughter, or widow, of 
the Pocasset tribe, and after his death, soon following Massasoit's, 
1661 or '62, she returned to her own people, and ruled there with 
influence and ability until the war ; when her second husband, 
Petananuet, Petonowowett, or " Peter Nunnuit " (as he is some- 
times called), took sides with the English, she, possibly reluc- 
tantly, joined the fortunes of Philip, who had married her sister 
Wootonekanuske, and had great influence with her. 

Massasoit had always maintained a cordial and firm friendship 
with the English ; and it would seem that Alexander also was 
somewhat of his father's nature and disposition. The moment, 
however, which saw Philip raised to the place of power, gave sig- 
nal of a far different course of conduct on the part of the Wam- 
panoag Sachem. The limits of his father's olden territory had 
been greatly reduced before he came to power. The English had 



SOME CAUSES OF PHILIP's WAR. 25 

purchased and otherwise absorbed a large proportion of their 
lands. Philip kept on selling and surrendering, till at last, as 
early as 1670-1, he began to feel the pressure of civilization upon 
their hunting and fishing grounds as well as cornfields. The 
Court at Plymouth itself had interfered and forbidden the trans- 
fer of certain parts of the Wampanoag territories, and thus 
doubtless saved the Indians in various tribes a home. Pokano- 
ket, the hereditary home, was thus saved to Philip's people ; and 
here he lived at the time of the opening of the war. This place 
was called by the English " Mount Hope," and it is now 
embraced in the town of Bristol, R.I. 

It will not be necessary to discuss the causes leading up to the 
war. It is enough to say here, that the English had assumed the 
government of the country, and followed their course of settle- 
ment with small regard to the rights of the natives. In some of 
the plantations, the settlers purchased their lands of the Indians, 
as a matter of precaution ; partly that they might have that show 
of title in case any other claim should be set up in opposition to 
theirs, and partly to conciliate the savages, whose hostility they 
feared, and whose friendship was profitable in the way of trade, 
in furs and other products of the hunt. The Indians were always 
at disadvantage with the English, in all the arts of civilized life. 
The English paid no heed to Indian laws or customs or tradi- 
tions ; and ruthlessly imposed their own laws, customs, and re- 
ligious ideas, with no apparent thought of their intolerance and 
injustice. They made treaties with the savages in the same 
terms which they would have used had they been dealing with a 
civilized nation. They made out deeds, in language which only 
the learned framers themselves could understand. In brief, the 
Pilgrims and Puritans mostly looked upon the Indians as heathen, 
whose " inheritance " God meant to give to his people, as of old he 
had dealt with Israel and their heathen. There were some, how- 
ever, Avho, with Rev. John Eliot, believed that the Indians had 
immortal souls, and that they were given to God's people to edu- 
cate and save. But there was nothing which the rulers of the 
Indians resented more persistently, nor complained of more fre- 
quently, than the attempts of the Christians to convert their 
people. Indirectly one of these converted Indians was the im- 
mediate cause of the opening of hostilities. There were many 
grievances of which the Indians comj^lained ; but they had not 
the foresight to see the inevitable result of the constantly increas- 
ing power of the English, in their acquisition of land, and multi- 
plying of settlements. It was only when they felt the pressure 
of actual privation or persecution, that they began to think of 
opposition or revenge. Their chiefs had been summoned fre- 
quently before the English courts to answer for some breach of 
law by their subjects ; several times the English had demanded 
that whole tribes should give up their arms because of the fault 



26 KING Philip's wak. 

of one or a few. The Indians lived mostly by hunting and fish- 
ing, and at the time of the war used fire-arms almost wholly. 
They had learned their use and bought the arms of the English, 
nearly always at exorbitant prices. They were expert in the 
use of their guns, and held them as the most precious of their 
possessions. The order to give these over to the English, with 
their stock of ammunition, was regarded by them as robbery, as 
indeed in most cases it was, as they seldom regained their arms 
when once given up. We can now see that from their standpoint 
there were grievances enough to drive them to rebellion. But 
our forefathers seem to have been unable to see any but their own 
side. But now to the story. 

John Sassamon (Mr. Hubbard says Sausaman) was the son of 
a Wampanoag Indian who, with his wife and family, lived in Dor- 
chester. They had been taught by Mr. Eliot, and professed the 
Christian faith. The son John was the pupil of Mr. Eliot from 
his early youth, and was made a teacher among the Cliristian 
Indians at Natick. Mr. Hubbard says that " upon some misde- 
meanor " there, he went to the Wampanoags, where he became 
the secretary and interpreter of the chief, to whom he was a most 
valuable assistant and trusted adviser. He was soon prevailed 
upon by Mr. Eliot to return to Natick, where he became a 
preacher, while still preserving friendly relations with Philip and 
his tribe. In 1672-3 he was at Namasket as preacher among 
the Indians, whose chief was Tuspaquin, whose daughter Sassa- 
mon had married. While here he discovered that a plot was in 
process, extending among many tribes, to exterminate or drive 
away the English settlers from the country. This plot Sassamon 
disclosed to the authorities at Plymouth, and afterwards the 
story was told to the Massachusetts authorities ; and Philip was 
summoned to answer to the charge. At the examination, where 
nothing positive could be proved against Philip, he found by the 
evidence that Sassamon had betrayed him, and he immediately 
condemned him to death in his council. The sentence was car- 
ried out January 29, 1674-5, while Sassamon was fishing thi-ough 
the ice upon Assawomset Pond. His executioners were brought 
to punishment, and it was discovered that the deed was done by 
Philip's order. The trial was in March, 1675, and the principal 
actor, Tobias, and his accomplice, Mattashunannamoo, were exe- 
cuted as murderers, June 8, 1675 ; while Tobias's son, who was 
present but took no part in the crime, was reprieved for one 
month and then shot. After the execution of the two in June, 
Philip threw off all disguise as to his plan, and pushed his 
preparations as diligently as possible. The plan had been to com- 
plete preparations and include all the tribes in New England, so 
that a simultaneous assault could be made upon all the settle- 
ments at once. This plan was spoiled, and probably the settle- 
ments saved from destruction, by the impatience of the leader's 



TROOPS MARCH TO MOUNT HOPE. 27 

vengeance. While Philip's preparations went forward, the 
authorities thought best not to make any immediate military 
demonstration further than the placing of a guard by the various 
settlements to prevent a surprise. They thought Philip would 
soon tire of holding his men in arms and training, so that they 
could get him in their power. But his company increased, and 
the younger warriors began to demand some open act of hostility. 
At last they began not only to insult the English settlers in the 
nearest settlements, by their words of insolence and threats, but 
to shoot their cattle and plunder their houses. The Indians in- 
creased greatly in numbers, from the neighboring tribes, many 
"strange Indians" appearing among them, and most of their 
women and children being sent away to the Narraganset country. 
At Swansy they appeared in considerable numbers, and used all 
their ways of provocation to induce some act of resistance from 
the settlers ; and at last, upon June 24th, one man was so en- 
raged at the shooting of his cattle and the attempt to rifle his 
house, that he shot at an Indian, wounding him. Upon this the 
Indians began open and indiscriminate hostility, and on that day 
eight or nine of the English at Swansy were killed and others 
wounded. Two men were sent for a surgeon, but were waylaid 
and slain, their bodies left upon the road. Messengers sent from 
the English authorities to treat with Philip and prevent an out- 
break, came upon the bodies of the men slain in the highway, 
and speedily turned back. The Colonies awoke to the fact that 
an Indian war was upon them, but supposed that a few companies 
sent down to Swansy would at once overawe the savages and 
reduce them to submission. A speedy muster was made, both at 
Plymouth and Boston, and on the afternoon of June 26th, five 
companies were mustering or on the march from the two colonies. 
The details of the account of the war will be found in the body 
of the following chapters. Here only a brief outline of current 
events can be given. The first company of infantry from Boston 
was made up from the regular military companies of the town. 
A company of cavalry, or "troopers," was gathered from the 
regular organization in three counties. A third company, of 
" volunteers," was raised about the town and vicinity, from all 
sorts of adventurers, seafaring men and strangers, with a number 
of prisoners who had been convicted of piracy and condemned 
to death, but were now released to engage in fighting the In- 
dians. Capt. Daniel Henchman commanded the first company, 
Capt. Thomas Prentice the troopers, and Capt. Samuel Mosely 
the "volunteers." These three companies marched out of 
Boston on the 26th and 27th and arrived at Swansy on the 28th, 
having formed a junction with the Plymouth forces under Major 
James Cudworth and Capt. Fuller, these having been in the 
field several days already. The forces quartered about the 
house of Rev. John Miles, the minister at Swansy, whose 



28 KING Philip's war. 

place was nearest the bridge leading over the river into Philip's 
dominions. Some of the troopers that evening rode across the 
bridge and had a slight skirmish with the enemy. On the 29th, 
Major Thomas Savage arrived with another company of foot with 
Capt. Nicholas Paige's troop. Major Savage took command of 
the Massachusetts forces ; while, according to the custom in the 
United Colonies, the senior officer of the colony in which the 
forces were engaged at the time became commander-in-chief. 
The present seat of war being in Plymouth Colony, Major Cud- 
worth was thus the commander of the whole army. On June 
30th, the troopers, supported by Mosely's company, charged 
across the bridge for a mile into the woods, driving the enemy 
before them into swamps, with a loss of five or six. Ensign Perez 
Savage being severely wounded on the English side. This 
charge so frightened the Indians that they fled, in the night, out 
of their peninsula of Mount Hope, across the channel to Pocas- 
set, now Tiverton, R.I., so that on the next day when the whole 
force marched over into Mount Hope, and marched back and 
forth sweeping the country with their lines, they found no 
enemy. The forces were engaged several days in scouting the 
neighboring country in search of the Indians, not yet knowing 
that the main body were in Pocasset. 

Then orders came from Boston for Major Savage's forces to 
march into Narraganset, to enforce a treaty with that powerful 
tribe, and prevent their junction with Philip. They found the 
country apparently deserted, few except the very aged being left 
in any of the villages. Neither Canonchet nor any of his leading 
Sachems could be found. The officers, however, spent several 
days completing a very ceremonious treaty with some of the old 
men whom they were able to bring together. Canonchet after- 
wards treated the whole matter with scorn as being a farce. 

In the meantime the Plymouth forces passed over to Pocasset 
and found a body of Indians, and had a skirmish with them. 
Capt. Fuller was in command, and Benjamin Church conducted 
a part of the force, which became engaged with a much larger 
force, and after hard fighting were drawn off with difficulty by 
the tact and courage of Mr. Church, after inflicting serious 
injury upon the enemy, and suffering little loss themselves. 
After this the Indians retired into the swamps about Pocasset, 
and were held at bay until the return of the Massachusetts 
forces ; when all marched together for concerted action against 
their enemies. 

On July 18th the combined forces arrived at the Pocasset 
swamp, and made a resolute attack upon the enemy concealed in 
the thick underbrush, from whence at the first volley they killed 
five and wounded seven of our men. After this volley the 
enemy retreated deeper into the swamp, where it was impossible, 
night coming on, to follow them. The commanders in council 



PHILIP RETREATS TO POCASSET SWAMP. 29 

concluded that they had the enemy now enclosed securely within 
the swamp, whence it was impossible to escape, if a suitable 
guard were left to watch. Major Savage and the Massachusetts 
men returned to Boston, except Capt. Henchman's company of 
one hundred men, who, with the Plymouth forces, remained at 
Pocasset. Capt. Henchman began to build a fort there, which 
might serve as a stronghold for the English and might guard 
the entrance to the great swamp. 

The English were deceived by the apparent easy conquest of 
both the Wampanoags and Narragansets, and believed they had 
overawed them and set their hostility at rest, and now might 
take their own time in crushing Philip and thus finishing the 
war. 

Plymouth Colony had been engaged from the first in seeking 
to conciliate the tribes, in their bounds, which were related to 
Philip. Through the efforts of Mr. Benjamin Church, a resident 
of Seconet, who was acquainted on pleasant terms with nearly 
all the tribes in the colony, negotiations were held with Awa- 
shonks the squaw-sachem of the Seconet Indians, and Weetamoo 
the squaw-sachem or " queen " of the Pocasset tribe. Awashonks 
and most of her people passed over into the Narraganset country 
at the opening of active hostilities, and thus avoided joining 
Philip ; but Weetamoo and her people were swept along with 
him in his retreat towards the Nipmuck country. Plymouth 
companies were abroad, too, scouting the country in the effort 
to protect their settlements, exposed, like Dartmouth, Middle- 
boro', etc. They also established a garrison at Mount Hope 
after Philip retreated to Pocasset, to prevent his return. The 
entrance of Philip into the Pocasset swamps compelled the 
cooperation of the hesitating Weetamoo, and afforded him a safe 
hiding-place to recruit and prepare for his flight northward. 

In the meantime the Massachusetts authorities had begun 
negotiations with the various Western tribes. Seven of the 
principal towns had been visited and treaties made with each. 
On July 16th Ephraim Curtis returned to Boston and reported 
the Quabaugs gathered at a great island in a swamp beyond 
Brookfield, and showing a defiant and hostile spirit. The 
Council immediately sent Capt. Edward Hutchinson, escorted 
by Capt. Thomas Wheeler and his mounted company, with 
Curtis as guide, to find the Indians and bring them to terms. 
The company, accompanied by some friendly Naticks, arrived at 
Brookfield on August 1st, and immediately sent Curtis with the 
guides to arrange for a meeting next day. The Quabaugs, whose 
leader was the famous Muttaump, agreed to come next day to 
a plain some three miles from Brookfield to meet the English. 
The next morning, the company, with three of the chief men of 
Brookfield, rode out to the appointed place, but found no 
Indians. Urged by the Brookfield men, but against the earnest 



30 KING Philip's war. 

remonstrance of the Natieks, they rode forward, towards the 
place where Curtis met them the day before. But coming to a 
narrow defile between a high rocky hill and an impenetrable 
swamp, and. riding single file, they found themselves caught in 
a great ambuscade of the Indians, who let them pass along until 
they were able to surround, them, and then rose altogether and 
fired into their column at close range. They killed eight men 
outright and wounded five, including Capts. Hutchinson and 
Wheeler, the former mortally. The English were forced to 
retreat, fighting, up the hill ; and, under the skilful conduct of 
their Indian guides, were able to make a safe retreat to Brook- 
field, where they gathered the people and fortified a house just 
before the Indians came sweeping furiously down upon the 
village. Here they defended themselves against great numbers 
for several days, till Major Willard and Capt. Parker came with 
a company and reinforced the garrison, when the enemy retired. 

At Pocasset, Capt. Henchman continued building his fort, and 
Philip was making ready for his flight. The English seem not to 
have contemplated the possibility of a general war, nor to have at 
all appreciated the gravity of the present situation in the col- 
onies. Philip with all his fighting-men and the greater part of 
his own and Weetamoo's people, escaped across the river and 
passed through the open plain in Rehoboth, where they were dis- 
covered by some of the settlers. A scouting party from Taunton 
made the discovery that it was Philip's Indians who were thus 
escaping. The situation of affairs may be briefly stated. Capt. 
Henchman was guarding the swamp wherein Philip and his 
people were supposed to be securely trapped. Major Cudworth 
and Capt. Fuller were at Dartmouth with a company of one hun- 
dred and twelve men. Lieut. Nathaniel Thomas, of Marshfield, 
was at the Mount Hope garrison with twenty men. At Rehoboth 
a company of Mohegan Indians under Oneko, under convoy of 
Corporal Thomas Swift, arrived from Boston on the 30th on their 
way to Capt. Henchman at Pocasset. Upon the alarm. Rev. Mr. 
Newman, of Rehoboth, began to organize a company of volunteers 
for the pursuit of the Indians. Lieut. Thomas, with a small de- 
tachment, happened to come to Rohoboth on the 30th, and hear- 
ing of the escape, hastened back to carry the news to Capt. 
Henchman, and urge his cooperation. Lieut. Thomas then, on 
the 31st, took eleven men of his Mount Hope garrison, and being 
joined by Lieut. James Brown, of Swansy, with twelve men, 
marched in the pursuit. The Rehoboth men, with some volun- 
teers from Providence and Taunton, led by the Mohegans, had 
started earlier upon the trail of the enemy. Lieut. Thomas and 
his party overtook the others at sunset, and after a brief council- 
of-war, sent out their scouts, Indian and English, to discover the 
movements of the fugitives. Having found that they had en- 
camped for the night, and apparently not suspecting pursuit, the 



PHILIP ESCAPES TO THE NIPMUCKS. 31 

English left their horses with a guard, and, with the Mohegans in 
the van, marched silently forward to a field, at a place called 
" Nipsachick " (said to be within the present town of Burrillville, 
R.I.). The night being very dark, they were forced to wait for 
light. At dawn they made their attack upon what proved to be 
Weetamoo's camp. The Indians were taken by surprise and fled, 
leaving everything behind them. But the Mohegans and English 
rushing forward found themselves confronted with Philip's fight- 
ing-men entrenched behind trees and rocks ready for battle. 
Adopting the tactics of the enemy, the English and their allies 
engaged them fiercely until 9 o'clock, when still fighting desper- 
ately, but with powder nearly spent, the hostiles sullenly retired, 
leaving many of their dead upon the field. Some twenty-three 
of the enemy were killed, it is said, including a prominent chief, 
Woonashum, called by the English, Nimrod. Of the English, 
two were killed and one wounded. 

Near the close of the fight. Rev. Mr. Newman and a party came 
up, bringing supplies. Capt. Henchman arrived after the fight, 
having sailed to Providence and marched up thence, with sixty- 
eight soldiers and sixteen friendly Indians. He immediately took 
command, but concluded not to push the pursuit until next day. 
The Rehoboth and Providence men returned home, to bring up 
supplies for the further pursuit. They hastened back next day 
with all speed, but found to their great disappointment that Capt. 
Henchman had not moved until that same day, giving the enemy 
a full day's start ; and Lieut. Thomas and his party overtook him 
on the evening of August 3d, at a place called by them in the 
report, " Wapososhequash." The enemy were beyond pursuit, a 
part (Weetamoo's people, except the fighting-men) having turned 
off into the Narraganset country, while Philip and the rest passed 
into the great forests beyond Quabaug. The Mohegans went to 
their own country on August 4th, accompanied by Lieut. Brown 
and a small party, to Norwich, to secure provisions and news of 
the enemy. After awaiting the return of this party three days, 
Capt. Henchman, on August 7th, marched back to Mendon, meet- 
ing Capt. Mosely with a company of dragoons coming up from 
Providence with supplies. Next day Capt. Henchman went up 
to Boston, and the Rehoboth men returned home. Capt. Mosely 
was left in command at Mendon. Capt. Henchman was relieved 
of command in the field and was sent to bring off his men re- 
maining at Pocasset. Mendon had been attacked July 14th, by a 
party of Nipmucks, led by Matoonas, and six or more of the 
settlers were killed while at work in their fields. 

When the Indians returned from their siege of Brookfield, they 
met Philip and his people in the woods and told him of their 
exploit. He was greatly pleased, and gave some of the chiefs 
presents of wampum, and promised them fresh supplies of ammu- 
nition and arms. The Brookfield affair had the effect of bringing 



32 KING Philip's wab. 

in the faltering tribes, and Philip's coming confirmed the plan to 
clear the Connecticut Valley of English settlers. Massachusetts 
Colony raised several companies to protect the frontiers. Capt. 
Mosely with his own and Capt. Henchman's men marched from 
Mendon, and Capts. Thomas Lathrop of Essex County with a fine 
company, and Richard Beers of Watertown with another, marched 
to Brookfield, where their forces were joined by Capt. Watts of 
Connecticut with two companies of English and Indians. Major 
Willard took command of this force, and broke it into several 
parties in order to better protect the several settlements. These 
companies were engaged in scouting the frontiers and guarding 
supplies sent up to the various garrisons. The Springfield 
Indians, hitherto pretending friendship, fled and joined the hostiles 
on the night of August 24 ; and the English, pursuing, had a 
sharp fight with them at a swamp near Mt. Wequomps, losing 
nine of their own men. The English troops were concentrated 
at Hadley under the general command of Major Pynchon. On 
September 1st the Indians attacked Deerfield, burning most of 
the houses and killing one of the garrison soldiers, and withdrew. 
On the 2d they fell upon Northfield, where many of the people 
were abroad at work in the fields, and the women and children 
at the houses in the town. The assault was from all quarters at 
once, and many were killed in the fields and as they escaped from 
their houses to the garrison. The Indians burned most of their 
houses and drove away their cattle. On the 3d, Capt. Beers, 
with thirty mounted men and an ox-team, was sent to bring off 
the garrison of Northfield, not knowing of this attack. This force 
on the next day was ambushed at Saw-Mill Brook, near North- 
field, and Capt. Beers and some twenty of his men were killed. 
Next day Major Treat with a hundred men marched up to North- 
field, finding and burying the dead of Capt. Beers' company, and 
then bringing off the garrison. It was now decided to strengthen 
the garrisons and act upon the defensive. Upon September 18th 
Capt. Lathrop with his company was sent to convoy teams bring- 
ing loads of grain from Deerfield to Hadley. A strong ambuscade 
was made at a place known since as " Bloody Brook," and there 
the Indians encompassed and massacred nearly the whole company, 
some eighty, including the teamsters. Only eight or ten escaped. 
The number killed was between sixty and seventy. Capt. Mosely 
came hastily from Deerfield upon hearing the shots, and engaged 
the great company of several hundreds of Indians, charging in 
amongst them with intrepid fury which drove them headlong 
before him into the woods and swamps ; but, finding them gather- 
ing in immense numbers and seeking to surround him, he threw 
out his lines to prevent being flanked, and began a cautious 
retreat ; when Major Treat coining upon the field, the Indians, 
seeing the reinforcements, fled. 

These terrible reverses threw a gloomy, superstitious fear over 



THE NARRAGANSET CAMPAIGN. 33 

the Colonies. The English troops, hitherto despising the Indians 
in war, now seemed helpless before them. On September 26th 
the Indians assaulted Springfield, west of the river, bm-ning the 
houses and barns. On October 5th the enemy made some dem- 
onstrations at Hadley; the soldiers were drawn from Spring- 
field to strengthen the garrison ; the Indians fell upon the latter 
village and destroyed it, before the companies could return to 
save it. After this blow. Major Pynchon begged the Court to 
appoint a commander of the forces on the river in his place, and 
Major Samuel Appleton was appointed, and by advice of the 
Council garrisoned the various towns not abandoned, and then 
withdrew the other troops to Boston. The Connecticut troops 
helped to garrison Northampton and Westfield, and the Indians 
withdrew to their winter camps. Philip had long since gone into 
winter quarters above Albany. 

But now the Colonies determined to strike the Narragansets in 
their own country before they should be able to join the hostiles. 
A great muster was made in three colonies, and an army of one 
thousand men was raised and equipped, half of which was sent 
from Massachusetts. The Narragansets were entrenched in a 
very strong position in a great swamp in what is now South 
Kingston, R.I. It was claimed that great numbers of Wampan- 
oags and other hostiles were among them finding refuge, and they 
were defiant and threatening. The English forces under com- 
mand of Gen. Winslow, of Plymouth, gathered at Wickford, and 
on December 19th, 1675, marched some twenty miles through 
intense cold and a heavy snow-storm, to the swamp ; the waters 
had been frozen by the severe cold, and this fact made it possible 
for the English to reach the rude fortifications. Without waiting 
for any organized attack, the Massachusetts troops, being at the 
front in the march, rushed forward across the ice in an impetuous 
charge, and into the entrance, where the Indians had constructed 
rude flankers, and placed a strong block-house in front, so that 
the fu'st to enter were met with a terrible enfilading fire from 
front and flanks, and were forced back for a time ; but others 
coming on pressed into the breach, and, though suffering severe 
losses, at last stormed all the fortifications, di-ove the enemy from 
every line of entrenchments within the fort, and out into the 
woods and swamps beyond. They set fire to the wigwams and 
store-houses of the savages, in which were burned many of the 
aged, women, and children. Then taking their wounded, the 
English took up their march back through the deep snow to 
Wickford, where they arrived the next morning. 

The details of this fight, as well as the subsequent movements 
of this campaign, are given at length in the chapters of which this 
chapter is the compendium, and are briefly passed here. The 
Narragansets kept well out of the way of the English army, and 
made many pretences of negotiating peace; but at last, about 



34 KING Philip's war. 

January 26th, having made several raids into the settlements, and 
captured numbers of cattle and horses, Canonchet with his strong 
rear-guard took up his line of retreat for the north, and two days 
afterwards the army, some twelve hundred strong, marched in 
pursuit. The Mohegans and Pequots, among the Connecticut 
forces, led the pursuit, and had several sharp skirmishes with the 
enemy, always retreating northward. This running fight was 
kept up for several days, until provisions having failed and no 
base of supplies possible, the General abandoned the pursuit and 
marched his troops to Marlborough and thence to Boston. The 
men suffered severely in this march, from hunger, and it was 
known for several generations as the " hungry march." 

The Connecticut forces separated from the others on February 
3d, and the main body of the army arrived in Boston on the 8th 
and were dismissed. A company under Capt. Wadsworth was 
left at Marlborough- to guard the frontiers and neighboring 
towns. Canonchet and his great and warlike Narraganset tribe, 
maddened by what they believed their wrongs, and thirsting for 
vengeance, were now joined with Philip and the other hostile 
tribes, and all within an easy day's call, except Philip and his 
band, who still remained in their retreat beyond Albany. The 
time was critical for the settlements ; prompt action was 
necessary on the part of the Indian leaders, to keep their young 
men in courage and training. Upon February 10th the Indians 
in great force fell upon Lancaster, and nearljr destroyed the town. 
They killed or took captive fifty of the people. Among the 
captives was Mrs. Rowlandson, wife of the minister. One 
garrison-house was saved by the arrival of Capt. Wadsworth and 
his company from Marlborough. On February 21st a strong 
body of the enemy surprised Medfield, although a large force of 
soldiers was then in the town. There were no guards set, nor 
other precautions taken. The soldiers were scattered about in 
the houses, and the Indians placed ambuscades in front of each 
house, and shot them down as they rushed out upon the alarm. 
The enemy were frightened away by the firing of a cannon, and 
crossed the river, burning the bridge behind them. Another 
army was now raised and sent to the Connecticut River towns, 
to protect them, and try to bring the enemy to battle. There 
were said to be two great fortified camps : one near the 
" Wachusett Hill," and the other at Menameset, beyond Brook- 
field. The army was under command of Major Thomas Savage, 
and consisted of three foot companies and a troop of horse from 
Massachusetts. Connecticut sent several companies of English 
and friendly Indians. A number of Christian Indians from the 
Naticks went with Major Savage. The army marched to Mena- 
meset, March 2d-4th, to find the enemy gone. They pursued 
them to Miller's River, across which they escaped. It was 
thought that this great body of the enemy would now fall upon 



1517058 

WAR IN THE RIVER TOWNS, WEST. 35 

the western towns, so that the army marched thither, abandoning 
the design upon " Wachusett Hill " encampment. Major Savage 
disposed his forces to guard the towns. On March 14th an 
attack was made upon Northampton, but was repulsed with 
severe loss to the enemy. On the 24th they appeared at Hatfield, 
but finding it well garrisoned made no attack, though driving off 
some horses and cattle. The Indians began to prepare for plant- 
ing fields along the river ; and Canonchet with a body of his men 
went back to their country to bring up seed-corn, of which large 
quantities were there stored. It is probable that a large company 
went towards Plymouth Colony, a small party of whom destroyed 
the house and family of Mr. Clarke at Plymouth village. March 
17th they burned Warwick. Plymouth Colony sent ont a com- 
pany of fifty men under Capt. Michael Peirse, of Marshfield, to 
protect its frontiers. A party of twenty friendly Indians under 
" Capt. Amos " was joined with Capt. Peirse. This company 
marched to Seekonk, and there had a sharp skirmish with the 
Indians on the evening of March 25th. Next day, supposing 
they had beaten the Indians, they pujsued them and were drawn 
into an ambush and surrounded, near Patuxit River, with great 
numbers, so that they were obliged to fight to the death. The 
whole company, including the officers, were killed, together with 
eight out of the twenty Indians. The enemy, too, lost very 
heavily. March 28th and 29th the Indians burned seventy 
houses and thirty barns at Providence. 

In the meantime, in Massachusetts the enemy were not idle. 
Lurking parties hovered about Groton, plundering the vacated 
houses, and driving away any stray cattle within safe reach. On 
March 13th they fell upon the town in force. The people were 
gathered in five garrison-houses. One of the garrison-houses 
was captured, but the people mostly escaped to another. The 
other garrison-houses were stoutly defended. The Indians 
burned the unfortified houses and withdrew. On March 26th, 
the fatal day of Capt. Peirse's destruction, they burned sixteen 
houses and thirteen barns at Marlborough. Capt. Brocklebank, 
then in command at Marlborough, sent out a party in pursuit, 
who overtook and surprised the enemy at night sleeping about 
their fires, fired into their midst and put them to flight. On the 
same day, at Longmeadow, a party going to Springfield to church 
was ambushed by a small company of Indians, and several were 
captured and killed. 

Finding the campaign to have failed in its main object, the 
Council ordered Major Savage to withdraw his troops, leaving 
Capt. Wm. Turner, with a hundred and fifty men, to garrison 
the towns. April 7th the army marched homeward. 

But now the Connecticut authorities, fearing a return of the 
Narragansets to their vicinity, in numbers such as overwhelmed 
Capt. Peirse, mustered a mixed company of English and Indians, 



36 KING Philip's war. 

and sent them into the Narraganset country under command of 
Capts. Denison and Avery. These, guided by a captive whom 
they had taken, surprised and captured Canonchet not far from 
the Patuxit river, where he was encamped with a few of his 
men, while the great body were scattered, scouting and foraging. 
He was soon after executed by Oneko, by the judgment of the 
English authorities. The death of Canonchet was really the 
death-blow of the war, for he was the real leader of all active 
operations at this time. Philip was still the chief instigator, 
however, and now more than before, became, for the time, the 
controlling mind of a larger number than ever before. There 
were dissensions, however, and many of the chiefs began to mur- 
mur and some to threaten against him as the cause of all their 
troubles. Some of the river tribes began to show signs of 
weakening, and proposed negotiations with the English. Philip 
withdrew to the stronghold near Wachuset with such as adhered 
to him, and with Quinnapin, and such of the Narragansets 
as followed him. The Indians were still active, and watched 
every chance to strike a blow. They came to Marlborough on 
April 18th and burned the abandoned houses of the settlers. 
Capt. Brocklebank commanded the garrison there and refused to 
be drawn out into the ambuscades, which, before the burning, 
the Indians had set. On April 20th they crept down and encom- 
passed the town of Sudbury. On that day Capt. Wadsworth 
marched up from Boston with a company of fifty men, passed 
through Sudbury, and doubtless the lines of the enemy, without 
any knowledge of their vicinity. He forced his march to the 
garrison at Marlborough, where they arrived about midnight on 
the 20th, and without delay, leaving their recruits, took those 
relieved to come home, including Capt. Brocklebank, and came 
back towards Sudbury. The great numbers of Indians had en- 
compassed the town, and in the morning of the 21st began to 
burn outlying houses, to draw out the inhabitants from the garri- 
son. They soon made a furious and persistent attack on Haines' 
garrison from morning till mid-day, but were beaten off, until 
rumors of reinforcements from various quarters caused them to 
withdraw to meet these. Edward Cowell and eighteen troopers 
coming to the relief of Sudbury were attacked, but escaped with 
onl}'^ four killed ; they turned back, suspecting the ambush laid 
for them. Capt. Wadsworth soon after arrived by another road, 
and meeting with an outpost of the enemy, rushed forward to 
engage them, and, as usual, they soon found themselves sur- 
rounded by great numbers, and were forced to a position on a 
hill, where most of the company fell fighting, including Capts. 
Wadsworth, Brocklebank, and Lieut. Sharpe. Some sixteen of 
the company managed to escape to a mill, and there defended 
themselves until relieved. A company from Watertown arrived 
soon after Captain Wadsworth, and crossing the river, made a 



WAR IN THE ElVEK TOWNS, WEST. 37 

brave attempt to get to the hill to join him in his desperate fight, 
but were nearly surrounded themselves and forced to retire. 
Capt. Hunting with a company of Christian Indians and a squad 
of troopers arrived from Charlestown late in the afternoon, in 
time to rescue the men at the mill. After this fight, in which 
they struck such a terrible blow, and so close to Boston, too, 
they seem to have retired to their several camps, and soon to 
have gathered to their great fishing-places in order to take the 
run of fish. Capt. Turner was still in command of the garrisons 
at the west. From captives who had escaped, and scouts here 
and there, came rumors of a great company of Indians fishing at 
the " Upper Falls " of the Connecticut. Capt. Turner and his 
ofiicers were anxious to strike a blow against the enemy, and 
Connecticut authorities were applied to, and promised speedy 
reinforcements. On May 12th the Indians made a raid into 
Deerfield meadows and stampeded some seventy head of cattle 
belonging to the English. Roused by this fresh outrage, the 
people urged retaliation, and Capt. Turner and liis officers deter- 
mined to attack the Indians at their great fishing-place at once. 
On May 18th the whole company of soldiers and volunteers, 
about one hundred and fifty, mustered at Hatfield, and marched 
out at evening towards the " Falls." They eluded the outposts 
of the enemy, and at daylight arrived undiscovered at the camp 
of the Indians at the fishing-place. The savages were asleep in 
their wigwams, and the English rushed down upon them and 
shot them by scores, pointing their muskets in through the wig- 
wam doors. No resistance was possible, and those who escaped 
the first fire fled in terror to the river, pursued by the soldiers, 
and were cut down or driven into the water without mercy; 
many were drowned attempting to cross the river. 

But it was soon found that there were several other great 
bodies of the Indians, above and below the Falls on both sides of 
the river, and these began to swarm towards the fight. Capt. 
Turner now prudently began a retreat, having struck his blow. 
As the soldiers retired the enemy gathered in great numbers upon 
rear and flanks, seeking to force the English into narrow defiles 
Capt. Holyoke commanded the rear-guard, and checked the 
enemy by stout fighting, but for which, it is likely, the whole 
command would have been lost. Capt. Turner led the advance, 
and while crossing Green River was shot down by Indians lying 
in wait. Capt. Holyoke then led the company back to Hatfield, 
fighting nearly the whole way. There the killed and missing 
numbered forty-five. A few came in afterwards, reducing the 
number of the lost to about forty. It is estimated that some two 
hundred Indians must have been destroyed. 

The blow struck by Capt. Turner greatly intimidated the 
enemy, though the retreat was so disastrous to the English. 
The tribes became divided and demoralized. They seem to have 



38 KING Philip's wak. 

broken up into small wandering parties. Philip, with large num- 
bers of his adherents, went down towards Plymouth. Massachu- 
setts sent troops to the western frontiers again, and also to aid 
Plymouth. The operations in the field were mostly the pursuit 
of non-combatants, the aged, and women and children. Large 
numbers of the Wampanoags and Narragansets had now returned 
with Pliilip to their own country. Small parties from time to 
time plundered and killed as opportunity offered. The colonists 
were roused to new activity at the evident weakening of the 
Indians. Aid was sent to Plymouth, under Capts. Brattle and 
Mosely ; and Capt. Henchman did good service in the parts 
about Brookfield. Major Talcott, with a mixed force of English 
and Indians, about five hundred in all, came up the river and 
marched into Hadley about the 11th of June, and was quartered 
there on the 12th, when the Western Indians, some seven hundred 
strong, made their last great assault in force in these parts. The 
town was quite strongly garrisoned besides this reinforcement, of 
which probably the enemy knew notliing. The attack was alto- 
gether unexpected and was furious and determined, but the 
repulse was decided and sanguinary. Major Talcott then led his 
force down into the Narraganset country, where, about the 2d 
of July, he encountered a great body of Indians, and driving 
them into the woods and swamps slew great numbers, and took 
many captives. The plight of the savages was pitiful ; without 
ammunition, without leadership, without countiy or hope of any 
sort, they found no mercy now at the hands of their olden foes, 
the Mohegans and Pequods, nor yet the English. 

The remaining operations of the war in these parts were simply 
the hunting down of almost defenceless enemies. The colonial 
authorities issued a proclamation, calling all those Indians who 
had been engaged in the war to come in and surrender, submitting 
themselves to the judgment of the English courts. Many parties 
sought to take advantage of this, but were captured upon their 
approach by scouting parties, and treated as captives. Some of 
those who had been prominent in the war and could not hope for 
mercy, escaped to the eastward and put themselves under the 
protection of Wannalancet and his Pennacooks, who had remained 
neutral. Some fled farther to the east, and there incited war. 

The constant success which the Connecticut troops had always 
had after their use of the Mohegans and Pequods, was a plain 
rebuke to the Massachusetts colonists for the numerous disasters 
from which the Christian Indians might have saved them, if they 
had trusted and employed them. As soon as Capt. Hunting and 
his Indian company were put in the field, this appeared. The 
Indians in small parties skulking in woods and swamps might 
have eluded English soldiers for years, but as soon as other 
Indians were employed, escape was impossible. 

At the close of July, many of Philip's followers had been 



DEATH OF PHILIP, AUGUST 12, 1676. 39 

taken, and his wife and several of his chief men were captives or 
had been killed. With a small band of his followers he was 
hiding in the swamps at Mount Hope and Pocasset. English 
scouting parties were active in all parts of the colonies hunting 
down the trembling and unresisting fugitives, and especially 
Philip. Benjamin Church was among the most active in hunting 
and bringing in the Indians, and when one of Philip's men came 
to betray his chief, he found Mr. Church at Major Sanford's in 
Rhode Island, with his scouting party of English and Indians a 
short distance away. Upon the news of Philip's hiding-place 
and the offer of the Indian to lead thither, Mr. Church gathered 
as many as he could enlist in addition to his party, and, under 
the lead of the Indian deserter (who acted, it is said, from 
motives of revenge for his brothers death, by Philip's hand, 
because he advised him to make peace with the English), the 
party marched with great secrecy to Mount Hope. Mr. Church 
arranged his attack with skill, and came upon Philip's party 
unguarded and asleep, and Philip springing up and attempting 
to escape to the swamp near by, was confronted with two of Mr. 
Church's guards, an Englishman and an Indian. The English- 
man's gun missed fire, but the Indian, named " Alderman," imme- 
diately fired and shot the great chief through the breast, so that 
he fell forward into the water of the swamp, upon his face, dead. 
Philip was killed August 12th, 1676. Weetamoo's party, the sad 
remnant of her tribe, had been captured on the 7th, and she, 
trying to escape across a river, was drowned, and, her body being 
found, her head was cut off and paraded in the public streets. 

After Philip's death, his chief counsellor, Annawon, led the 
rest of the party out of the swamp and escaped. With his party 
he soon after surrendered to Mr. Church. The death of Philip 
was practically the close of the war, though hostilities continued 
for some time after, and at the eastward for a year or more longer. 
At Dover, Major Richard Walderne had held command of the 
military interests and operations in those parts. He was a trusted 
friend of Wannalancet and the neighboring Indians. Under the 
proclamation the old chief and his people came in without fear, 
as they had taken no part whatever in the war. There were 
many Indians with them, however, it was suspected, who had 
been among the hostiles, and now wished to come in with the 
Pennacooks and secure the advantages of their influence in giving 
themselves up. They began to come in at Dover about the first 
of September, and when, on the 6th, the companies, sent to the 
eastward under Capt. Hathorn, arrived at Dover, there were 
some four hundred there, including the Pennacooks. In some 
way the immediate surrender of all these was received, probably 
by Major Walderne's great influence with them. They were 
then disarmed, and as the Massachusetts officers insisted upon 
treating them all as prisoners of war, Major Walderne was 



40 KING Philip's war. 

obliged to send all, save Wannalancet and his " relations," down 
to Boston to be tried there by the Court. The number sent was 
about two hundred. 

Some of the Southern Indians, having lost all except their own 
lives, passed to the Eastern tribes and were active in exciting to 
hostility. The local Indians had been hostile the previous year, 
committing depredations from the Kennebec to Portsmouth. In 
the summer of 1676, it is thought that many who had been 
among the Indians in the war, came to these tribes and caused 
much of the trouble which ensued. The day before Philip's 
death the Indians fell upon the settlers at Falmouth, and killed 
or carried away some thirty-four persons and burned their houses. 
Further eastward also the settlements were attacked. It was 
upon these occasions that Capt. Hathorn's force was sent to these 
parts. They marched on from Dover on September 8th, as far 
as Falmouth, Capt. Hunting's Indians scouting the woods. This 
expedition was not of much avail, as the Indians easily eluded 
the troops, being only war parties without the encumbrance of 
women and children. 

In November, 1676, a company was sent up into the mountain 
regions of New Hampshire to break up a winter encampment of 
the Ammoscoggin and Pigwacket Indians, who had been active 
in the hostile movements at the eastward settlements during 
the summer and fall, and were now said to be gathering into 
winter quarters in a great fort, near " Ossapy Lake." 

After a severe march, the fort was discovered, but no signs of 
Indians, and after scouting in small parties some twelve miles 
beyond tliis fort, they burned the same, and marched back to 
Berwick, having been gone nine days. In the meantime the 
Penobscot sagamore, Mugg, or, as he was afterwards called, " Mogg 
Hegone " (and in Whittier's poem Mogg Megone), came to the 
English in behalf of Madockawando, the sachem, of Penobscot, 
to treat for peace, and the return of the English captives. A 
treaty was concluded at Boston, November 6th, 1676, by which 
Mugg agreed to return all the captives and goods taken from the 
English, and offered to remain with the English until the same 
was done. Two vessels were fitted out, and sailed to Penobscot, 
where they arrived the first week in December, and found the 
great chief, Madockawando, who received and treated them 
kindly. He delivered to them two captives, who were then with 
him, and Mugg was allowed to go up into the country, to try to 
bring down some others, who were said to be at another camp. 
He did not return ; and the vessels, after a few days' waiting, 
sailed to Pemaquid, where they received some more English 
captives, and returned home. Among the captives received at 
Pemaquid was Thomas Cobbet, son of Rev. Thomas, of Ipswich. 
He had been among the savages for several months, and his 
interesting story of his captivity gave much and correct informa- 



WAB AT THE EASTWARD. 41 

tion in regard to the strength, habits, temper, and intentions of 
the Indians and their other captives. 

Soon after that, another captive, Francis Card, escaped and 
brought later news, and one item of great importance was that 
Mugg had returned to the Indians on the Kennebec, who were 
the real leaders in the war in those parts. He said that Mugg 
boasted greatly of the trick he had played upon the English, 
and threatened great things to be done against them in the 
spring. He gave a minute description of the country, the con- 
dition of the Indians, and the easiest approaches to their places 
of encampment. 

He said that the numbers of the Indians were not so large as 
reported, their war-party, in full force, being not over a hundred 
men. The captives with them were well, and not abused, except 
they were made to work for their captors. Stirred up and 
encouraged by this report, the Council at Boston raised a force 
of two hundred men, of whom sixty were Natick Indians, and 
sent them away by water, to the eastward, the first week in 
February ; Major Waldron, of Dover, being Commander-in-chief 
of the expedition. The forces were at Blackpoint on February 
17th, and sailed eastward along the shore, landing in Maquoit 
Bay, where Capt. Frost with his company had a skirmish with a 
body of the savages, without much loss on either side, and fol- 
lowed next day with an attempt at a treaty. Thence they sailed 
around to the Kennebec, and landing at Arrowsick Island, left a 
part of their force there, to build a fort and establish a garrison. 
Major Waldron, with a part of the company under Capt. Frost, 
went to Pemaquid and ransomed some captives there ; but, dis- 
covering a plot to destroy himself and a small party who went 
on shore to treat with the Indians, he called his soldiers ashore, 
and attacking the enemy furiously, drove them to their canoes 
which they had near by, killing some, among whom was the 
sagamore Mattahando, leader in this affair. Sailing back to 
Arrowsick, Major Waldron gathered his forces together, leaving 
a small garrison at Kennebec, and went home to Boston, where 
they arrived safely, without the loss of a man, on March 11th, 
1677. 

In April following an attempt was made by the Massachusetts 
authorities to enlist the Mohawk Indians against the hostile 
savages upon the North and Eastern borders. Major Pynchon, 
of Springfield, with Mr. James Richards of Hartford, and twelve 
men as a guard, made a journey to the Mohawk country to arrange 
for their cooperation. 

This action was taken with the advice of Gov. Andros, of New 
York, and some of the Indians did really come into the borders 
of New Hampshire and Maine ; but the distance was so great 
from their country that little was achieved except by the terror 
inspired among the Eastern tribes, by the rumor of their coming. 



42 KING Philip's wak. 

This measure was questioned by many as to its lawfulness, in 
employing heathen to fight the battles of the Lord ; but the Gen- 
eral Court fell back upon the scriptural precedent of Abraham 
employing the Amorites, and so justified its somewhat ques- 
tionable proceeding. The Indians on the Kennebec were not 
deterred from hostilities, which were renewed by the killing of 
nine of the garrison left the year before, at that place. So the 
Massachusetts Court at once called upon the other colonies to 
assist them in raising a new force to send into those parts. Up 
to the present time, Massachusetts had borne the whole expense 
of the Eastern wars, but now call them to raise their proportional 
part of one hundred English, and two hundred Indian soldiers, to 
rendezvous at Blackpoint. But in the meantime Massachusetts 
had acted with promptness in sending Capt. Hunting to bring 
the remaining garrison at Kennebec, and strengthening the gar- 
risons at Wells with a company under Capt. Benjamin Swett, and 
at Blackpoint with another company under Lieut. Tippin. In 
May, the Eastern tribes, elated by their success in driving the 
English out of their country, gathered all their forces against 
the above garrisons. The Indian leaders in this campaign were 
Symon, a renegade Christian Indian, and Mugg, above mentioned, 
both wary and skilful, and well acquainted with the country 
around, and with the English people and their habits. The 
Indian forces under these leadei"S at this time were well-tried 
men from the Penobscot, Kennebec, and Ammoscoggin tribes of 
the Tarratines, ranking as fighters next to the Pequods and 
Mohawks. They were well equipped and supplied, probably by 
the French in Canada. 

It does not appear that either of the other colonies sent men to 
assist in this campaign, and the force that was raised by Massa- 
chusetts was too small, and the English part of it was mostly of 
young and untried men and boys who had seen no service except 
in garrisons. They seem also to have entirely underrated the 
numbers and temper of the enemy. On the 13th of May, the 
Blackpoint garrison had beaten off a large body of the Indians 
after a fierce assault of three days, on the last of which Lieut. 
Tippin had shot and killed the leader, Mugg ; when the Indians 
had gone away towards Wells and York, as told above. On July 
28th, Capt. Swett, with forty young English recruits, and a com- 
pany of thirty-six Natick Indians, landed at Blackpoint garrison- 
house, the Indians being under the command of Lieut. James 
Richardson. Next morning the enemy with quite a large party 
appeared not far from the fort, when Capt. Swett drew out his 
whole force, with a number from the garrison, and pursued them 
vidth headlong haste about two miles, when, at the edge of a hill, 
with a dark swamp on each side, they found themselves am- 
bushed, after the old fashion at Brookfield, Deerfield, Sudbury, 
etc., whose lessons, after two centuries, the American soldiers 



WAR AT THE EASTWARD. 43 

have not fully learned. Half the English were shot down at the 
first volley, and the raw young lads were completely panic- 
stricken, and unable to make any defence. The Captain with a 
few tried men rallied and attempted to bring off their wounded 
and make good a retreat to the fort. The odds were too heavy 
against him, and having received many wounds, he was at last 
surrounded and overpowered by the foe, and fell not far from 
the garrison, still fighting. 

Lieut. Richardson fell near the first onset. Forty of the Eng- 
lish and twelve of the Natick Indians were killed at the time. 
It is not known how many the enemy lost ; but they made no 
further attempt upon the garrison and soon retired. The next 
hostile move of these Indians was in a new direction. They cap- 
tured no less than thirteen fishing-vessels with their crews and 
loads along the Eastern shores. 

In August of this year (1677), Gov. Andros, of New York, 
sent a ship with a force of men to Pemaquid, which, when the 
Indians understood, they soon, for some reason, came to proper 
terms of peace, returned the English captives and the captured 
vessels into the hands of the New York soldiers, by whom they 
were soon returned home. 

Yet another act in this long tragedy was to come. The scene 
changes to Hatfield, where, September 19th, the people of that 
village were engaged in raising a house, having no thought of any 
Indian hostility in the colony. Suddenly they were set upon by 
a party of River Indians, forty or fifty in number, who had crept 
about them so secretly that they were unarmed and utterly help- 
less. Some were shot down from the frame of the building. 
Twelve were killed outright, and some twenty more were made 
captive and carried to Canada. The story of the captivity and 
redemption of these last, by the two brave Hatfield men, Ben- 
jamin Wait and Stephen Jennings, is one of the most heroic and 
interesting of the whole war. The Indians killed one man and 
captured three more at Deerfield that same day. This was the 
last act of any considerable importance in the war known as 
" King Philip's War," the particulars of which are to be related 
in the following chapters. 



THE BEGINNING OF HOSTILITIES IN KING 
PHILIP'S WAE. 



I. 



CAPTAIN DANIEL HENCHMAN'S COMPANY. 



AT the opening of the war, the colonial militia was quite 
efficiently organized. Each county had its regiment of 
" trained soldiers." The regiments of Suffolk and Middlesex 
counties consisted of fifteen companies of Foot and one of Cavalry 
each. The Essex regiment was of thirteen Foot and one Cavalry ; 
the other counties smaller. There were seventy-three organized 
companies in the Massachusetts Colony, besides an independent 
cavalry company called the " Three County Troop," made up in 
Suffolk, Middlesex and Essex. The highest military officer of the 
colony was Major General Daniel Denison, of Ipswich. The 
highest regimental officer at this time was Major, or Sergeant 
Major. These local companies were not sent on active service out 
of their towns, but men were impressed from the number and 
placed under officers appointed for special service by the Council. 
Each company of Foot had a Captain, Lieutenant, Ensign, Clerk, 
Sergeants, Corporals, and a Drummer. Cavalry had Cornett 
instead of Ensign and a Trumpeter and Quartermaster. The 
regular number of privates in foot companies was seventy, in 
the cavalry fifty. On special service it was more. The pay 
of soldiers was 6s. per week, and 5s. was paid for their " dyet." 
There is no way of determining the rate of pay from Hull's 
Journal, as all payments are " on acct " and do not specify time 
of service. Plymouth Colony paid the private soldiers 2s. per 
day. Drummers 2s. 6d., Sergeant 3s., Ensign 4s., " Lief tenant " 
5s., Captain 6s. A " ChjTurgion" or doctor was attached to each 
expedition. A chaplain also generally served with each expedi- 
tion. The price paid for horses was 18d. per week. Prices of 
Clothing, " Wastcoats," 6s., Drawers 5s. 6d., " Stockins " 2s., 
Shirts 6s., Shoes 4s. 

On the Mount Hope expedition the soldiers used the Old 
Matchlock musket, the " Regulation " weapon of that time ; but 
it was afterwards discarded as not so serviceable as the Flintlock 



46 KING Philip's war. 

or " Snaphance." There were no bayonets in nse, but each com- 
pany at first had a number of Pikemen, soon found to be useless 
in an Indian fight. The " Matchlock " was an exceedingly 
cumbrous affair, and was too long and heavy to fire at arm's 
length, so that each soldier was obliged to carry a " rest " (a 
crotched staff pointed at the foot with iron, and attached to his 
wrist by a string). No. 7 of the orders in musket drill, " Elton's 
Tactics," was, " Put the string of your rest about your left wrist." 
The Indians always used the Flintlock, and used slugs, or heavy 
ghot instead of bullets. The other equipments of a foot soldier 
were a " Snapsack," six feet of match or fuse, a Bandoleer, which 
was a leathern belt passing over the right shoulder and under the 
left arm and containing a dozen or more round boxes each hold- 
ing one charge of powder ; a bag of bullets and a horn of prim- 
ing-powder was also attached to this belt. These matters will be 
more fully treated in the Appendix. 

BEGINNING OF HOSTILITIES. 

A brief sui'vey of the state of affairs in Boston on June 24th, 
1675, when news of the attack of the Indians on Swansea, and 
Plymouth Colony's appeal for aid, arrived, may be in place here, 
especially as in Massachusetts Records there is nothing relating 
to the matter from the adjournment of the Court on May 12 
until it was called together on July 19th. It is to be regretted 
that the records are lost, as we know many important meetings 
were held in this time. I insert the following fragments, pre- 
served in Mass. Archives, vol. 67, as testimony of the energy which 
the Court displayed in answering the appeal of the sister colony. 

The following is a portion of a letter from the General Court 
of Massachusetts Colony to Plymouth Colony, in answer to her 
appeal for assistance: 

June 24. 1675. 

Hon""** S"" According to what I writ you yesterday we are now con- 
vened in Council to Consider of your desire of a supply of some men 
from hence and we have resolved to rayse one hundred foot and 50 
horse that shall be speedily upon their march towards Swansey .... 
and for the furtherance and better management &c we have commis- 
sionated our faithful friend Major Thomas Savage &c, . . . 

[June 24, 1675.] Att a meeting of the General Court on the 24. 
June 1675. Ordered that the Secretary issue out a warrant to the Con- 
stable of Boston to Impress forthwith five Able and Special horses for 
the service of the country, and that Capt Savage and Capt Oliver have 
charge of them, and their men each of them one. 

Capt Richard is voted to goe forth in this Expedition (who shame- 
fully refused the Employment).^ 

iThis parenthesis is added by another hand. This captain was John Richard, of the 
6th Company, and as he was afterwards a trusted officer in the colony, probably the Court 
did not agree with the remark of the anonymous writer. 



BEGINNING OF HOSTILITIES. 47 

Capt Daniel Henchman was chosen and voted to goe forth as Capt 
of 100 men for the service of this Colony on y*" designe to go to Plym- 
outh CoF. 

Capt Thomas Prentice is appointed to be Capt of the Horse. 

To the Militia of the town of Boston, Cha. Camb. Watertown, 
Roxbm-y, Dorchester, Dedham, Brantrey, Weymouth, Hingham, 
Maulden — You are hereby requh-ed in his Majesty's name to take 
notice that the Gov'^ & Council have ordered 100 able souldjers forth- 
with impressed out of the severall Towns according to the proportions 
hereunder written for the aid and assistance of our confederate Plym- 
outh in the designe afoote ag'' the Indians, and accordingly you are 
to warne af"^ proportions to be ready at an hours warning from Capt 
Daniel Henchman who is appointed Captain and Commander of the 
Foote Company that each souldjer shal have his armes compleat and 
Snapsack ready to march and not faile to be at the randevous. 



To the Committee of 



The Council is adjourned till tomorrow at 8 of the clock at Rox- 
bury. 

E. R. Sec'y. (i.e. Edward Rawson, Secretary.) 

The special commission of Capt. Henchman for this service is 
also in the Archives, vol. 67. 

To D. H. Capt. with the Consent of the Councill for the Colony of 
Mass. in New England. 

Whereas you are apoynted Capt of a foote Company to Serve in 
this Expedition for the assistance of our neighbors of Plimouth against 
the insolences and outrages of the natives, these are to wil and require 
you to take charge of the said Company of foote, mounted as dragoons, 
& you are to command and instruct your inferior officers and souldjers 
according to military rules for the service and saftey of the Country, 
and you to attend such orders from tyme to tyme as you shal receyve 
from your superior Commanders or the Council of this Colony. 
Past 25 June 1675 

E. R. Secy 
Signed by y" Gov*" 

Daniel Henchman appears in Boston as early as March, 1666, 
when he was employed at a salary of X40 per annum " to assist 
Mr Woodmancy in the Grammar Schoole and teach the childere 
to Wright ; " was on a committee with Capts. Gookin, Prentice 
and Beers, to lay out "the new Plantation at Quansigamond 
Ponds" (now Worcester), and settle its affairs, in 1667. He 
was thereafter the chief manager in that settlement, and received 
the largest number of acres in the first division. He was 
admitted freeman in 1672 ; was appointed captain of 5th Boston 
Company, Colonial Militia, May 12, 1675, and commissioned for 
the special expedition, as above noted. He is seen to have been 
one of the most trusted officers of the Court. 



48 KING Philip's war. 

Capt. Daniel Henchman m. (probably in England) Sarah, dan. 
of Hezekiah Woodward, Gentleman, of Uxbridge, Middlesex, 
England, who, in his will of the 22 : Feb'j 1674, gives " to the 
five children of my daughter, Sarah Henchman deceased, by 
Daniel Henchman of Boston in New England," the sum of 
" twenty pounds apiece, to be paid at their respective ages of 
twenty-one years." Then he gives all his lands and tenements 
in Ireland, to the said Daniel Henchman, in trust for the said 
children. Their five children whose names are known to us 
were Richard, Hezekiah, Nathaniel, Susanna b. 7 : June : 1667, 
and William, b. 28 : July : 1669, and died sometime before March 
29 : 1673. Sarah, the wife, died ; and Capt. Henchman married, 
26 : April, 1762, Mary, dan. of William Poole of Dorchester, by 
whom he had William (2), b. 29; March, 1673; Jane, b. 25: 
May : 1674 ; Daniel, b. 16 : June, 1677 ; and Mary, b. 1 : June, 
1682. He died at Worcester, 15 : Oct. 1685. His Widow Mary, 
and his sons Richard and Hezekiah administered upon his estate, 
which by inventory of 29: Apr. 1686, was rated £1381 : 13 : 09. 
The surname appears in various forms, as Hinchman, Hincksman, 
Hinksman, etc. Two of his descendants, through his son 
Nathaniel, have graduated at Harvard. 

CAPT. HENCHMAJSr MARCHES FEOM BOSTON TO MOUNT HOPE. 

Pursuant to his commission, Capt. Henchman marshalled his 
company, and, on the afternoon of June 26 : 1675, marched out 
from Boston in company with the " troop of horse," under the com- 
mand of Capt. Thomas Prentice, of Cambridge. At Dedham they 
halted for an hour, during an eclipse of the moon, which occurred 
on that evening. Then they marched on as far as " Woodcock's 
Garrison " (Attleboro'), where they arrived in the morning, 
and waited until the afternoon, when Capt. Mosely with his 
company of "Volunteers" overtook them, and the three com- 
panies then marched on together to Swansey. They arrived at 
the house of Rev. John Miles, the minister of Swansey, where 
they quartered for the night. This was on June 28. On the 
29th, Major Thomas Savage, commander-in-chief of the Massa- 
chusetts forces, arrived with liis company and the Troop of Capt. 
Nicholas Paige. Capt. Henchman's men were engaged in the 
movements through Mount Hope, and scouting about the country 
until July 4th, when they marched back to headquarters at 
Swansey. At a council of war, July 5th, in consequence of 
orders received from Boston by hand of Capt. Hutchinson, it 
was determined to march all the Massachusetts forces into the 
Narraganset country. Accordingly the next ten days were spent 
in the march thither, and the treaty with the Sachems. During 
this time the Plymouth forces under Major James Cudworth, Capt. 
Matthew Fuller, and Benjamin Church were pursuing Philip 
into Pocasset ; and Mr. Church " hasted over and ' borrowed * 



HENCHMAN AT MOUNT HOPE. 49 

three files of Henchman's men and his lieutenant," to assist in 
the enterprise. On July 15th, all the Massachusetts forces 
marched to Rehoboth, on the 16th to Mattapoisett, on the 17 th 
to Taunton, and on the 18th to Pocasset Swamp, where they 
immediately attacked the Indians, and five English were killed 
and seven wounded. Owing to the darkness the forces withdrew. 
It was decided to withdraw all the Massachusetts troops except 
Capt. Henchman's company, which remained with the Plymouth 
forces at Pocasset. Maj. Savage, Capts. Paige and Mosely 
marched back to Boston, and Capt. Prentice with his troop 
scouted towards Mendon. It was determined to build a fort 
at Pocasset and " starve Pliihp out." But near the end of July 
Philip escaped by water, either wading at low tide, or " wafting " 
on rafts, and passed into the Nipmuck country, abandoning 
about one hundred of their women and children in the swamp. 
Capt. Henchman appears not to have known of Philip's escape 
until news was brought him from the mainland on July 29th, 
30th, etc. Letters to him from Rev. Noah Newman and Peter 
Hunt, of Rehoboth, were enclosed by him in one of his own to 
the Governor (which I have copied here), and are preserved in 
the Mass. Archives, vol. 67. In itself it is the best explana- 
tion of this time at hand. Fort Leverett was at Pocasset, 
built by Capt. Henchman's company and named for the 
governor. 

Letter of Capt. Daniel Henchman to the Governor. 

Hon"* Sr. Fort Leverett, July 31, 1675. 

Since my last (of the 28*) the Generall the 29"' day landed here one 
hundred men, his designe to releeve Dartmouth being as reported in 
some distress ; Past nine of the clock last night Lt Thomas brought 
me the two first enclosed letters from Rehoboth and Mr James Brown 
with him to press my going thither, which with what strength I could 
was yeelded to, (I having just finished the South East flanker of the 
fort so farr as to be a good defence for my men) drew my company 
together by a false alarm in the night, some being at a distance get- 
ting stockadoes ; and provided for our March before day taking six 
files with me and the 17 Indians (all now left) and leaving five files 
behind to be going on with the work, and the Brigandine; About 
11 of the clock a second post came to acquaint me with the third 
enclosed letter. Mr Brown and the L' being gon to endeavour the 
giving of notice to the Gen" to Warwick and the Narragansett Indians 
to head Philip, At break I shipped my men in a sloope for Seaconk 
and while under sail Mr Almie brought word that one Dan. iStanton 
of the Island at his returne yesterday from Dartmouth afflrmes that 
severall parties of Indians with their armes to the number of about 
80 surrendered themselves to that garrison for mercie, who have 
secured them in an Island by them. After my Company was landed 
within two miles of Seaconk before all were on shore an other letter 
came to rae from L* Thomas Advising to land at Providence being 



50 KING Philip's war. 

nearer to the enemy, I strait remanded my men on bord, gave each 
one 3 biscakes, a fish and a few raisons with ammunission which 
may last two or three days, I make bould to encloss to coppies of 
the letters sent least anything in my whurry might be omitted ; The 
Lord preserve and spirite you still for tliis his worke ; my humble 
service to all those worthies with you ; I would gladly know of y'' 
Hon" welfare ; and begg the prayers of all to God to qualifie me for 
my present imploy ; being the unfittest of many yet pardon my con- 
fused lines being begun at my Quarters and patched vp in several 
places 

Hon^'i S-- 
Y' Hon" Humble Servant D. Henchman. 

The above letter was written evidently on the passage to Sea- 
konk and Providence. He landed at Providence next morning, 
and marched twenty miles in pursuit of the Indians before he 
came up with the Plymouth forces and the Mohegans, who Lad 
been sent to him from Boston, but had been met by the Rehoboth 
men and persuaded to join them in the pursuit of Philip ; these 
had come up with Philip's rear, and had a sharp fight before Capt. 
Henchman arrived. The Mohegans were now passed to his com- 
mand, and the troops being wearied with the long march bivou- 
acked till morning, and the Plymouth forces returned to 
Rehoboth, leaving to Capt. Henchman the further pursuit of 
Philip, which was renewed next morning. With his six files 
(consisting of sixty-eight men), the fifty Mohegans and the 
seventeen Naticks, Capt. Henchman marched into the Nip- 
muck country as far as the "second fort," to a place called 
Wapososhequish^ August 3, but without finding Philip ; and hav- 
ing continued the pursuit until provisions were exhausted and 
all were tired out to no purpose, the Mohegans returned to their 
home, and Capt. Henchman marched his force to Mendon, 
meeting Capt. Mosely with sixty dragoons on the way with 
supplies. August 8, Capt. Henchman went down to Boston 
to get orders from the Governor and Council, and left most if not 
all his men at Mendon. (August 16, a part of them were in 
charge of Capt. Mosely, twelve of whom were detailed to Chelms- 
ford garrison by him.) Capt. Henchman received his instruc- 
tions for future proceedings in a letter from Gen. Daniel Denison, 
commander-in-chief of Massachusetts Forces, given August 9th, 
1675. This letter commanded him in brief to return to his men 
left at Pocasset, to fetch them and the " provisions and ammuni- 
sion " off. He was to advertise the Plymouth commander of this 
design, and if said commander wished him to remain there, to 
await further orders from the Council ; otherwise to turn over 
the fort to the care of the Pljrmouth forces, and march his men 
to Boston and disband them until again called out by the Coun- 
cil. In his march to Pocasset he was given authority to press 
horses and guides, or require them of the various constables of 



HENCHMAN KETUENS TO BOSTON. 



51 



the towns passed, and on his return likewise. On his return he 
was to draw off the Massachusetts " souldjers " at Woodcock's 
garrison, and also at Mr. Hudson's house, unless he should deem 
it unsafe, Hudson ' being of our colony whom we are to take care 
of." Plymouth Colony preferred to take charge of the fort, and 
Capt. Henchman brought his soldiers home to Boston as com- 
manded. 

" It will be understood that the Soldiers of Plymouth Colony 
played an important part in this campaign, reaching the seat of 
war before those of Massachusetts ; and the account of this will 
be given in separate chapters, after Massachusetts is finished. 
The letters of Rev. Noah Newman, Lieut. Nathaniel Thomas, 
Peter Hunt, and Mr. James Brown's part are all of interest and 
importance." 

The following list, gathered from John Hull's Account-book, 
from date to date, and here arranged together, doubtless shows 
the Company which served under Capt. Henchman, in this 
campaign. 

As to the spelling of the names, I have not departed in the 
least from the original. It must be remembered that the names 
were entered in the Journal from " Debentures " made by the 
clerks of companies, and the names at the first were entered on 
the company rolls as each man was understood to pronounce his 
own name, and unless the clerk was acquainted with the name, 
he spelled it by the easiest method ; hence many strange varia- 
tions appear. The Ledger account often has two forms for the 
same name. 



The list of Soldiers credited with Military Service under Capt. Daniel 
Henchman. 



Thomas Burges. 
John Hills. 
John Lewis. 
John Angel 
Benjamin Negus 
John Chapman. 
Robert Smith. 
William Manly. 
Thomas Irons. 
Samuel Perkins. 
Hugh Taylor. 
David Jones. 
James Whippo. 
Theophilus Thornton 
Nathaniel Osborne. 
Samuel Davis. 
Henry Kerby. 
Ephraim Hall. 



August 20, 1675. 
02 06 02 

00 06 00 

01 U 03 
01 15 02 

01 15 02 

02 02 00 
02 02 00 
02 08 00 
02 07 00 
02 07 00 
02 07 00 
02 07 00 
02 07 00 
02 07 00 
02 07 00 
02 07 00 
02 07 00 
01 07 00 



Richard Gibson. 


02 07 00 


Thomas Wilhams. 


02 07 00 


Joseph Ford. 


00 06 10 


Samuel Walles. 


01 06 06 


William Bently. 


02 07 00 


Peter Edgerton. 


01 15 00 


John Bull. 


00 16 02 


Richard Brooks. 


02 00 00 


John Barrett. 


01 10 00 


Joseph Fiske. 


01 10 00 


Joseph Tucker. 


02 05 00 


Israel Smith. 


00 12 00 


Samuel Ireson. 


01 10 00 


August 21 1675 


James Diehetto. 


00 15 00 


Jacob Gully. 


01 14 06 


Isaac Ratt. 


02 04 06 


Samuel Veze (als. Very) 02 07 00 



KiNa Philip's war. 



Samuel Daniel. 


02 


07 


00 


Richard Bennet. 


02 07 00 


John Kemble. 


02 


07 


00 


John Scopelin. 


00 07 00 


John Russell. 


02 


07 


00 


September B" 1( 


75 


Simon Groveling. 


02 


07 


00 


Josiah Arnold. 


01 15 02 


John Thorn. 


02 


07 


00 


W- Smallidge. 


01 19 04 


Charles Damport. 


01 


06 


06 


John Bucknam. 


01 19 04 


Benjamin Bishop. 


02 


07 


00 


Enoch Greenleaf , Ideut 


. 04 10 00 


John Throp. 


02 


07 


00 


Samuel Johnson. 


03 07 00 


Solomon Watts. 


02 


07 


00 


William Drew. 


02 07 00 


Philip Coker. 


02 


07 


00 


William Hardm. 


01 04 06 


John Jeffries. 


02 


07 


00 


John Cray. 


01 19 04 


Robert Wills. 


02 


07 


00 


Nathaniel Fiske. 


01 13 06 


Isaac'Morris. 


02 


07 


00 


John Miller. 


00 06 00 


Nicholas Weymouth. 


02 


07 


00 


John King. 


01 11 00 


Nathaniel Jewell. 


02 


07 


00 


James Ggleby. 


00 07 08 


Samuel Mirick. 


01 


04 


00 


Rowland Soley. 


01 19 04 


William Parham. 


02 


08 


00 


Thomas Region. 


01 19 04 


Thomas Roberts. 


02 


04 


06 


Thomas Hincher. 


01 04 00 


August 27"" or Ledger 


date 23'i 


Joseph Smith 


01 19 04 


John Hubbard. 


02 


07 


00 


Thomas Aliston 


02 07 00 


John Tebb. 


02 


07 


00 


George Burkback 


01 19 04 


Henry Timberlake. Sergt 02 


00 00 


Daniel Magenis. 


01 19 04 


ThomasHitchboru Drum'Ol 


11 


00 


Henry Eliott. 


01 04 10 


John Taylor, Sergt. 


02 


01 


10 


Thomas Okerby 


01 19 04 


Thomas Bishop. 


00 


18 


00 


John Hastings 


01 04 10 


Peter Bennett, Marshall. 01 


16 


00 


Edward Weeden 


01 19 04 


Simeon Messenger. 


01 


04 


00 


John Wiseman 


03 03 06 


John Polly. 


01 


04 


00 


Sept 14"^ 




John Essery. 


02 


07 


00 


Joseph Priest. 


01 05 08 


Henry Harwood. Sergt. 


03 


01 


00 


Nathaniel King. 


02 02 10 


Samuel Barber. 


00 


16 


00 


John Pemberton. 


01 01 00 


Phillip Jessop. 


01 


06 


06 


Osbel Morrison. 


02 19 00 


Charles Blincott. Sergt. 


02 


14 


00 


John Cross 


01 06 06 


Isaac Amsden. 


02 


07 


00 


Perez Savage. Ensigne 


02 08 00 


Henry Prentice. 


02 


07 


00 


Roger Procer. 


01 04 10 


John Streeter. 


02 


07 


00 


Robert Orchard. Sergt 


02 01 00 


Abraham Hathaway. 


02 


07 


00 


September 21, 1675 


James Johnson. Sergt 


03 


03 


00 


David Church. 


01 17 08 


Isaac How. 


01 


11 


08 


Samuel Johnson, Bwte/ier 01 05 08 


Thomas Parker. 


01 


04 


00 


Thomas Ti-aine. 


00 10 04 


Joseph Peirce. 


01 


04 


00 


Ebenezer Owen. 


00 05 00 


John Gates. 


02 


00 


00 


Matthew Stone. 


00 07 00 


William Hopkins. 


01 


10 


00 


Nathaniel Kean. 


01 04 10 


Ralph Hall, Clark 


03 


10 


00 


Benjamin Tower 


00 10 04 


ThomsisWigfsiW, Ensigne 03 


02 


04 


Jonathan Dunning. 


01 17 06 



Further Service of Capt. Henchman. 

There was intensely bitter feeling about this time in Boston 
as to the way captive Indians should be treated. The interces- 
sion of the venerable John Eliot and the strenuous advocacy of 
Capt. Gookin in their behalf, had created great animosity not 



henchman's further service. 63 

only against themselves but all who advised moderate measures. 
Capt. Henchman seems to have been of the moderate party, and 
was therefore somewhat unpopular with most of the soldiers, and 
doubtless his apparent lack of success in the pursuit of Philip at 
Rehoboth added to this feeling with the people. But the court 
sustained and trusted him, and immediately reappointed him 
to service over one hundred men who met at Roxbury meeting- 
house, but refused to march forth under his command, and 
demanded Capt. Oliver. The council compromised the matter 
and sent them Capt. Lake, but they are not credited with any 
service under him. Capt. Henchman seems to have been em- 
ployed in August and September in regulating affairs in some of 
the outlying towns, and these men perhaps served as his patrol 
or guard. 



Oct 5 1675 




Edward Dickinson. 


02 


07 00 


Richard Wood. 


00 10 04 


Jacob Bullard. 


01 


18 06 


Ephraim Wilier, Corp^ 


02 05 00 


Samuel Whitney. 


01 


18 06 


Thomas May. 


01 19 04 


John Shattock 


01 


02 00 


Michael Bearstow. 


00 10 04 


Daniel Keniday. 


01 


17 08 


Thomas Webb. 


01 19 04 









September 27th we find him at Chelmsford garrison in com- 
mand, as we see by the following letter of that date. 

Capt. Henchman's Letter to the Governor. 

Chelmsford Sept 27, '75. [This was Monday.] 
Hon<J S' 

In pursuance of my instructions ; I and my Lieut, met at Major Wil- 
lard's the last day of the week, with the Captaines of the severall 
townes directed to ; as well for the drawing of the Souldiers, as to ad- 
vise with them ; for the fii'st they promise they shall be sent to chelms- 
ford at an hours warning and so will be ready here by that time I have 
provission for them ; and that of absolute necessity for them will be 
powder shott biscake cheese and raisons, large and warme Wast-coats 
and drawers tobaco, some hatchets and a Chirurgion ; for the later the 
Major and rest of the officers will advise to no other motion than about 
this and other towns ; but I understanding the intent of the Ho** Coun- 
cil to be that I should march to Pennycooke although not named in my 
instructions ; I think it need full to acquaint your Hon" there with, and 
desire your express there unto. I have not farther at present but to 
subscribe 

S' your Hon" humble Servant 
(Mass. Archives, vol. 67, 269.) D. Henchman. 

Major Willard was of Lancaster, but his house was in Groton, 
at what is now Ayer Junction ; and the date was Saturday, 
September 25th. 

November 1st Capt. Henchman marched out of Boston towards 
Hassanameset (Grafton) with a small body of men (20), and 
arrived at Medfield at 3 P.M. on the same day. The next morn- 
ing he writes the Governor from that place. 



54 KING Philip's war. 

Medfield Nov. 2'^ 1675 

My orders directing me to the several places and times that my 
souldiers were to be ready at, Speded my march accordingly; and 
reached this place yesterday by three of the clock afternoon ; and had 
with me only 20 men that marched from Boston with me — Since 
divers are come up, and all that at present I am like to have by nine 
of the clock last night. Several hear as well as myself have great 
thoughts how it fareth with Mendam, having not heard since they sent 
to Boston, I am hasting to march this morning but hoped if the men's 
refreshments had not given check to have been gon by moon rising, I 
cannot see by acct taken before I draw out that my number will amount 
to above 75, some sending short of what ordered and 37 discharged by 
order, I have not any officer but a Sergeant from Roxbury ; some men 
and the armes of others not fit for service, notwithstanding the strikt 
orders given by the Major. Our greatest danger (as I judged) if the 
enemy designs upon us this day, will be at a pass six miles from 
hence; the which I hope we shall look unto the Lord in the use of 
means to avoid ; some being to returne home this morning I thought it 
meet to give this acct. Begging your prayers for us I desire that all 
our supplications may be accepted for the Country and the interest of 
our Lord Jesus Christ therein ; and rest Hon*^ S'' 

Your humble Servant D. Henchman. 

[This is in a P. S.] 

When the Lord shall have brought us safe to Mendam I shall attend 
the Major's orders there and wait for the recruits intended me. 

As vi^ill be seen by the above letter, the captain expected 
recruits to be ready and meet him at certain towns on the way, 
and was disappointed in receiving none, and also with the unfit- 
ness of those that came up afterwards, and in answer to this 
letter, the Court, on November 3d, ordered the '' Major of Suffolk 
to send out of his regiment eighteen able men armed and 
furnished with ammunition and provision for ten days under the 
conduct of a fitt person to make Lieftenant," to recruit Capt. 
Henchman's company and search out the enemy at Hassanameset. 
The lieutenant chosen was probably Philip Curtis, of Roxbury, 
who was killed before he received his formal commission, I pre- 
sume, as no order for his commission is found. 

Capt. Henchman marches to Mendon, arrives on the 2d at 4 
P.M., and writes immediately that they " arrived all safe and 
found the towne in like condition," and " pressed four horses for 
Scouts to send to Hassanemeset." He found the inhabitants 
" drawn into two houses," and " in a pestered condition," and 
holds frequent meetings with them in order to prevail upon them 
to remain at Mendon contented. This and frequent scouting 
and reports took up his time until the arrival of the men from 
Boston. 

It seems also from this letter that he had not yet heard from 
Capt. Sill, as it was proposed, and was preparing to send his 



AT HASSANAMESET. 



55 



soldiers home to Boston ; was intending that morning sending all 
his troopers, eight in number and three files of men ; but he gets 
orders from the Council by messengers from Capt. Sill. In order 
to meet Capt. Sill, fourteen miles away, he is forced to change a 
file of men with the garrison on account of their destitution of 
"clothes and shoes." 

On the 9th, with his lieutenant and twenty-two mounted men, 
he rides to Hassanameset, and has a fight there, of which he 
writes the details on the 10th. In his letter he relates that his 
lieutenant, Philip Curtis, is killed, and Thomas Andrews also 
(one of the Mendon garrison) ; and mentions that his corporal, 
Abiell Lamb, outran himself in the attack, and that all his own 
and the lieutenant's men ran away from him in the fight except 
(one of his " old souldiers," as he thinks) Jonathan Dunning. 

The following list embraces those who served under Capt. 
Henchman from November 2d, and were credited November 30, 
as will be seen by the credits. The service was brief. Amongst 
these were eight troopers, which may explain in part the differ- 
ence in credits. 



November 30* 


1675 




William Price. 


00 14 06 


Edward Barton. 


01 05 


08 


William Davenport. 


00 17 02 


Isaac Heath, 


00 16 


02 


Thomas Smith. 


00 17 02 


Henry Khby. 


00 17 


02 


Joseph Bugby. 


00 11 02 


Jeremiah Wise. 


01 00 


06 


Samuel Gardner. 


00 17 02 


Benjamin Negus. 


00 17 


02 


Simon Rogers 


00 17 02 


John Leech. 


01 19 


04 


Abiel Lamb. 


00 19 02 


James White. 


00 17 


02 


Richard Woods. 


00 17 02 


John Good. 


00 17 


02 


Degory Sargent. 


00 17 02 


Joseph Bateman. 


00 17 


02 


Josiah Mann. 


00 17 02 


Edward Everet. 


00 07 


02 


John Malony. 


01 19 04 


Richard Francis. 


02 00 


00 


Francis Siddall. 


01 19 04 


John Kemble. 


00 17 


02 


Hugh Price. 


00 17 02 


Experience Orris. 


00 17 


02 


James Harrington. 


00 17 02 


Samuel Ryall. 


00 10 


04 


Benjamin Gamlin. 


01 00 00 


Joseph Gridley. 


01 05 


06 


Isaac Morris. 


00 17 02 


William Bodkin. 


00 17 


02 


Josiah Holland. 


00 17 02 


William Hooper. 


00 17 


02 


Joseph Wilson. 


00 17 02 


John Tuckerman. 


00 17 


02 


Samuel Ruggles. 


00 17 02 


John Cann. 


01 00 


00 


Philip Curtis, Lieut. 


00 17 03 



On November the 12th the Council ordered Major Willard to 
send forthwith twelve troopers to Capt. Henchman. 

Many of the soldiers were now withdrawn and placed in garri- 
son, and all available were pressed and mustered for the Narra- 
ganset campaign. Capt. Henchman's men were many returned 
home with him. 

Among the soldiers impressed in Boston for the Narragansett 
campaign, Dec. 3d, 1675, were the following from Capt. Hench- 
man's local company: James Whipple, Samuel Jenkins, Walter 



56 



KING PHILIP'S WAK. 



Cohone, James White, Thomas Jones, Thomas Stains, John 
Dereing, Robert Emory, Ralph Powel for Mr. James Lloyjd» 
Francis Cooke for Mr. William Larrison. (Mass. Archives, vol. 
68, 86.) 



December 20* 1675 




Onesiphorus Tilston 


Joshua Silverwood. 


01 


18 06 


Thomas Jones. 


John Sherman. 


01 


18 06 


Samuel BurnaU. 


John Corbin. 


00 


16 02 


John Spurr. 


Henry Tite. 


01 


16 02 


Lawrence White. 


Simon Yates. 


00 


10 00 


Thomas Cheyney. 


Thomas Birch. 


00 


06 10 


Thomas Bridentine. 


John Pierpout. 


00 


16 02 


Robert Woodward. 


John Necks. 


01 


14 02 


February 29, 


John Griggs. 


00 


11 02 


Joseph Bodman. 


Thomas Lawrence. 


00 


07 06 


WUliam Lyon. 


Joshua Atherton. 


00 


07 06 


John Parker. 


William Briggs. 


00 


06 10 


March 24, 


Nicholas Gray. 


00 


16 02 


William Elliot. 


Isaac Hubbard. 


00 


16 02 


Joseph Clark. 


James Draper. 


00 


16 02 


April 24, 


January 25 1675. 


(N.S. 1676.) 


Hugh Clark. 


William Goswell. 


00 


16 02 


Thomas North. 



00 06 10 
00 16 02 
00 16 02 
00 16 10 
00 16 02 
00 16 02 

00 16 02 

01 02 03 
1675-6 

00 08 09 
00 10 04 
00 16 02 

1676 

00 16 02 
00 09 04 

1676 

00 07 00 

01 13 04 



Among the soldiers in the above lists were probably the twelve 
troopers sent out by order of the Council on November 12, 1675, 
and those who did not return to Boston until the later dates. 
It was the custom, I find, to punish the men by fines, and some- 
times their pay would be withheld for several months, until on 
petition to the Council it would be paid, if the officer who com- 
plained of their misconduct would recommend leniency and sign 
their " debenture " or bill for service rendered. On the minutes 
of the Council, of which a few fragments are preserved in the 
Mass. Archives, I find several instances of this kind ; one in the 
case of Magnus White, whose name occurs later, and one in a 
quaint letter from one Jonathan Adderton (Atherton), which 
declares that Capt. Henchman wrongfully accused him of " profa- 
nation of y* Sabbath," when his only offence was the cutting up 
of an old hat and putting the pieces in his shoes to relieve his 
galled foot, &c. Many of the above will be recognized as of 
Roxbury and Dorchester. 

On December 12, the Commissioners of the United Colonies 
voted to strengthen the garrisons with such of the soldiers as 
were able and willing to remain for that service during the 
winter, and to dismiss others to their homes. 

Jan. 11. " It was ordered by the Council that the Garrison 
Souldjers at Chelmsford, Billerica, Groaten, Lancaster, Marl- 
borough, and Sudbury, under Major Willard, be discharged 
forthwith, and sent home ; " and at the same time it was voted to 



AT WASHAKOM PONDS. 57 

pay them "two months' pay on their returne." This may have 
been done at the request of the people in the above-named towns, 
because we know that in many cases these garrison soldiers be- 
came very obnoxious to the citizens, as will be seen when we 
come to the lists at the garrisons, hereafter. I presume this ser- 
vice of withdrawal and settlement of soldiers was under the 
special charge of Capt. Henchman, who then, I think, retired 
from active service until the 27th of the next April. 

In the latter part of May, 1676, the forces under Capt. Hench- 
man were called together again. These had been impressed by 
order of the Council, April 27, and released to do their planting 
until such time as wanted. They were mustered at Concord, at 
this time, an important military post, whence he writes on June 
2d, that " Tom Doublet went away soon after Mr. Clark, and 
with him Jon*. Prescott, Daniel Champney & Josiah White, 
carrying the pay for Goodman Moss, and 3 gallons of Rum." 
They marched out towards Brookfield to join the Connecticut 
forces on the 27th, but on information received from this same 
Tom Doublet (an Indian), turned aside and had a fight with the 
Indians at Washakom Ponds ; and this affair detained them so 
that they did not reach Hadley until the 14th, when they joined 
the Connecticut forces in the campaign on the Connecticut 
River. 

Capt. Henchman marched down towards Boston from Hadley 
the last of June, and his letter, written on the way, describes the 
homeward march, 

Capt. Henchman's Letter of June 30th, 1676. 
Our scouts brought intelligence that all the Indians were in a con- 
tinual motion, some toward Narhaganset, others towards Watchuset, 
shifting gradually, and taking up each others quarters, and lay not 
above a night in a place. They brought in two Squaws, a Boy and a 
Girl, giving account of five slain. Yesterday, they brought in an old 
Fellow, Brother to a Sachem, six Squaws and Children, having killed 
five men, and wounded others, if not killed them, as they supposed by 
the Blood found in the Way, and a Hat shot through. These and the 
other inform, that Philip and the Narhagansets were gone several Days 
before to their own Places. Philip's purpose being to do what Mischief 
he could to the English. By advice I drew a commanded party under 
the conduct of Capt. Sill, viz. Sixteen files of English, all my Troop,, 
and the Indians, excepting one File, being all we could make provision 
for ; for what with the falling short of the Bread promised us, and a 
great deal of what we had proving mouldy, the Rest of the Forces had 
but one Bisket a Man, to bring them to this Place. This Party were 
ordered towards Watchuset, and so to Nashaway and Washakom 
Ponds, where we have notice Indians were and so to return to this 
Place. Where by your Honour's Letter that came to me Yesterday 
Morning, I understood that Provision was ordered for us ; and which 
we found to our great Relief last Night, coming hither. Weary and 
Hungry. The commanded Party we left at Quonsigumon, where 
they intended to stay a while for the last Scouts we sent out : eleven 



58 



KING PHILIP'S WAR, 



Prisoners we had in all ; two of the oldest, by Counsel we put to Death, 
the other Nine the Commissary is ordered to convey to Boston, with 
Baggage, Horses and some of their Attendants for the Service. 

Daniel Henchman. 

On June 24 there seems to have been a general settlement 
with all soldiers for service up to this summer campaign. Some 
were paid in cash by the treasurer, but mostly they were paid 
in part by the towns where they lived. The following lists 
probably contain most of the names of those who marched out 
and served in this campaign, with Capt. Henchman : 



June 24, 1676 


. 






Wilham Healy. 


02 11 06 


Magnus White. 


01 


09 


00 


SimonGroves(als.Grow)03 12 10 


Joseph Lyon. 


04 


11 


08 


John Polly. 


01 11 08 


July 24, 1676 








John KendaU. 


00 17 00 


John Chub. 


'02 


00 


00 


Ephraim Regimant. 


03 17 11 


Daniel Hawes. 


01 


06 


06 


Benjamin Rice. 


03 17 11 


Hugh Taylor. 


05 


00 


00 


September 23"^ 1676. 


Joseph Procter. 


00 


17 


00 


Joshuah Sawyer. 


03 07 00 


August 24''^ 1676 






James Sawyer. 


03 01 05 


John Moore. 


01 


14 00 


Jacob Willar. 


12 05 08 


Thomas Wheeler. 


00 


08 


04 


John Winter. 


01 02 10 


Richard Scott. Cornett 


08 


17 


00 


John Tolman. 


00 07 00 


George Stedman. 


01 


16 


08 


James Cutler. 


01 04 03 


Jonathan Atherton. 


04 


00 


00 


Nathaniel Adams. 


01 02 06 


Jacob Hill. 


04 


17 


00 


James White. 


00 15 08 


James Cheevers. 


02 


11 


00 


Joseph Browne. 


01 10 00 


John Oyne. 


02 


11 


00 


John Browne. 


03 05 08 


Wilham Keene. 


04 


18 


06 


Samuel Edmons. 


02 11 05 


James Franklin. 


04 


18 


06 


John Greenland. 


02 02 08 


Joseph Richeson. 


03 


01 


08 


John Finder. 


05 00 00 


Justinian Holding. 


02 


11 


00 


John Redman. 


02 14 00 


Denis Sihy. 


02 


18 


09 


Abraham Wilkinson. 


01 10 10 


Thomas North. 


04 


02 


10 


James Bayly. 


02 11 03 


Thomas Robinson. 


05 


12 


00 


Daniel Ruff. 


04 17 00 


Robert Emes. 


05 


01 


05 


John Gibson. 


03 11 00 


Richard Browne. 


03 


03 


04 


Richard Wood. 


02 17 00 


Francis Woolfe. 


01 


15 


08 


Josiah White. 


02 04 03 


Joseph Garfield. 


01 


10 


00 


John Adams. 


03 15 06 


Jonn Floyd, Lieut. 


12 


17 


02 


Joseph Bucknam. 


00 14 03 


Jonathan Sprague. 


04 


01 


05 


John Stedman. 


03 17 02 


Benjamin Muzzye. 


02 


11 


05 


James Miller. 


05 02 06 


Thomas Adams 


04 


17 


00 


Jonathan Hill. 


02 11 05 


Francis Cooke. 2 items 


04 


04 


02 


James Patterson. 


02 11 05 


John Stone. 


01 


10 


10 


Thomas How. 


02 11 05 


Patrick Morren. 


06 


08 


06 


Richard Scott. 


00 08 06 



The Indians who served our side were not regularly credited, 
and so, with few exceptions, their " debentures " are not found. 
Their names and service will form a separate article. 

Pocasset Swamp, where Fort Leverett was built, lies in the 
present town of Tiverton, R.I. 



II. 

CAPT. SAMUEL MOSELY AND HIS COMPANY. 



MANY will be interested to know something in the beginning, 
of the remarkable character whose name stands at the head 
of this company. 

The family name was Maudesley, of Lancashire, England. In 
the fall of 1635 Henry Maudesley came from England to Massa- 
chusetts in the ship Hopewell, Capt. Babb, master. 

Henry Maudesley was granted " about a quarter-acre of land " 
in Dorchester " neere Goodman Munninge's," but lived at Brain- 
tree, and had children born there — Mary, Sept. 29, 1638, and 
Samuel, June 14, 1641. He had 12 acres of land at Mt. Wollas- 
ton granted him "for three heads," February 24, 1639-40, was 
of Artillery Co. 1643, and freeman in 1646. In 1652 he lived in 
Boston, and had the lot on the corner of the present Union and 
Hanover Streets. 

The name Maudesley appears in some of the earliest records as 
Modsley, Mosley, Mozley, Mosseley ; finally settling down to 
Mosely. Samuel's signature, in every case known to me, is 
Mosley, while Addington, Rawson, and other colonial officials 
give it Mosely. I have adopted this last form. 

Samuel Mosely married Ann Addington (born March 10, 1647, 
daughter of the first Isaac and sister of the Hon. Isaac). They 
were married previous to May 30, 1665, for on that date Samuel 
Mosely and his wife Ann sign a deed to John Conney, conveying 
a piece of land in " Windmill Field," which land Ann inherited 
from her father, who had died in 1653. Samuel is designated 
cooper, Conney also was a cooper ; and I judge from an old receipt 
for a bill of cooperage, signed by Conney and Mosely together, 
that they were in company in that business in 1673. 

In 1668 he was one of the commissioners sent by the Court to 
treat with the sachems of the Narragansets, in company with 
Richard Wayt and Capt. Wright, and in the record is called 
" Captain." 

The author of " The Present State of New England," etc., says : 
" This Capt. Mosely hath been an old Privateer at Jamaica, an 
excellent soldier, and an undaunted spirit, one whose memory 
will be honorable in New England for his many eminent services 



60 KING Philip's war. 

he hath done the Public." This may have been the authority 
upon which Mr. Savage bases his statement that Mosely " visited 
Jamaica in the way of trade, and the adventurous spirit was 
excited and schooled, perhaps by Sir Henry Morgan and his 
associate Buccaneers ; the result of which was his bringing home 
to Boston two prizes taken from some unmentioned enemy." 
From these hints and various other circumstances I am satisfied 
that he was in command of some ship previous to 1668. I notice 
that Isaac Addington, father of Mosely's wife, was commander 
of the ship " Ann and Joane " in 1652. 

I have found, after a long search, the following old account of 
Treasurer Russell's estate, presented by James Russell, Executor, 
October 20, 1676. 

The Country is Debtor to 

the huire of y^ Katch Salsbury, Samuel Mosely Commd'" from 

March 16, 1673 to Aprill 27, 1674 at 24£ pr moneth . £33 12s. 

Pd for wages to the Salsbury's M"" & 47 men . 76 01 

Pd Capt Mosely for disbursem'' on the Salsbury . 23 10 

Pd Capt Mosely for Water bucketts for y^ Katch Swallow 00 19 

These two " Katches," with the ship " Anthony," were fitted 
out and sent forth by the colony to protect our commerce, and in 
this time were engaged in cruising about Nantucket and vicinity. 

He must have had notable experience from the facts of the 
affair of the " two prizes," mentioned above, which from various 
materials collected from the court files and archives, I am now 
able to explain. This matter was fully set forth in an excellent 
article published by the late C. W. Tuttle, Esq. For several 
years previous to 1675, Boston merchants had been greatly 
troubled by " Dutch Pirates," as they were called. The mer- 
chants had several times petitioned the Court for a " commission 
of Order and Reprisal," which that cautious body had steadily 
refused. Several times the merchants had armed their vessels 
and taken the matter of " Reprisal " into their own hands, as in 
the matter of the Dutch ship " Expectation ; " and upon complaint 
made by the Dutch authorities, these merchants were called to 
account by the Boston Court. At last, in December, 1674, 
several small English vessels were captured at the Eastward by 
the Dutch, joined with some English renegades from the Massa- 
chusetts Colony. The place of the capture was " near Mt. Desart 
Islles." One of these vessels belonged to John Freake of Boston, 
the others to Waldron of Dover and Shapley of Kittery. Upon 
the report of these depredations and the petition of the mer- 
chants, a Commission of Reprisal was granted by the Court, 
February 15, 1674-5, an expedition was immediately fitted out, 
and by the request of the merchants Capt. Samuel Mosely was 
put in command. Sailing out, his ship fell in with a French 



THE DUTCH PIRATES. 61 

vessel which he impressed into his service, and soon met the 
Dutchmen. They had three vessels, the " Edward & Thomas," 
principal ship, of which the commander of the pirates, Peter 
Roderigo, was captain. The second was called, in the appraisal, 
the " Penobscot Shallopp that Roads went out in," and was com- 
manded by Cornelius Anderson. The third was the vessel 
captured from Mr. Freake, " The Shallopp called Philipp," and 
now in charge of Peter Grant and its proper skipper, George 
Manning, who had been wounded in its capture, and was about 
to be turned adrift in his boat by the pirates, when in considera- 
tion of his promise of good behavior he was reinstated and 
allowed to sail his own craft in convoy of the others under 
Dutch colors ; and now, when Ca])t. Mosely came to the attack, 
Manning at once turns his arms upon his captors and assists in 
their capture ; and in their defence before the Court the pirates 
complain bitterly of the usage of Capt, Mosely in fighting them 
under the three colors, English, French and Dutch all at once, 
and the treachery of Manning. The pirates were captured, and 
were brought into Boston April 2, 1675, Mr. Freake's vessel 
restored to him, and the others confiscated by the Court for 
expenses, etc. The pirates were imprisoned to await trial in 
May, 1675. The prisoners were Peter Roderigo, commander ; 
Cornelius Anderson, consort; John Rhodes, Thomas Mitchell, 
Randall Judson, Edward Yourings, Richard Fowler, Peter Grant, 
John Williams, John Thomas (Tomas or Tombs). A few words 
more will explain who these men were. 

In October, 1674, Capt. Jurian Aronson (^Arnouson), com- 
mander of the Dutch Privateer " Fiying-Post-Horse, of Currassow," 
returning from the destruction of two French forts and settle- 
ments at the Eastward, viz., " Penabskop " (Penobscott) and St. 
John, came to Boston and asked of the Governor permission to 
enter the harbor to " repaire," etc. When he sailed away he left 
a part of his crew, viz. : " Peter Rodrigo, ' Flanderkin ' : Corne- 
lius Anderson, Dutchman," three Englishmen who had belonged at 
Boston, John Rhoades, Randall Judson, Peter Grant ; Richard 
Fowler, who belonged at Muscongus ; and a " Cornishman " 
named John Williams, who had been taken prisoner by the 
Dutch and carried to " Currisaw," and came hither with Capt. 
Arnouson. Rhodes, " principal," Fowler, Grant and Judson, 
hired Thomas Mitchell of Maiden, and a vessel of which he was 
part owner, for a " trading voyage to the Eastward ; " and also 
another, the Shallop. It would seem that the vessels went in at 
Casco, and the crew captured some sheep at " Mountjoys Island " 
(now Peak's), belonging to Mr. Mountjoy. (Fowler testified 
that Mitchell approved this action, but he denied it, though con- 
fessing that he " ate of the mutton." 

Rodrigo commanded the " Edward and Thomas," and Anderson 
the " Penobscott Shallopp." Rodrigo had some sort of commis- 



62 KING Philip's war. 

sion from Arnouson (which one of them testified was " written at 
the ' Beare ' and had three seals on it "). Anderson had a copy of 
this without seals. Mitchell testified that he opposed their acts of 
piracy. Edward Youring testified that he went out with Mitchell 
and had no part in piracy, and both these were discharged under 
bonds for appearance. John Tomas was a boatswain who had come 
to Boston formerly in the ship " William and Jane," and was with 
Anderson, and was accused of shooting a Frenchman, but 
denied, though admitting that he "shot at him." Tomas and 
Williams were taken in Anderson's vessel. Manning's crew con- 
sisted of James De Beck (who was a principal witness against 
the pirates, and tells a pitiful story of their abuse), a Frenchman 
and a boy. 

Roderigo (often written Odrigoe), as will appear hereafter, 
served a long time under Capt. Scottow at Black Point and at 
the eastward. Anderson was the famous " Cornelius the Dutch- 
man." 

Great excitement prevailed in the colony during this trial. 
The Dutchmen made an able defence, producing their commission 
under William, Prince of Orange (but which was found to be 
from their former skipper Arnouson), and alleging the infringe- 
ment of the law of nations by our vessels in trading with the 
French at the eastward, with whom the Dutch were at war. 

There is evidence in the trial, as in the subsequent action of 
the Court, of much popular sympathy for the Dutch prisoners, 
while the most bitter hostility was expressed against the English 
renegades. Five were convicted of piracy and condemned to 
death ; but under the stress of the opening war execution was 
deferred. Anderson was acquitted. Upon his petition, Rodrigo 
was soon pardoned and released, and served faithfully against the 
Indians. Fowler was pardoned in October. The sentence of 
the others, Rhodes, Grant and Judson, after several months' im- 
prisonment, was commuted to banishment out of the country on 
condition of giving security for prison charges and transportation. 

It will be easy to see that Capt. Mosely, the hero of the suc- 
cessful enterprise, would naturally become at once the most 
notable man in the colony, and when in the midst of his success 
the Indian war broke out, he would be looked to at once as a 
popular leader. But he held no military office, and not even his 
success and popularity, and close family relation to Gov. Lev- 
erett, could prevail to break the strict rule of official succession 
in the colonial militia ; so that the only course left him was, per- 
haps, that which suited him best, the organization of an indepen- 
dent company of Volunteers. " Within three hours," says the 
old historian, "there were enlisted 110 volunteers." Among 
these were many of his old "privateers," i.e. those who had 
served with him in his expedition, and several of the released 
pirates. 



CAPT. mosely's volunteers. 63 

From a close comparison of these following lists with the Bos- 
ton tax-lists for 1674, and from other sources, I find that many 
of his soldiers were apprentices or servants, and probably many 
boys not yet enrolled in the militia, and therefore not subject to 
impressment. Several of the names would seem to indicate a 
sprinkling of Frenchmen, and a contemporary writer relates that 
the ten or twelve privateers had several dogs with them which 
rendered valuable service in " finding out the enemy in their 
swamps." By reason of the loss of the first thirteen pages of the 
Journal, the names previous to August 21 have to be gathered 
from the Ledger, and therefore I had to make a close study of 
many of the names, but have no doubt of any set down below, 
with the possible exception of Eph"^ Regeman and Moses Knap, 
and with these I deem the evidence sufficient to justify me in 
putting them in under Mosely. 

It will be noticed that only seventy-five men are credited 
below for services in this campaign. There is no doubt that 
more went with him, and we can readily see that many of the 
transient adventurers, especially if sailors, would be gone before 
the Court got ready to pay them off regularly. On August 4th 
Capt. Mosely was paid £50 by the Court " for his souldiers," and 
November 20th X50 more ; while up to December 10 he had only 
accounted to the treasurer by receipts from his men for £21, but 
in the meantime had made no charge for his own military service, 
and I judge that he may have paid off many who followed him in 
this brief service at Mount Hope, as their occasion demanded or 
his convenience suited, without any formal " Debenter " or bill. 
Thus Cornelius Anderson is not mentioned at all, and doubtless 
many others were settled with by Capt. Mosely, and no account 
rendered. There is no indication that he misappropriated the 
colony's funds, but was probably free-handed with his soldiers 
and careless in his accounts, and when Capt. Gookin and others 
complained of his high-handed cruelty towards the Indians, there 
was no hint of any indirection in regard to his conduct in money 
matters. I doubt that he had one hundred and ten men, as 
stated in the " Old Indian Chronicle," but think there may have 
been many more than are here set down. From some indications 
I am led to think that many of his men did not return with him 
to Boston, but joined the Plymouth forces and remained in the 
service there. 

Names of those who were credited with military Service under Capt 
Mosely in June & July 1675 at M' Hope. 

August 9. 1675 



£ s. d. 
EobertWebb. 01 07 06 

John Bordecot. 01 07 06 

William Perry. 01 07 06 



£ s. d. 

Robert Miles. 01 07 06 

Thomas Austin. 01 07 06 

Moses Knap. 02 00 00 



64 



KING Philip's war. 





£ 


8. 


d. 




£ 


s. d. 


John Wilson. 


01 


07 


06 


September 3<^ 






Robert Street. 


01 


07 


06 


Joshua Winslow, Lieut 


." 03 


06 06 


Thomas Tidy. 


01 


07 


06 


Cusbe Ebitt. 


01 


01 00 


August 14 








Edward Reade. 


01 


07 06 


William Pollard. 


01 


03 


00 


Thomas Woodmott. 


01 


07 06 


Joseph Pollard. 


01 


07 


06 


Roger Kenicott. 


01 


12 00 


John Hands. 


01 


07 


06 


September 14 


h 




William Harvey 


01 


07 


06 


Roger Jones. 


01 


07 06 


Samuel Gold. 


01 


02 


06 


Rowland Soley. 


01 


04 00 


Joseph Souther. 


01 


07 


06 


William Smallidg. 


01 


04 00 


Alexander Forbs. 


01 


02 


06 


John Pemberton. 


01 


01 00 


William Green. 


01 


01 


06 


Robert Kenicott. 


02 


05 00 


Joseph Plaisted. 


01 


01 


06 


Josiah Hilman. 


04 


08 08 


August 20"^ 








John Tombs. 


03 


06 00 


Ephraim Regiman. 


02 


07 


00 


John Steevens. 


03 


00 00 


John Coke. 


02 


04 


06 


John Size. 


01 


12 00 


Jonathan Nichols. 


01 


07 


06 


September 21 


t 




Richard Nevill. 


01 


19 


06 


Depon Frenchman. 


01 


00 06 


Benjamin Phillips. 


02 


02 


00 


George Burbeck 


01 


00 06 


John Brandon. 


01 


07 


06 


William Brookes 


02 


05 00 


Joseph Sexton. 


01 


07 


06 


William Smith 


02 


15 06 


Timothy Horton. 


01 


07 


06 


William Pasmore. 


01 


07 04 


James Lendall. 


01 


07 


06 


September 28" 






Samuel Lane 


01 


07 


06 


John Cross. 


01 


04 00 


August 21. 








George Cray. 


01 


01 06 


Plandian Decro. 


01 


07 


06 


Sept 30* 






Jacob Allin, Ensigne. 


01 


16 


00 


Jacob Bullard. 


02 


03 09 


Thomas James, Sergt. 


01 


08 


00 


Oct 19* 






Aaron Stephens. 


02 


04 


06 


Timothy Horton 


02 


00 00 


John Holman. 


00 


18 


06 


John Cross. 


01 


10 00 


Samuel Peacock. 


00 


18 


00 


Rich'' Barnam, Corp^ 


05 


12 00 


John Drury. 


00 


10 


06 


October 26* 1675 




Thomas Gross. 


02 


07 


00 


Richard Eyres 


01 


04 00 


August 27* 








Robert Woodward 


01 


00 00 


Robert Foster. 


02 


04 


06 


Derman Morris. 


02 


17 04 


William Dean. 


01 


11 


00 


Robert Dawes 


04 


18 06 


Manoah Bodman. 


00 


12 


00 


Isaac Sheffeild. 


03 


03 04 


Francis Burges. 


01 


07 


06 


Daniel Matthewes. 


02 


00 00 


William Jones. 


01 


07 


06 


John Baker 


02 


14 00 


Thomas Clark. 


01 


07 


06 


Samuel Browne 


04 


18 06 


Phillip Sandy. 


01 


07 


06 


Samuel Messey 


01 


07 06 



In old Boston Tax-lists, 1674, the names Austin, Hands, 
Horton, Decro and Woodmott appear as AUiston, Hams, Hort- 
man, Splandy decro, Woodnet. A petition of John Stevens 
(Archives, vol. 67) states that he was "shot in the arm " in this 
service. 

In the Archives, vol. 68, page 198, there is a petition from 
Samuel Holman saying that his servant Edward Sampson went 
out to Mt. Hope under Captain Mosely, and complains that 



MOSELT MARCHES TO MOUNT HOPE. 65 

"instruments of chirurgery of his have been prest for the use 
of Moseley's chirurgeon, and afterwards a whole box of the same 
for Doctor Wells when he went to Narragansett, which are now 
delivered to Dr. Gerrish." Then himself prest to go out under 
Capt. Wadsworth, had to send his said servant, costing him .£14, 
and then his servant was put under Capt. Turner. 

I find that several of the names are credited with service 
under other captains. Thus, John Cross has credit under 
Henchman, September 14, George Burkback (Burbeck, Berbeck), 
September 3 and October 19, under Lieut. Brattle. William 
Brooks under Prentice, August 27. Several are credited as 
" guards," and may have been in service as scouts and guides, and 
so credited under the captains with whom each service was ren- 
dered. With these exceptions I think the above, together with 
some others whose names are now lost, undoubtedly made up 
the motley company of " Volunteers " with which Capt. Mosely 
marched out of Boston, probably early in the morning of June 
27th, and overtook the troops of Henchman and Prentice, wait- 
ing for them at " Woodcock's," in the afternoon ; and then all 
marched on and arrived at Swanzy, and quartered at Mr. Miles's 
Garrison-House close to the bridge leading to Mount Hope. 
Gen. Cudworth of the Plymouth forces was commander-in-chief. 
The reports of the events immediately following their arrival are 
somewhat conflicting. Some account of the general movement 
of the troops has been given in the former chapter. If any one 
reads only the " Old Indian Chronicle" aforesaid, it will seem as 
if Capt. Mosely was the only officer engaged, and that his men 
did all the fighting ; but the accounts therein were the first un- 
digested rumors that came back from the army, and are not con- 
firmed by Hubbard, or Church, or Mather. The action of the 
troopers on the afternoon of the 28th belongs to the next chapter, 
on Capt. Prentice. The repulse they received greatly elated the 
Indians, who appeared next morning shouting their defiant chal- 
lenge to ours to come across the bridge and fight them. Taking 
the several accounts, the following is probably near the truth; 
Capt. Mosely with his volunteers charged across the bridge and 
pursued the Indians to the woods. The regular troops followed 
,and formed in line to sweep the neck by marching with both 
wings of the line extended. This, Church says, was so clumsily 
performed that the two wings encountered and fired upon each 
other, and Perez Savage, Capt. Henchman's ensign, was wounded. 
Philip fled before our troops, and with his people escaped across 
the Mattapoisett River to Pocasset. The volunteers took a prom- 
inent part in the scouting movements of the next few days, then 
marched, July 5th, with the Massachusetts forces, to the Narra- 
gansett country, and returned back with them on July 15th to 
Rehoboth, and when on the 18th it was decided to withdraw 
all the Massachusetts troops except Capt. Henchman's, they 



66 KiKG Philip's war. 

returned to Boston and were disbanded, probably about July 
20th. 

No further credits appear under Capt. Mosely until December 
10, yet during all the time from his return from Mt. Hope he had 
been in almost constant service, which it may be well for us to 
follow, as it is probable that most of his men credited on that 
date had served with him to the time. On August 7, with 60 
dragoons he met Capt. Henchman's tired troops marching 
towards Mendon, having been sent to them with supplies. 
(Capt. Thomas's letter in Mather's Brief History says, " We met 
Capt. Mosely marching from Providence up after us.") When 
Capt. Henchman went next day to Boston for orders, Mosely 
was left in command at Mendon, and most of Henchman's men 
were left with him. Within a few days he was ordered to march to 
Quaboag (Brookfield), where he continued awhile scouting, etc. 
In a note endorsing a bill of William Locke, chirurgeon of the 
Massachusetts forces in the Mount Hope campaign, Mosely says 
that after Capt. Henchman went to Boston, " he took s"^ Locke 
into his company, and from Mendon marched to Malbury and 
thence to Quaboag." Capt. Lathrop being senior officer, with- 
drew Locke to his forces ; and I find a Court Order (vol. 67, 
Archives) to Dr. William Hawkins, August 17, 1675, "to join 
Mosely at Malbrow." 

On August 16th he wrote a letter to the Governor, which 
explains his movements, situation, etc. 

ffrom Nashowah Allies Lankestor 16"* August 1675. 
Honored Sir 

Yesterday I spayred Capt. Beeres 26 our men to march with 
him to Sprinkefeild & it was with Major "Willard ordder and I have 
also Accordinge to my orders from Major General Denison Sentt to 
Dunstable fort to Inlearge there gard 18 men & to Groatton 12 men 
& to Chelmsford 12 men out of those y' ware under Capt Hinksmans 
& of those y' Caime with me : Also last nightt about Seaven A clocke 
we martched into Nashowah wheare we are Att present butt shall as 
soon as the Constable haith prest us a dozen Horses proseed for 
Groatton & so to Chensford : according to the order Major Willard 
gave me yesterday Att Quoah-bawge ; The day before I came from 
Quoahbaugh — I martched I(n) company with Capt Beeres & Capt 
Laytrop to the Swilp where they left mee & tooke theire martch to 
Sprinkfilld and a soone as they ware gon I tooke my martch Into the 
woods about 8 mills beyond the Swape where Capt Huttcheinson and 
the rest ware y* ware wounded & killed & so returned to follow the 
enemy as above saide ; also we did find A prsell of wigwoms beyond 
the Swaimp about 20 which we burnt &c. our Maj' having a Seartayne 
Intelligence of a considerable party of Indians y' have gathered too- 
gather a littell above Chensford which I hope wee shalbe up with this 
night or toMorrough at furthest & if it pleese God I come up with them 
God assisting me I will cloosely ingadge with them & God spearing my 



MENDON TO "BLOODY BROOK." 67 

life I shall as oppertunity gives leave Acquaint your honnor of my 
Actions; I have with me butt 60 men at present; so desiring your 
prosperity & y' it may please God to preserve your Honour in good 
health and humbly beseach youi- prayers to God for my Good Suckses 
in this my undertaking with My Humbell Searvis &c in all deuttyfull- 
ness I subscribe myself your Respective kinsman & Humble Searvantt 

Samuell Mosley 
my Cosson Leverett ppresents his 
Deuty to yo^ Honour & my Antt. 

Between Aug. 9th and 16th he had marched from Mendon to 
Brookfield, where he distributed his men as above. On the 17th 
he probably marched towards Chelmsford as proposed, but on the 
22d some of the Nipmuck Indians fell upon Lancaster and killed 
seven or nine inhabitants, and the next day the people sent for 
Capt. Mosely and told him of their suspicions of the Hassauemesit 
Indians (friendly or Praying Indians) then living under super- 
vision in a sort of fort at Marlborough. Capt. Mosely hastily 
marched to the fort and seized eleven (or according to Major 
Gookin's account fifteen) of the Indians, "pinioned" them and 
bound them neck to neck and sent them down to Boston for trial. 
Of the fifteen only eleven were accused ; all were finally found 
innocent & acquitted, and Capt. Mosely's proceeding severely 
criticised by the Court and his superior officers. Maj"' Gookin 
believed that the people instigated suspicions " in order to secure 
the land of the Indians." After sending these prisoners down 
on August 30th, Capt. Mosely marched up the Merriniac as far 
as Pennacook (Concord, N.H.) to the home of the peaceful 
Wannalancet, where he was prepared to repeat the late trans- 
action ; but the Pennacooks had quietly withdrawn and eluded 
him. He burnt their village and stores of food, and marched 
back. Capt. Mosely's course was not approved, and the Court 
immediately sent messengers to win back the friendship of 
Wannalancet. 

The next we hear of Capt. Mosely is on September 14, when 
he marched into Hadley with sixty Bay soldiers, and thence to 
Deerfield, where he was quartered and scouting on the 18th, 
when hearing the guns of the attack on Capt. Lathrop at 
Bloody Brook, he hurried with seventy men to join the fight, 
and though too late to prevent the terrible disaster, he and his 
men attacked the great body and " charged them through and 
through" several times, chasing them seven miles or more. 
Lieutenants Savage and Pickering especially distinguished 
themselves for their daring. Finally, after long and severe 
fighting, but strangely enough, with a loss of only two killed 
and eight or nine wounded, they were being forced slowly back- 
ward by great numbers, when Major Treat with a force of 
Connecticut troops and Indians came up and joined them, and 
before these united forces Philip retreated in haste. 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



In regard to the killed and wounded I have the names. John 
Gates, and Peter Barron. The will of the latter shows that he 
was the servant of Elias Hendly of Marblehead, and was pressed 
to go against the Indians. Will was probated Nov. 26, 1675. 
A petition of Richard Russ, in the Mass. Archives, declares, " I 
was just out in the Country's Service under Capt. Mosely, when 
Capt" Lawtrop was slayne, and in that fight received a shott in 
y^ bottom of my belly, the bullet carryin in with it y« ring of my 
Bandoleer." 

The English retired to Deerfield for the night, and next 
morning returned to the battlefield and buried their dead. 

It was thought best to abandon the garrison at Deerfield, and 
so all removed to Hatfield, and Capt. Mosely was garrisoning that 
town on October 5th, when he writes the Governor. Major 
Pynchon, with Capts. Appleton and Sill, were on the opposite 
side of the river at Hadley. 

This letter is in another hand, but dictated and signed by 
Mosely. 

Hadfield y<= 5. of 8*'" 1675 
Honoured Sir. 

Your kind letter I have received bearing date y^ 30'^ of y^ last months 
for which I render you many thanks and takes it very kindly, I confes, 
y' I have written some things to that purpose as Concerning the hange- 
ing of those Indians of Malbery, I desire to be Excuse if my tongue or 
pen has out run my witt being in a passion and seeing what mischief 
had beene done by the Indians which I have beene eye witness to, would 
make a wiser person than I am, willing to have revenge of aney of 
them, but notwithstanding what I have written there as to that purpose 
it is fare from my heart to Doe, for I am willing to undertake aney 
commands Imposed upon me to seinre the country as farr as my life, 
wee discover severall Indians about all these tounes, which causes 
Allarm, and wee have mett ne'er of theire myne body as yett Butt wee 
Doe Dayly Expect them wee never sended aney skoutes but weould 
mett them onely last night they could not discover them although they 
have been about Hadly mill which is the other side of a great River 
Contrary to my quartes, Springfield Indians is thought of Certain to 
bee ready att any times when the enemy comes to appose y" toune to 
fall upon the English along with Enemye, my service pray presented 
to your Lady and not forgetting yourselfe and all the familye wishing 
you and all of them much prosperity, health & happiness being all 
att present from S'' your Most Humble & Ready Servant 

and loving Cousin Samuel Moslet. 

[P. S.] 

Last night we received some news from Springfield which gives us an 
acct. y' Phillip with 500 men Laid in Springfield forte & resolved to fall 
upon the toune this day, and to prevent his designe Major Pinchon is 
gone with Capt Apleton and Capt Sill, with a company of 190 Soulders, 
two Quiniticate companeys leaf t att Hadly to gard that toune I and my 
company heare wheare I doe expect them every houre and att nightt as 
well as in day for they have faired upon y* Sentinell at night. 



MOSELT's HATFIELD LETTER. 69 

The blow fell as threatened, and Major Pynchon and troops 
came only to find the town in flames, and the Indians fled. 
Major Pynchon, stricken sorely by this heavy loss of his beloved 
town, begged earnestly to be relieved from the chief command, 
and the Court reluctantly and very tenderly granted his 
request, appointing Capt. Appleton major in his stead. The In- 
dians retired to Coasset, about fifty miles above Hadley, and on 
the 12th Major A. marched from Springfield and quartered his 
troops at that place. The next few days we spent in scouting 
and searching out the enemy, and on the 16th Capt. Mosely 
writes the following letter to the Governor. The postscript is 
written in his hand on the margin of the letter. It seems to us 
too horrible to be conceived of as the act of Christians. The cap- 
tive was the squaw taken at Springfield. Nothing further is 
known of the affair. Some special act of outrage or treachery on 
her part may have drawn upon her this fearful sentence. 

Hatfield, 16* October 1675 

I have skarse aney Strang news to acquaint y'' Honn'' withall at pres- 
ent yesterday wee thought to go in pursuit of y* Enemies at Hadly side 
of the river and as wee marched out from Hadly Some Theinge better 
than a mile, the Skoutes y' was send from this towne Did Speye some 
Indians and thereupon we came this side of the river and did march out 
last night y^ whole body or strenght of men that we have heare ; but 
at Last we took it to Consideration that it was very Dangerous to leave 
the townes impteye without any Souldiers. This day being a very 
blusterous and very high winds, I have sent out some skoutes and they 
discover some Indians, some three mUes off. And last night I have 
send of my men 4 to Deerfield and some two miles from the towne 
wheare thare was some railes ye enemy have weaged them up aud 
made them very fast. I know not whether it be to trapann the skoutes 
or else to faight there if we go in pursueth of them ; but I intend to 
bourn all their rails up, please God to grant me life and health. 

"Wee are told by an Indian that was taken at Springfeekl y' they in- 
tended to set upon these 3 townes in one Day. The body of them y* 
waites this exploite to do is about 600 Indians, as wee are informed 
by the aforesaid Indian ; and farther wee are informed that they are 
making a fort some 60 miles from this Place up in the woods, Pray sir 
be pleased to present my humble service to your lady and all the rest 
of the family. 

I make no question but the enemys will make an tempt within a short 
space of Time upon those Tonnes, having nothing else skarse worth 
your reading I remaine Sir y"" most Humble & 

Ready Servant, whilst [?] 

Samuel Mosley. 

" This aforesaid Indian was ordered to be torn in peeces by Doggs 
and she was soe dealt with all." 



70 KING Philip's war. 

On the 19th, the Indians in great force fell upon the town, but 
were soon " beaten off without doing much harm." Just before 
the fight seven of Mosely's men and three others were sent out 
to scout, and seven of the number were cut off and killed. The 
Indians made no further general attack after this repulse, and 
withdrew to winter quarters. Capt. Mosely's forces, however, 
still remained in the western towns with other troops, under 
Major Appleton, until as late as November 20th ; for, on the 
16th, the Court authorized a letter to Appleton directing the 
withdrawal of the main force, and urging especially the dismissal 
of the troops of Capt. Mosely. The United Colonies were now 
in full preparation for the grand movement against the Narragan- 
sets ; and the " Privateers " with their dashing leaders were 
needed. The western and outlying towns were garrisoned as 
securely as might be, and all available " veterans " hurried in to 
swell the army of the three colonies to 1000 men, for this special 
service to Narraganset. Much of great interest in the organiza- 
tion of this army must be passed over here. 

The quota of Massachusetts was to be 527 men, Plymouth 158, 
and Connecticut 325. Rhode Island was not " counted in," for 
reasons best known to our dear old Puritan fathers. Josiah Wins- 
low, Esq., Governor of Plymouth Colony, was made Commander- 
in-chief of the army, and under him Major Samuel Appleton 
commanded the Massachusetts forces, consisting of six compa- 
nies, viz. : Maj. Appleton's own, Capt. Mosely's, Capt. Joseph 
Gardner's, Capt. Nathaniel Davenport's, Capt. James Oliver's, 
and a troop under Capt. Thomas Prentice. Major Robert Treat 
commanded the Connecticut forces, five companies under Capts. 
Siely, Gallop, Mason, Wats ; and Major William Bradford two 
Plymouth companies, his own and Capt. John Gorham's. The 
Massachusetts forces mustered on Dedham Plain, where, on Dec. 
9, Gen. Winslow assumed command. There were then "465 
fighting men," besides Capt. Prentice's troop. It seems, from the 
Journal, that no settlement had been made with Mosely's and 
Appleton's troops for the campaign in the west, and on December 
10th, twenty-seven pages of the book are entirely devoted to their 
accounts, and few, if any, other items are given under that date 
save such as relate to them. The captains had paid out small 
sums at different times, and the towns of " Hadly," " Malbrow," 
" Mendam," "Lining" (Lynn), and many constables, merchants 
and others, are credited by cash, clothing, etc., to these troops ; 
and on that date Treasurer Hull pays them the balance of their 
accounts. Among the few precious lists of names preserved in 
the Massachusetts Archives is the " Muster Roll of Capt. Mosely's 
company, taken at Dedham the 9 of Xber, 1675." I have 
arranged this list and the credits of December 10-20 and Jan- 
uary, alphabetically, and tested them carefully otherwise, and 
find that the greater part of his company were his " veterans." 
The following account may be of interest. 



MOSELY S COMPANY AT DEDHAM PLAIN. 



71 



The town of Dunstable, per Constable Jona. Tyng, brings in a 
bill of about .£100 for billeting Mosely's men, ammunition, etc. 

Billeting 18 men from 13th August to 10th Sept. 1675 . £16 16 00 



29 " " nth Sept. 
" 6 " " 18 Jan'y 

" 3 " " 3 may 

25 lbs Powder and 250 bullets, &c. 

2 horses 3 days to Pennacook . 



17th January 1675-6 47 18 00 

25 may 1676 . . 25 03 00 

14 July " . .08 08 00 

. 01 15 00 

. 00 01 06 



An Auditing Committee questioned the bill, but he was paid 
$20 on account, October 11, 1676. (Archives, vol. 68.) 

Credited with Military Service under Capt Mosely. 
December 10"^ 1675 



John Rice. 


04 


16 


00 


Thomas Warren. 


06 


11 02 


William Blake.i 


04 


16 


00 


John Ramsey. 


04 


19 04 


Jonathan Freeman. 


04 


16 


00 


John Stebins. 


02 


10 06 


Samuel Guild. 


04 


16 


00 


Jonathan Wales. 


04 


19 04 


John Buckman. 


04 


19 


02 


Timothy Wales. 


04 


19 04 


Richard Brine. 


04 


19 


02 


Jeremiah Stokes. 


02 


14 00 


John Cooper. 


04 


19 


04 


Joseph Twichell. 


04 


19 04 


Thomas Bull. 


04 


19 


04 


Samuel Veale. 


04 


19 04 


John Roberts. 


04 


19 


04 


Andrew Johnson. 


04 


19 04 


Edward Weston. 


05 


16 


00 


Mathew Thotnas. 


05 


02 00 


Perez Savage, Lieut. 


12 


00 


00 


Francis Siddall. 


04 


19 04 


John Ireson. 


04 


16 


00 


John Dunbar. 


04 


16 00 


John Brandon. 


02 


14 


00 


Edward Weeden. 


04 


19 04 


John Fuller, Corp\ 


05 


12 


00 


Samuel Kemble. 


04 


19 00 


Benjamin Dyer. 


04 


19 


04 


Timothy Hortman. 


02 


16 04 


James Johnson, Sergt. 


04 


11 


00 


John Corser. 


04 


19 02 


Zachariah Crisp. 


04 


00 00 


Daniel Magenis, Corpl. 


05 


10 00 


Peter Lane 


04 


19 


04 


James Updike, Serg'^. 


04 


09 04 


John Turner. 


04 


16 


00 


Daniel Matthews. 


07 


09 00 


Richard Rust. 


04 


16 


00 


Mathias Smith. 


04 


16 00 


John Leech. 


04 


19 


04 


John Williston. 


04 


16 00 


Jonathan Nichols. 


03 


10 


02 


John Sherman. 


04 


13 60 


John Plympton. 


04 


16 


00 


William Phillips. 


04 


19 02 


Tho^ Region. 


04 


12 


06 


James Frankling. 


05 


04 06 


John Cross. 


02 


02 


00 


Bartholomew Flegge. 


04 


19 04 


Thomas Green. 


04 


19 


04 


Benjamin Allen. 


02 


08 00 


Thomas Harris. 


05 


02 


00 


John Cautelberry. 


04 


16 00 


James Dickenden. 


04 


04 


00 


Hugh CoUohue^ 


04 


19 04 


Richard Scott. 


06 


10 


00 


Jacob WiUar 


13 


11 00 


William Bateman. 


01 


07 


06 


Valentine Harris. 


02 


14 00 


Richard Adams. 


04 


16 


00 


James Mathews 


01 


18 06 



\ 



1 Vai-iations not noted above are, Blacke ( W" Blake, jr. for whose release his father, W" 
Sen"", petitions the Court), Brian, Wesson, Ayrson (for Ireson), Dayer, Leane, Russ, Leigh, 
Plimton, Dichetto, Stebence, Weals, Stokes, Cousier, McKennyes, Willingston, Canter- 
berry, and other minor changes. 

' August, 1676. George Nowell petitions for the release of his servant " Hugh Gallo- 
way that went as a Volunteer under Mosely neere the beginning of ye warre, and is now 
in y« garrison at Hatfield under Capt. Sweane." 



72 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



DanielJohnson Trumpeter 


09 


12 


00 


Dennis Sihy. 


07 02 09 


Dec. 20th 








Thomas Bull. 


03 03 00 


John Mayo. 


04 


17 


00 


Richard RandaU. 


06 15 04 


Thomas Okleby 


04 


10 


00 


Richard Brian. 


02 14 00 


John Casey 


01 


15 


06 


John Day. 


02 14 00 


John Langbury 


01 


10 


00 


Edward Weston. 


01 11 00 


Richard Jinkes 


07 


04 


00 


Richard Gibson. 


02 14 00 


Joshua Silverwood 


04 


12 


06 


Thomas Welch. 


04 08 02 


John Morse Commissary 02 


15 


06 


John Ramsey. 


02 14 00 


1675-6 Jan'y 25. 






Thomas Furbush. 


00 18 00 


Benjamin Norden 


04 


16 


00 


John Rosse. 


02 14 00 


Jonathan Gay. 


02 


03 


08 


William Philips. 


02 14 00 


George Manning. 


01 


00 


06 


John Rice. 


02 14 00 


Joseph Porter. 


01 


00 


06 


James Chadwick. 


04 04 00 


Josias Hillman. 


01 


00 06 


Edward Weeden. 


02 14 00 


Thomas Jones. 


01 


14 


02 


June 24«^ 1676 


Edward Read. 


00 


10 


04 


Thomas Forbes. 


02 12 00 


Robert Parris. 


01 


10 


00 


John Pemerton. 


03 03 00 


John Langbury. 


01 


10 


00 


John Leech. 


02 14 00 


February 29, 1C75-6 






William MaderiU. 


02 14 10 


Daniel Canada. 


02 


14 


00 


Peter Leane. 


02 14 10 


James Franklin. 


02 


14 00 


William Smallage. 


08 15 06 


Jonathan Wales. 


02 


14 


00 


Richard Gibson. 


02 14 10 


George Grimes. 


02 


14 


00 


Thomas Ockerby. 


02 14 10 


John Provender. 


02 


14 


00 


Jonathan Wales. 


02 14 10 


John Leech. 


02 


14 


00 


Richard Randall. 


02 02 00 


Hugh Gollihu (CoUohue; 


)02 


14 00 


Joseph Wakefield. 


02 14 10 


William Bateman. 


04 01 


00 


William Blake jr. 


02 14 00 


Joshuah Silverwood. 


03 


00 


00 


John Essery. 


04 10 10 


John Bucknum. 


02 


14 


00 


Thomas Warren 


02 14 10 


Edward Weston. 


03 


03 


00 


Philip Keane. 


02 02 00 


Benjamin Dyer. 


02 


14 


00 


Edward Weason. 


03 02 00 


March 24'^ 1675-6 






Joseph Douse. 


02 14 10 


Daniel Mathews. 


01 


16 


00 


Stephen Fielder. 


02 14 10 


Samuel Colebourne. 


02 


14 


00 


Joseph Pratt. 


02 14 00 


John Stebbins. 


03 


00 


00 


Thomas Bishop. 


00 18 06 


John Brandon. 


03 


00 


00 


Joseph Deers. 


02 02 00 


Jonathan Freeman. 


02 


14 


00 


Richard Addams. 


05 08 00 


John Williston. 


02 


14 


00 


James Couch. 


02 14 10 


Daniel Matthewa. 


02 


05 


00 


John Ramsey. 


02 14 10 


James Johnson. 


05 


10 


00 


Thomas Webb. 


02 02 00 


Richard Gibson. 


03 


17 


00 


Daniel Clow. 


02 08 00 


John Farmer. 


08 


12 


03 


.John Wilkins. 


02 14 10 


John Canterbery. 


03 


03 00 


Matthew Thomas. 


02 14 10 


John Cooper. 


02 


14 


00 


Samuel Leman. 


02 14 10 


James Updike. 


02 


14 00 


Richard Cowell. 


03 02 00 


AprU 24* 1676 






Daniel East. 


02 14 10 


John Munge. 


02 


14 00 


Thomas Hitchborn. 


02 14 10 


John Shepard. 


03 


12 


00 


Samuel Fosdike. 


02 14 00 


Thomas Davis. 


02 


14 


00 


John Hawkins. 


02 14 00 


Sam^ Guile. 


04 


01 


00 


David Landon 


02 14 10 


James Mollard. 


01 


17 


06 


Seabread Taylor. 


02 02 00 



MOSELY AT NARRAGANSET. 



73 



John Long. 


02 14 10 


Joseph Graves. 


01 04 00 


Peter Bennett, Ldeut. 


06 15 00 


Roger Brown. 


02 14 00 


John Wensteed. 


02 14 00 


Thomas Bull. 


03 03 00 


Edmund Chamberlain. 


00 12 00 


Joseph Douse. 


02 14 00 


Jacob Cole. 


03 00 00 


James Smith. 


05 08 00 


Edward Walker. 


02 14 00 


Dennis Sihy. 


04 00 00 


Joseph Low. 


04 10 10 







It will be remembered that the credits for service were given 
at the close of such service, or at regular monthly or bi-monthly 
settlements. It often happened that the men would be separated 
from their officers, at garrisons on special duties, and so waiting 
the official signature the bill would be delayed sometimes for a 
year. Many who were in the Narraganset campaign were not 
paid off till the general settlement, June 24th, 1676. And though 
many of the credits represent later service, yet I judge the oft- 
repeated amount, X02 14 00, represents the "Fort" campaign. 
This will hold in nearly every case, though not all. Thomas 
May was in that campaign and received no credit until Septem- 
ber 23, 1676. The credits in other companies confirm this 
theory. 

The forces under Gen. Winslow marched on the afternoon of 
December 9th to Woodcock's Garrison, and December 10th to 
Seaconk. From thence Capt. Mosely and his men sailed with 
Mr. Richard Smith across the bay, and then marched to his 
Garrison-House at Wickford in Narraganset, arriving in the even- 
ing, having taken a party of thirty-six Indians on the way. 

Mr. Church relates that he went across to Wickford with Mr. 
Smith, but omits any mention of Capt. Mosely and his company, 
and their capture of 36 Indians in the march to Wickford, but tells 
of 18 that himself took with the " Eldridges and some other brisk 
hands." Church never omits to tell of his own exploits at full 
length. Mosely was the most popular officer of the army, and un- 
doubtedly excited Church's anger and perhaps jealousy by ignoring 
and opposing him. Mosely, the successful captain at the head of 
a strong company of veterans, would not readily accept commands 
from one without title or company, whose best service hitherto 
had been only in scouting and skirmishing with small irregular 
parties. Church writes his own adventures. Mosely's can never 
be known fully, but what we have shows him to be brave, popu- 
lar with both the army and at home, and wonderfully successful. 

Gen. Winslow with the other forces ferried over to Providence, 
and marched through " Pomham's " territory, in hopes to capture 
that sachem, to the rendezvous at Smith's Garrison, on the even- 
ing of Dec. 12th. Mosely had captured one Peter, an Indian who 
betrayed Philip, and became invaluable to the army as a faithful 
guide, actuated probably by desire of revenge. On December 
14th the General marched out with his forces to explore the 



74 KING Philip's war. 

surrounding country, and Sergt. (John) Bennet, with thirty men 
of Capt. Oliver's company, went out scouting, and killed two 
Indians and captured eight more. 

On the 15th occurred a skirmish at a certain stone-wall, where 
twenty or thirty Indians discharged their guns at Capt. Mosely 
at once without effect. On the same evening the Garrison-House 
of Jireh (Jerry) Bull at Petasquamscot was destroyed, and seven- 
teen persons killed, of which news was brought next day by 
Capt. Prentice's troop, and on the 17th the Connecticut forces, 
three hundred English and one hundred and fifty Mohegans, 
arrived at the same place, and on the 18th the whole force of 
Massachusetts and Plymouth met them there about 5 P.M. 

Bull's Garrison had been intended for the general rendezvous, 
and its loss was severely felt, as the army was forced to spend 
the entire night without shelter. At 5 A.M. the next morning, 
December 19th, they took up the march towards the Fort. 

The story of the march, and the great battle at the " Swamp 
fort," is to be told in full in a subsequent chapter and so is 
omitted here. 

The following list of " Wounded and Slayne " in Capt. 
Mosely's company, is in the Archives, vol. 68 : 



6 men 
Slayne 



John Farmer, Boston 
Richard Barnam, " 
Jerre Stockes, " 

W" Bourle, Chariest© wn (probably Bmi;) 
Edmund Chamberlain, Maulden 
Richard Updick, Narragansett 
9 Wounded / Lieut. Perez Savage Boston 

John Brandon " 

John Sherman, Watertown. 

James Updick, Boston. 

James Chadwick, Maiden. 

John Fuller, Dedham. 

John Shepheard, Charlestown. 

Rich*^ Addams of Sudbury. 

Jacob Coole, Charlestown. 



men are 

on 6 Jan'ry, 

at Rhode Island 

with 5 Souldg" 

to attend 

the 

wounded men 

there 

Samuel Fosdick. \ 

Thomas Weales. 

James Dighenton. (Dichetto) L To attend 
Joseph Low. 
Joshua Silverwood. J 

Daniel Weld, chirurgeon, is credited <£10; is probably the Dr. 
Wells referred to in petition of Holman above. He was " Chir- 
urgeon General," and was of Salem. There is a credit to George 
Thomas, Dec. 10, for " Chyrurgion Instruments for Dr. Weld 
and Dr. Knott" (Richard Knott of Marblehead). These were 
with the wounded probably, and also Dr. Philip Read, of Lynn, 
and Dr. William Hawkins, Boston. 



MOSELY AT NARBAGANSET. 



75 



Mr. Hubbard states the number of Mosely's men killed to be 
nine, wounded ten. Whole number of English killed, above 
eighty, and one hundred and fifty wounded that recovered. He 
puts the number of Indians killed at one thousand warriors, and 
many of the aged and women and children. The troops returned 
to Smith's Garrison that night, and cared for their wounded ; and 
Church relates that Mr. Andrew Belcher arrived that evening at 
Wickford with a vessel laden with supplies, without which there 
must have been great suffering. 

In a bill presented by Capt. Benjamin Gillam, dated Jan. 19, 
1675, is the item, " To charges on men to cut out Andrew 
Belcher's Sloop to goe to Narragansett, 14s." 

The troops remained mostly inactive during the ensuing 
month, seeking to bring the Indians to terms of a permanent 
peace. There was some scouting and frequent captures, but no 
general action. Jan. 10, new forces were sent down from Boston, 
and the army was recruited to 1600 men, and on Jan. 27th began 
to move in pursuit of the Indians, who had now renewed their 
depredations. At last, in the early part of February, having 
pursued them around as far as Marlborough and Brookfield, they 
were forced to leave the pursuit for want of provisions and rest, 
and marched into Boston. On the 5th of February the Major 
was ordered to dismiss his soldiers to their several homes to await 
further summons. On February 15th, Capt. Mosely was ordered 
to march with his company to Sudbury, and there to abide till 
further orders. 

These credits cover various services from Dec. 10, 1675. 



July 24th 1676 






Samuel Clark. 


03 03 04 


Hem-y Swaine. 


02 


13 


00 


James Couch. 


00 19 03 


Richard Bennett. 


08 


08 


00 


Joh'i Hands. 


00 15 00 


Gilbert Eudecott. 


05 


08 


09 


John Dunharr. 


02 12 02 


John Day. 


02 


14 


09 


Benjamin Lathrop. 


02 08 00 


Sam' Colborne. 


02 


14 


10 


John Salter. 


01 14 02 


Samuel Guild. 


04 


02 


00 


Ezekiel Hamblin. 


00 12 10 


Gilbert Forsith. 


04 


02 


00 


Roger Prosser. 


00 19 03 


Perez Savage, Lieut. 


07 


16 


00 


Andrew Johnson. 


02 14 10 


Samuel Measie. 


02 


13 


00 


Jonathan Sprague. 


00 18 10 


John Gates. 


03 


12 


00 


John Pitcher. 


00 12 10 


William Wainright. 


02 


14 


10 


John Harrison. 


00 12 10 


Jeffrey Jeffers. 


02 


09 


06 


John Auger. 


00 12 10 


Richard Silvester. 


00 


18 


00 


David Langdon. 


00 12 11 


Armstrong Horner. 


02 


14 


00 


John Sibly. 


00 12 00 


John Mousall. 


02 


14 


00 


Francis Earle. 


00 10 02 


August 24. 


1676 






Nathaniel Badcock. 


00 10 02 


Roger Prosser. 


02 


02 


00 


John Goff. 


00 15 00 


Peter Mellardy. 


00 


10 


02 


Joseph Wakefield. 


00 12 10 


John Gilbert. 


00 


12 


10 


Perez Savage. 


01 12 02 


Joseph Saxton. 


00 


12 


10 


John Minds. 


00 18 10 


Jacob AUin. 


01 


05 


08 


Israel Howen (Howell) 


00 10 02 



76 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



Joseph Butler. 


00 


10 02 


Samuel Davis. 


00 


15 00 


Mark Round. 


02 


14 10 


William Bassly. 


01 


16 10 


September 23^ 


1676. 




Thomas May. 


02 


14 00 


John Preseott. 


,00 


10 02 


Archibell Forrest. 


02 


14 10 


John Mudg. 


02 


14 10 


John Gilbert, Senior. 


00 


12 10 


James Marshall. 


00 


12 10 


James Wamsly 


02 


14 00 



From Sudbury he soon after marched to Marlboro', where he 
seems to have remained several weeks, taking a large part in the 
negotiations concerning the redemption of captives, regulating (?) 
the affairs of the friendly Indians, etc. It is evident that he 
was always impatient of commands from his superior officers. 
The " seniority " rule of precedence was strictly adhered to in 
the colonial army, and in active service we find him constantly 
either disregarding or avoiding it. It is evident, even from 
Church's own account, that at the Fort fight, Gen. Winslow was 
only nominally in command ; for when by Church's advice he 
had resolved to hold the fort and remain, " a certain Captain " 
threatened to shoot his horse under him if he attempted to enter 
with his troops, and " in a great heat " declared that Church had 
" lied " to him about the situation, and then a certain Doctor 
" brusled up " and supported the said captain. There is little 
doubt that this captain was Mosely. The exploits of Mr. 
Church in this campaign seem not to have been known to any of 
the early historians except himself. It is plain that the Massa- 
chusetts officers, especially Mosely, at the head of his veterans, 
popular, and flushed with the fresh victory in which Church had 
no part, would regard his interference as that of an insolent up- 
start. This popularity with the army, and the violent party of 
Indian-haters, together with his eminent success in the field, and 
probably his near relationship to the Governor's family, supported 
him in many notorious acts of insubordination and insolence 
towards his superiors, and even the Council. The hanging of 
Indians, referred to in his letter, was probably his " tying up " of 
the two Indian captives and extorting their evidence against the 
eleven seized at Marlboro'. The affair of Job Kattenanit, a tried 
and faithful " praying " Indian, whom, for his faithful service. Gen. 
Denison, by the advice of Major Savage, had given liberty to seek 
out his family held as captives by Philip's allies, shows Mosely's 
influence ; for he came to the General's head-quarters and de- 
nounced both officers, and raised such a storm of indignation that 
they were obliged to send forthwith to bring Job back. And 
although members of the Council were very indignant at his in- 
solent conduct, he was not even reprimanded, either for this act, 
or his high-handed proceeding at Concord ; where he entered the 
congregation on the Sabbath, and harangued the people against 
the peaceful Nashobah Indians, whom the Council had placed in 
the charge of Mr. Hoare; and then seized the Indians, allowing 



LAST SERVICES OF CAPT. MOSELY. 77 

his soldiers to plunder all their possessions in spite of Mr. Hoare's 
remonstrances, and marched them down to Boston, whence the 
Court was constrained to send them to Deer Island, where with 
many other friendly Indians they were subjected to fearful priva- 
tions. A full account of all these transactions may be found in 
the History of the Praying Indians by that upright and noble 
man. Gen. Daniel Gookin ; a summary of which will be given in a 
subsequent chapter. 

Capt. Mosely marched with Major Savage from Marlborough 
to Quaboag, March 1, 1676. They were there joined by the Con- 
necticut troops, and all moved on towards Northampton, and he 
was -engaged in the succeeding campaign in the west. On May 
5th he received an independent commission, and the wages 
of his soldiers were to be raised by popular subscription, and 
besides they were to have all the profits accruing from the 
plunderer sale of captives, and if these resources failed, the Court 
was to make up the balance ; and this irregular way of settUng 
may be the reason that no larger credits appear in the later 
months. In June, Mosely and his men were sent in company 
with Capt. Brattle and his troop to assist the people of Plymouth 
Colony, and were still there after July 22d ; and they there took 
part in the capture of one hundred and fifty captives, and prob- 
ably soon after returned to Boston. The faithful services of the 
friendly Indians in the later campaigns had caused a reaction of 
popular feeling towards them. The fame of Church, who suc- 
ceeded in destroying Philip at Mount Hope, August 12th, some- 
what eclipsed that of Capt. Mosely, and we hear no more of his 
military service thereafter, if he performed any. On August 
24th, at a great sale of Indian captives, he is charged with " 1 boy 
and girle 6<£ ; & 13 squawes & papooses 20<£ " ; and this is the 
last notice I find of him throwing light upon his subsequent 
career. 

The date and circumstances of Capt. Mosely 's death are not, as 
yet, definitely known. Savage says he died January, 1680. The 
" Inventory of the Estate of Cap'" Sam^ Mosely deceased," was 
taken Jan. 26, 1679 (N. S. 1680), and may have been Mr. 
Savage's authority. In Judge Sewall's Interleaved Almanac 
Diary, this item appears : " 1677, Oct. 20, 7, Capt. S. Mosely." 
But we are left in doubt as to its meaning. His final account is 
found in Hull's 3d Ledger, under date of July, 1678, and 
credits him with military service, .£67 05 06, which I presume 
was in full for his whole service. Sometime after, September 
1678, £1 credit is given "per Isaac Addington," to balance 
Mosely's account with the government. He died intestate. The 
careful inventory, rendered by Sewall, of the worldly possessions 
as produced by Ann Mosely the widow, who was admitted ad- 
ministratrix January 30, 1679-80, makes no mention of any arms 
or clothing except an old musket and sword in the " Garret." 



78 KING Philip's war. 

This circumstance, with some others, and a lack of any official 
reference to his death, would seem to indicate that it happened 
away from home. 

Ann Mosely, thrown upon her own resources for maintenance, 
was granted a license by the town authorities, in 1681 and 1682, 
"To sell wine and stronge liquors out of dores." That she 
prospered is proved by the deed of trust to her brothers, Isaac 
Addington and Penn Townsend, 1684, in favor of her daughters, 
"her only living children," just before she married Nehemiah 
Pierce, " set-work-cooper." He died in 1691, leaving her again a 
widow. 

The son Samuel died young, doubtless. The daughter Rebecca 
married January 22, 1694, James Townsend; and Mary mar- 
ried William Webster, November 25, 1696. Rebecca married 
again in 1708, Jonathan Williams, who in 1733 appears as the 
Narraganset claimant in the "right of his wife's Father Capt 
Maudesley." 

Capt. Mosely's descendants were quite numerous in the 
second and third generation, through Rebecca's children by 
Townsend and Williams. Her daughter, Rebecca Williams, 
married Thaddeus Mason, and their daughter, Rebecca Mason, 
married, in 1767, William Harris, and their oldest son was Rev. 
Thaddeus Mason Harris, D.D., b. July 7, 1768; grad. H. C, 
1787, who was for forty-three years the Pastor of the First 
Church in Dorchester, and died April 3, 1842. 



m. 



CAPT. THOMAS PRENTICE AND HIS TROOP, WITH 
TROOPS OF LIEUT. OAKES AND CAPT. PAIGE. 



IT may be in order here to recall attention to the very efficient 
organization of the colonial militia, noted in Chapter I. We 
have seen that Capt. Henchman's foot company was made up of 
quotas of men from all the surrounding towns ; Capt. Mosely's 
was of hastily collected volunteers, and we now come to the third 
branch of the service, the "■ Troopers," in some respects the most 
important. It seems to have been a matter of solicitude in the 
colony for many years to increase the number of horses, and as 
early as 1648 laws were passed encouraging the formation of 
cavalry companies. Those who would enlist as troopers in local 
companies and keep horses, were allowed five shillings per year, 
and their head and horse-tax abated. It naturally followed that 
the most thrifty and well-to-do in the colony would become 
troopers, and the men of greatest ability and influence would be 
made their officers. At the beginning of the war there were 
five regular cavalry companies or " troops " in the colony. The 
Suffolk County Troop was commanded by Capt. William Davis, 
who died October, 1676, and was succeeded by Lieut. Thomas 
Brattle. The Middlesex Troop was commanded by Capt. Thomas 
Prentice. Essex County had two troops, one raised in Salem 
and Lynn, of which George Corwin was captain; and another, 
raised in Ipswich, Newbury and Rowley, of which John Appleton 
was captain. In Hampshire and Norfolk the horsemen were 
attached to the various companies in the regiment, eight or ten 
to each company of foot. Besides these regulars, there was an 
independent company raised at large in the counties of Suffolk, 
Middlesex and Essex, called the " Three County Troop." Edward 
Hutchinson had command of this up to October, 1674, but then 
resigned, and the court had not found a suitable successor who 
was willing to accept the appointment, and Lieut. William Haisy 
was in command in June, 1675. Out of these "troops" quotas 
were drawn to make up the company required for special service, 
and officers were chosen at the option of the court. In this first 
campaign the troopers were mostly from the towns immediately 
around Boston; and, in addition to these, were a few Indians 



80 KING Philip's war. 

from Natick and Punckapoag. The Captain and Lieutenant 
were from Cambridge, and the Cornet from Woburn. 

The commander, Capt. Thomas Prentice, was born in England 
about 1620. He came with wife Grace, and daughter Grace to 
Cambridge, and settled on the south side of the river ; freeman 
1652. He was a very active and influential man, and a trusted 
officer both in civil and military service. He died July 7, 1709, 
aged 89 years. 

Capt. Prentice was appointed captain of the special Troop, 
June 24, 1675, and sent out with Capt. Henchman, as has been 
related. On arriving at Swansey, at Miles's garrison, the Indians 
began firing from the bushes across the river at our guards, and 
twelve of the troopers volunteered to go over the bridge and drive 
them off. These were commanded by Quartermaster Joseph 
Belcher and Corporal John Gill. Mr. Church went along with 
them, and also a stranger, and William Hammond acted as pilot. 
As they advanced across the bridge the Indians fired upon them 
and wounded Mr. Belcher in the knee, killed his horse, and shot 
Gill in the breast, but his buff coat and several thicknesses of 
paper saved him from injury. They killed the pilot outright, 
and the troopers were forced to retreat, bringing off Hammond 
and his horse. On the renewal of the attack by the Indians next 
morning, the troop, supported by Mosely's volunteers, charged 
across the bridge and drove the Indians from the " Neck " and 
across to Pocasset. June 30th was spent by the army traversing 
Mount Hope neck, and at evening Capt. Prentice with his troop 
rode to Rehoboth and quartered over night. On the morning of 
July 1st he divided the troop, sending one division back under 
command of Lieut. Edward Oakes. It is not certain whether 
both divisions rode back by the same route, but it would seem 
thus from the result. The captain's division came upon the 
Indians burning a house, but could not get at them on account 
of several fences which had to be torn down, giving the Indians 
time to retreat to a swamp. Lieut. Oakes's force, however, dis- 
covered them from a more advantageous quarter, and chasing 
them over a plain killed two of Philip's chief men, but in the 
fight lost one of their own men, John Druse of Roxbury, mortally, 
wounded. The next few days Capt. Prentice and his troop spent 
in searching the swamps, and then went with the army to Narra- 1 
ganset, as has been related heretofore. Capt. Prentice's namei 
stands second of the signers to the treaty with the Indians, July 
15, 1675. 

After the return to Swansey and the news that Philip was shut! 
up in Pocasset Swamp, when the main body of Massachusetts] 
troops were sent away to Boston, Capt. Prentice and his troop 
were ordered to scout towards Mendon, where the Indians had] 
lately made an assault upon the people, killing several. The; 
troopers met Capt. Johnson's company at Mendon, as will appear ' 
from the following minutes of the Council : 



CAPT. PRENTICE IN THE MT. HOPE CAMPAIGN. 



81 



(Mass, Archives, vol. 67, p. 226.) 

July 26"^ 1675 Council Mett. 

The Council on perusing of y^ letter of Capt Prentice & capt 
Johnson, Dated July 23** 1675, judged it meet to order that Capt 
Prentice & his Troopers be presently called home & y' Capt. Johnson 
with his Souldiers be also sent to Returne leaving ... of his 
foot Souldiers the Scouts (?) to remayne as a Guard to Mendon and 
, . . of his foote at "Wrentham as their Guard Referring it to 
the sayd Captaine to consult with the Sarjant or other chiefe Officers 
of each Towne how many to leave at each Towns with their Armes 
? Remayne till further order. 

The letter referred, to is now lost from the files. 
The following are the soldiers who served in the first, or Mt. 
Hope campaign, under Capt. Prentice : 



August 27"^ 1675 






Nehemiah Hayden. 


01 07 00 


John Needham. 


02 


00 


00 


James Whitehead. 


02 00 00 


Jonathan Fairbank. 


01 


18 


06 


John Wayman, Cornet 


04 17 00 


Samuel Pollard. 


01 


18 


06 


September Z^ 1675 


Fathergon Dinely. 


02 


03 


00 


John Bisco. 


02 08 06 


William Brooks. 


02 


03 


00 


Oliver Willington. 


02 08 06 


William Agar. 


02 


08 


06 


John Mason. 


02 03 00 


Jabes Jackson. 


02 


08 


06 


William Bond. 


02 00 00 


Francis Wayman. 


02 


01 


06 


Thomas Boylston. 


02 17 06 


Samuel Culliver. 


02 


03 


00 


September le^"^ 


Thomas Woolson. 


02 


08 


06 


James Indian. 


02 04 08 


John Livermore. 


02 


08 


06 


Thomas Indian. 


02 04 08 


John Gibson. 


01 


01 


06 


September 21" 


William Read. 


02 


03 


00 


Matthew Bridge, Qf Mr 0^ 13 00 


Benjamin Moore. 


02 


03 


00 


Anthony Cooke. 


01 00 00 


William Brown. 


02 


03 


00 


John Druse. 


00 11 06 


Joseph Parmiter. 


02 


04 


03 


Edward Oakes, Lieut. 


05 00 00 


Joseph Curtice. 


02 


03 


00 


Thomas Oliver. 


01 01 06 


Daniel Dean. 


02 


08 


06 


John Clark. 


02 03 00 


Thomas Goble. 


02 


08 


06 


Thomas Hunter. 


01 11 04 


Ebenezer Prout. 


02 


08 


06 


Felix Indian. 


01 00 06 


James Miller. 


02 


08 


06 


Benjamin Ahaton. 


00 10 00 


Robert Evans.' 


02 


08 


06 


Harry Indian. 


01 00 06 


John Baxter. 


02 


08 


06 


John Adams. 


01 00 00 


Solomon Phips, Corp' 


02 


18 


04 


Jeremie Indian. 


01 00 06 


Benjamin Scott. 


02 


02 


06 


Zachary Phillips. 


02 10 00 


Christopher Grant. 


01 


00 


00 


Joseph Allin. 


04 00 00 


Nathaniel Howard. 


01 


13 


00 


Jonathan Orris. 


01 18 06 


Stephen Pain. 


02 


08 06 


David Thomas. 


01 10 00 


Henry Summers. 


02 


18 


04 


Caleb Carter. 


01 12 00 


Jonathan Bunker. 


02 


03 


00 


Abraham Skinner. 


01 08 06 


James Lowden. 


02 


08 


06 


November 30"^ 1675 


John Fowle. 


01 


13 


00 


Nathaniel Richards. 


02 03 00 


J(.hn Gill, Corp\ 


02 


11 


00 


Samuel Payson. 


02 03 00 


Joseph Belcher, Qar'' M' 02 


01 


00 







In the Cash Account the name is Eames. 



82 



KING PHILIP'S WAK. 



Dec. 3d, 1675, Capt. Prentice was appointed to command a troop 
of horse in the Narraganset campaign, joined the army at Ded- 
ham plain, and marched with it, as related heretofore, to Wick- 
ford, whence on the 16th he rode with his troop to Petasquarascot, 
and brought back the news of the destruction of Bull's garrison. 
On the 19th took part in the battle at the fort. 

In the Massachusetts Archives, vol. 68, page 104, I find that 
John Wyman, of his troop, was killed, and Nathan Richardson 
and Nathan Belins (Billings) of Woburn, and Samuel Stone of 
Cambridge, were wounded. 

After this battle Capt. Prentice was active in the subsequent 
scouting raids into the adjoining country. On December 27 he 
rode into Pomham's country (now Warwick, R.I.) and destroyed 
many wigwams of an Indian village, but found no Indians. On 
January 21 he was again scouting, and met with a party of 
Indians, of whom two were captured and nine killed. On the 
27th the army started in pursuit of the enemy, and after several 
days marching returned to Boston, and the Massachusetts men 
were dismissed, for the time, to their homes. 

The following is the list of credits for this campaign. Appended 
is a list of the same, as returned from the various local companies 
for this service, copied from Mass. Archives, vol. 68, showing the 
localities from which they came. 



February 29, 


1675-6 






William Kent. 


04 10 00 


Joseph Peniman. 


04 


10 


00 


John Windham. 


04 10 00 


Joseph Weeden. 


04 


10 00 


Jacob Nash. 


04 10 00 


Samuel Weeden. 


04 


10 


00 


John Eames. 


04 10 00 


Henry Kenney. 


01 


10 


00 


James Lowden. 


04 10 00 


John Spaford. 


04 


10 


00 


Samuel Payson. 


04 10 00 


Joseph Moore. 


04 


10 


00 


William Shattock. 


04 10 00 


Thomas Brown. 


04 


10 


00 


John Bush. 


04 10 00 


James Burnam. 


04 


10 


00 


Thomas Goble. 


05 08 00 


Nathaniel Ballard. 


04 


10 


00 


John Pason. 


04 10 00 


Thomas Putman. 


04 


10 


00 


Joseph Wright. 


04 10 00 


Edmond Potter. 


04 


10 


00 


June 24'^ 167 


3. 


Daniel Champnes. 


06 


12 


00 


John Willington. 


02 08 06 


WilUam Delaway. 


04 


10 


00 


John Guppy. 


01 10 00 


John Adams. 


04 


10 


00 


Samuel Chapman. 


04 10 00 


Joseph Plummer. 


04 


00 


00 


Joseph Grout. 


04 10 00 


Charles Blinko. 


04 


10 


00 


Daniel Thurston. 


04 10 00 


William Miriam. 


04 


10 


00 


William Dodg. 


04 16 00 


John Edmonds. 


04 


10 


00 


John Acy. 


04 02 00 


Thomas Johnson. 


04 


10 


00 


Joseph Parmiter. 


04 10 00 


John Welcott. 


04 


10 


00 


Henry EUitt. 


04 10 00 


March 24'^ 1675-6 






John Wyman, Lieut. 


11 05 00 


Richard Mather. 


04 


10 


00 


Thomas Prentice, Capt. 


18 00 00 


Nathaniel Billinge. 


04 


10 


00 


William Mingo. 


04 10 00 


John Andrews. 


04 


10 


00 


John Stern. 


04 10 00 


Joseph Marshall. 


04 


10 00 


Joseph Hutchinson. 


05 08 00 



CAPT. PRENTICE IN THE NARRAGANSET CAMPAIGN. 



83 



John Richards. 
Thomas Geery. 
Francis Wayman. 
John Barrett. 
Nath. Richardson. 
Hugh Taylor. 
Caleb Grant. 
Thomas Peirce. 
Thomas Hodgman 
Benjamin Davis. 



04 


10 


00 


04 


10 


00 


04 


10 


00 


04 


10 00 1 


04 


10 


00 


04 


10 


00 


04 


10 


00 


04 


10 


00 


04 


10 


00 


04 


10 


00 



John Acy. 
Stephen Cooke. 
Isaac Brookes. 
Increas Wing. 
Henry Summers. 
John Kendall. 
Samuel Stone. 
Samuel Whiting. 
Nathaniel Cann. 
John Wyman. 



05 08 00 
02 05 08 

06 15 00 
04 10 00 
02 18 03 
04 10 00 
04 10 00 



04 
04 



10 00 
10 00 



00 15 08 



List of C apt. Prentice's Troopers. (Mass. Arch., vol. 68, p. 73.) 
On the back of this list is written, " Capt. Prentise's 73 Troopers." 

Troopers belonging to Capt. Appleton's Troope. 

James Burnum, John Andrews, Edmond Potter, Samuel Chapman, 
John Asee ( Acy), ^ John Spaford, Daniel Thurston, Joseph Plumer, 
John Woollcock, Thomas Johnson. 10. 

Troopers belonging to Capt. Curwin. 

Steeven Hascull (Hasket), Charles Blincko (for Jon* Corwins)v 
Thomas Howard (for Benj. Browne), William Dodge (Jr,) Thomas 
Putman Juniour, John Richards, Nathaniel Ballard junr, John Ed- 
monds, William Merriam, Thomas Flint (Sen''). 

Troopers belonging to Capt. Hutchinson. 

Mr. Eliakim Hutchason, Benjamin Muzzey, Sam' Weeden, Joseph 
Weeden, John Guppie (Goopy), Daniel Greenland, John Barret, 
Thomas Hodgman, Benj* Daveis, John GooU (Gould), Joseph Mar- 
shall, Thomas Geery (Grary), Thomas Hart, Isack Brooks, Joseph 
Right (Wright), John Kiudall, Nath' Richardson, Thomas Pearce, 
Increas Wing, Nath' Cann. 

Troopers belonging to Captin Davis. 

William Kent, John Ruggles, Sampson Chester, William Towers, 
[John Miner erased], Henry Eliot, John Person (Pason), Richard 
Mather Juniour, Martin Sanders, Crosby of Braintree (Joseph), Joseph 
Penniman, Samuel Haidne (Haiden), Ebenezer Haidne (Haiden), 
John Riplee, Samuel Whitney. 14. 

Troopers belonging to Middlesex. 

Mr. John Long, Mr. Joseph Line, James Lowdne (Lowden), 
Thomas Browne, John Adams, Samuel Stone Juniour, Daniel Champ- 
ney, John Eams, William Shattock, John Stearns, Caleb Grant, Joseph 
Groute, Joseph Moore, Joseph Parmiter, David Stone, Nathaniel 
Billing, Thomas Goble Juniour, Ebenezer Proute, John Wyman 
Juniour, Francis Wyman Juniour. 19. 

" 73 besides Peter Woodward & Joseph Proute." 

1 The names in brackets are added from another list on page 100 of the same volume. 



84 KING Philip's war. 

In an anonymous contemporary account published in England 
July, 1676, it is related that Capt. Prentice with six troopers 
went to the rescue of a portion of Capt. Wadsworth's ill-fated 
company at Sudbury, and these three names may be of those 
troopers. 

Aug 24 1676 I Johu Cuttin. 00 18 06 

Samuel Church. 00 11 05 I Samuel -Goff. 01 00 00 

Capt. Prentice had charge of the impressment and equipment 
of Middlesex men in the winter and spring of 1675-6, as shown 
by various orders of the court to furnish troopers, guards and 
scouts. He had much to do later in settling the affairs of the 
friendly Indians, by whom he was greatly respected. After the 
death of Philip, the Nipnet sachem John, accepting the court's 
amnesty, came in with some of his men, and were kept in Capt. 
Prentice's charge at his house. A credit of £6 " for fetching y« 
Natick Indians " refers to his conducting their removal in 1676, 
to Deer Island. July, 1689, Capt. Prentice, with Mr. Noah 
Wiswall, was sent to arrange matters with the uneasy Puncka- 
poags and Naticks. When Sir Edmund Andros, on July 2, 
escaped from prison in Boston and fled to Rhode Island, Capt. 
Prentice was ordered to ride down with his troop and receive 
him after he was arrested by the people at Rhode Island. This 
order he obeys, and writes the Court from Bristol, July 8th, an 
account of his reception of the prisoner, and his purpose to return 
by way of Dorchester to the Castle, to avoid disturbance. (Mass. 
Archives, vol. 107, page 256.) In the Archives, vol. 106, page 
436, is a certificate from Capt. Prentice that he was billeted with 
his troop on the journey to and return from Rhode Island, two 
nights at Woodcock's tavern. On the death of Major Gookin, 
the various tribes of " Praying " Indians petitioned the court in 
1691 to appoint Capt. Prentice superintendent of their affairs in 
the beloved Gookin's place. 

LIEUT. EDWARD OAKES AND HIS TROOPERS. 

Edward Oakes came from England before 1640 ; freeman at 
Cambridge, May 18, 1642 ; brought from England wife Jane and 
sons Urian and Edward ; had baptized at Cambridge Mary and 
Thomas ; was selectman twenty-six years, from 1643 to 1678 ; 
deputy to General Court from Cambridge fifteen years, between 
1659 and 1681, and from Concord 1683, '4 and '6 ; Lieutenant of 
Capt. Prentice's troop, June, 1675, and served in the summer 
campaign at Mount Hope, of which account is given above. The 
service for which the following credits are given was probably 
rendered in the winter of 1675-6. From the letter of Rev. John 
Wilson, of Medfield, February 14, 1675-6 (Archives, vol. 68, 
page 134), it appears that Lieut. Oakes was at Lancaster after its 



CAPT. PAIGE AT MT. HOPE. 



85 



destruction February 10th, and was afterwards scouting between 
Marlborough and Medfield, and at the attack on February 21, 
was quartered there with his troopers. Simon Crosby puts in a 
small bill for billeting his troop at Billerica, but date of service 
does not appear. He died at Concord, October 13, 1689, aged, 
probably, 85 years. 

Credits under Lieut. Edward Oakes. 

John Seers. 01 00 00 

Timothy Simmes. 01 09 06 

Matthew Griffin. 00 19 08 

John Teed. 02 16 06 

W^Auger (Agur,Alger)01 12 10 
Timothy Hawkins. 01 12 10 

John Mousall. 01 12 10 

Capt Oakes. July 24«^ 1676 
Jacob HUl. 00 19 08 

Samuel Hayward. 01 10 00 

Henry Spring. 01 12 10 

Thomas Mitchenson. 00 19 08 
Joseph Cooke. 04 02 00 

Thomas Frost. 01 00 06 

Edward Oakes. 06 11 00 

August 24'"^ 1676. 
John Streeter. 00 19 08 

James Prentice. 00 18 00 

Sept 23^ 1676 
John Green. 01 12 10 

John Fowle. 01 19 04 



March 24*^ 1675-6 




James Miller. 01 12 


10 


John Gibson. 01 12 


10 


Solomon Phips, QatrMr. 02 09 


04 


Thomas Creswell (Croswell) 




01 12 


10 


April 24^ 1676 




John Hastings. 00 19 


08 


Luke Perkins. 00 19 


08 


Stephen Cooledg. 00 19 


08 


Samuel Whitmg. 00 19 


08 


June 24*, 1676 




Thomas Peirce. 00 19 


08 


Thomas Edmons. 00 19 


08 


William Reade. 00 19 


08 


Jonathan Bunker. 01 12 


10 


Stephen Paine. 01 12 


10 


Thomas Henshaw. 01 11 


04 


Stephen Richardson. 01 12 


10 


Christopher Grant. 01 12 


10 


Thomas Strait. 01 03 


00 



CAPT. NICHOLAS PAIGE AND HIS TROOP. 

Capt. Nicholas Paige came from Plymouth, England. He was 
in Boston as early as 1665. In 1675, June 27th, was appointed 
captain of a troop to accompany Maj. Thomas Savage in the ex- 
pedition to Mt. Hope ; took part in the movements there ; accom- 
panied the army to Narraganset and back, and then returned to 
Boston with Major Savage and disbanded his men, and there is 
no farther account of any service in this war. 

Capt. Paige was active in business, and in civil affairs later on ; 
was of the Artillery Company, 1693 ; later its commander and a 
colonel. He died in 1717. He left no children,^ and in the joint 
will of Nicholas and wife Anna, made in 1703, after many small 
legacies, gave the bulk of property, including the farm at R,um- 
ney-Marsh, where they lived, to their kinswoman Martha Hobbs, 
also made her executrix and gave her some good advice about 
marrying into a godly family. (She married Capt. Nathaniel 
Oliver, 1709, and had children, Paige and Martha.) Should she 

1 See N. E. Hist, and Gen. Register, Vol. 23, p. 267. 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



fail of issue, the property goes to his cousin William Paige, of 
London, England. His wife Anna was a granddaughter of Capt. 
Robert Keayne and a niece of Gov. Joseph Dudley. Her first 
husband was Edward Lane. 

The following are the credits for his men in this campaign : 



August 23^ 1675 

John Ballard. 02 

John Breid. 02 

Samuel Moore. 02 

Sept. 3<* 

Samuel Giddings. 02 

Joseph Proctor. 02 

Nathaniel EngerseU. 02 

William Osborn. 02 

Lawrence Hart. 02 

Joseph Needham. 02 

Nicholas Paige, Capt. 08 

Francis Coard. 02 

Enoch Lawrence. 02 

Benjamin Wilkins. 02 

Thomas Noyce, Cornet. 04 

James Ford. 02 

Ezekiel Mighill. 02 

Thomas Tharly. 02 



00 


00 


00 


00 


02 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 



John Picard. 02 00 00 

Daniel Wycom. 02 00 00 

WiUiam Reeves. 02 00 00 

Nicholas Manning. 02 08 00 
John Whipple, Lieut. 05 00 00 

Francis Young. 02 00 00 

Ephraim FeUows. 02 00 00 

James Hoult. 02 00 00 

Joseph Safford. 02 00 00 

Thomas Newman. 02 00 00 

Uzall WardaU. 02 00 00 

Daniel Wilkins. 02 00 00 

Samuel Sillesbie. 02 00 00 

William Due. 02 00 00 

William Curtis. 02 00 00 

Daniel Welcom. 02 00 00 

Thomas Albey. 02 00 00 

Mark Hescall. 02 00 00 



Thomas Noyce, of Newbury, was chosen, 1683, Capt. of the 
second Newbury company. 

John Whipple, appointed Cornet of Ipswich Troop in 1663, 
and then said to be " son of Elder Whiple." He was captain 
of a special Troop, Feb. 1675-6. 



TV. 



MAJOR THOMAS SAVAGE AND THE FORCES 
UNDER HIM. 



MAJOR THOMAS SAVAGE was bom in Taunton, Somer- 
set Co., England, son of William Savage. Came in the 
" Planter " to Boston, April, 1635, aged 27. Admitted freeman 
in May following ; was an original member of the Artillery Com- 
pany, and was chosen its captain in 1651, and several times 
afterwards. He married Faith, daughter of William and Ann 
Hutchinson, in 1637, and for sharing the views of Ann and her 
brother-in-law, Rev. John Wheelwright, he was disarmed by the 
Court, and joined with Coddington and others in the purchase of 
Rhode Island, whither he removed in 1638, but returned the 
same year. By his wife Faith he had seven children between 
1638 and 1652. Faith died February 20, 1652, and the following 
September he married Mary Symmes, daughter of Rev. Zechariah, 
of Charlestown, by whom he had eleven more children. He was 
almost constantly in public office, and was especially prominent 
in all the military affairs of the town from 1651 onward. He 
was captain of 2d Boston militia company from 1652 to his death 
m 1682. 

It is the purpose, in this chapter, to give as fully as possible 
the operations under Major Savage, and facts connected with this 
Mt. Hope campaign, and the names of men serving with him not 
previously mentioned, so that our account of the campaign may 
be considered complete. Some details of the opening prepara- 
tions are here given, as being rather connected with the move- 
ments of the general force than separate companies. 

It will be remembered that the first actual attack of Phihp was 
upon those people of Swansey who lived nearest to him. An 
account of this attack was sent to the Massachusetts Council 
by Gov. Josiah Winslow of Marshfield. His letter is in Mass. 
Archives, vol. 67, page 202, dated June 21st, and says the attack 
was made on the day before, and asks the Massachusetts Colony 
for aid only in protecting them from the alliance of Philip with 
the Narraganset and Nipmuck ^ Indians, which tribes are within 

1 The term Nipmuck or Nipnet, is used here and elsewhere often, as if including the Quabaugs, 
Nashaways, Wabbaquassets, Pocomptucks, and others. 



88 KING Philip's war. 

the jurisdiction of Massachusetts ; says that if Plymouth can have 
" fair play " with their own Indians he trusts they can take care 
of themselves. On the same paper is a copy of the answer of the 
Council, assuring him of immediate assistance, and that they will 
send messengers with all speed to both Narragansets and Nip- 
mucks. This answer is dated June 21, " at 5 o'clock." 

On the same day an order was passed in the Council to Capt. 
Edward Hutchinson, Seth Perry and William Towers, giving 
commission and instruction for taking a warning message to the 
Narragansets, and to leave a letter for Roger Williams at Provi- 
dence. This message is in Mass. Archives, vol. 67, page 201, 
in a paper directed to " Moosucke [Mootucke], Ninigret & Squa 
Sachem, of the Narraganset & Nyantic Indians." A paper con- 
taining the agreements of the Nipmuck chiefs is in vol. 30, page 
169, of the Mass. Archives. Upon June 24th came news of the 
general outbreak, and further appeal from Plymouth. The 
Council hastily despatched two messengers to Philip, who, arriv- 
ing at Swansey, discovered the two men who were slain that day 
lying in the road, and thus warned of the futility of their peace- 
ful mission, they returned to Boston without speaking with 
Philip. I find by a letter from the Council to Gov. Winthrop of 
Connecticut, that these two messengers were Capt. Savage and 
Mr. Brattle. 

This letter is of great importance in several respects in the 
light it throws upon those few busy days. It is in the Mass. 
Archives, vol. 67, page 209, and is the original draft, containing 
many erasures and corrections. It is judged to be in the hand- 
writing of Thomas Danforth, who was then First Commissioner 
of the United Colonies. It is endorsed by Edw. Rawson, as 
follows : " Rough draft of Council's letter to Connecticot Gov"". 
Ent. June 28, 1675." The figure 8 in the date is somewhat 
obscure, but the reference in the letter to the Past appointed for 
" to-morrow " (which fast we know to have been on the 29th) 
proves the date of writing to have been on the 28th. 

Extract of the Massachusetts Council's letter of June 28, 1675, 
to the governor of Connecticut : 

. . . and dayly wee heare of the Increase of trouble the Gov' 
of y' Colony [Plymouth] hath frequently solicited us for Ayde w'''' as 
soone as wee could possibly Raise wee have sent to y^". It's certified 
from Plymouth and Swansey that both the Narragansets and Monhe- 
gins have sent ayd to Phillip. We sent messengers to the Narragan- 
sets & Nipmueks to warn & caution them not to Assist Phillip or if 
any were Gon to command their returne, our messengers are returned 
from both those places, the Nipmueks speake faire and say that they 
are faithful to the English and will not Assist Phillip, the Narragansets 
say they will not medle but there is more reason to suspect the latter 
and wee believe Uncas is not unconcerned in this matter, all our intelli- 



council's letters to CONNECTICUT. 89 

gence gives us ground to believe that the poore people in those parts 
are in a very distressed condition in many respects, their houses 
burned, their people kild & wounded they not able to make any 
Attempt upon the Indians wanting both victuall ammunition and arms 
w'^'' hath occasioned us to send greatt forces for their reliefe, we have 
sent above three hundred foot and about eighty horse laesides several 
carts laden with munition and with goods and provisions and arraes, 
moreover we are sending two vessels with provision and munition to 
supply y^ forces, y^ vessells to serve as there shall be cause. We sent 
Capt, Savage and Mr. Brattle 4 days since to speake with Philip who 
are returned but could not obtaine speech with him. The Council have 
appointed a fast to-morrow to seek God in this matter and a blessing 
upon our forces. How far his tribes may spread is with the Lord our 
God to order. There is reason to concieve y' if Phillip be not sooue 
[suppressed?] he and his confederates may skulke into the woods and 
greatly anoy the English & y' the confederacy of the Indians is larger 
than yet we see. Maj. Gen" Denison was chosen for to goe General 
of these forces, but he being taken ill Capt. Savage is sent Commander- 
in-chief, Capt Prentis commanding y^ horse, Capt. Henchman and 
Capt Mosley, Capts of y" foot, Our eyes are unto y" Lord for his 
presence w"^ y*"", & hope you will not be wanting in y"" prares and 
watchfulness over the Indians, and particularly we request you to use 
y' utmost authority to restrain the Monhegins & Pequods. 

E. R. Sec'y. 

By inquiry I found that this letter, dated June 28th, is pre- 
served in the Connecticut Archives, and also two others which 
are not in our own. By the kind offices of Mr. Charles J. Hoadly, 
State Librarian of Connecticut, I have been furnished complete 
copies of both. One is of July 5th and the other July 10th. 
Extracts of these letters are given below, from Conn. Arch., War 
Docs., Vol. I. Doc. 5 : 

Boston July 5'^ 1675 

Hon*^ Gent" By our former dat. the 3*^ of this instant wee gave you 
a briefe account of the late outbreaking of the Indians in the Plimouth 
Colony at Swanzie and p*^ adjac' and since y' wee received the enclosed 
declaring the deplorable condition of those at Taunton in the same 
Colony wee have at their request accomodated them with ammunition 
and men, ie. ab' 80 troopers furnished with carbines & small musketts 
ab' 100 dragoones & ab' 100 foote soldjers so that with their attendance 
for waggons &c. y® whole may be neere 400 men also two vessells well 
fitted with men provisions & ammunition we have sent ab' the Cape to 
accomodate all their necessityes so far as wee could judge necessary, 
&c. 

The remainder of the letter discusses the affairs of the United 
Colonies relating to the arming and management of the Indians 
not yet engaged with Philip, and is signed by Edward Rawson, 
Sec'y, on behalf of the Court, and is superscribed. 

These to the Right Worshipf" John Winthrop Esq"' Gov'^n'" of his 



90 KING Philip's war, 

Maj'y' Colony at Connecticot p''sent, To be communicated to the Coun- 
cil there. 

Extract of the letter of July 10^*^ 1675. Conn. Arch., War 
Docs., Vol. 1. Doc. 7 : 

. . . Capt Hutchinson w"" ab' 100. of our forces went from 
o'' headquarters upon Tuesday last to y'' Narrogansets to demand an 
ace' of their actings wee expect hourely intelligence w' they have done 
there which will be a great guide to us in our further motions. . . . 
Yesterday came six men sent from Uncas to assure his friendship & 
offer his service ag' Phillip or other enemyes of y^ English with a I're 
from Mr. Fitch to whorae wee have returned o'' answer declaring to 
Uncas y' if he will send hostages to y* English for the assurance of his 
faithfulness wee shall accept his offer &c. &c. 

Signed Edward Rawson, Sec'y 
By order of the Council. 

In Mass. Archives, vol. 67, page 207, is the Court's instruction 
to Thomas Savage as major of the Massachusetts forces in this 
expedition under Major Gen. Denison as commander-in-chief of 
the colony, closing thus : " And in case the Lord should disenable 
y'' General so as to take him of the service you shall take charge 
and command of all according to the commission given unto him," 
etc. 

Major Savage had been commissioned for this expedition on or 
before June 24th, and the Court had then voted to raise one hun- 
dred horse and fifty foot. These constituted the companies of 
Henchman and Prentice, and together vrith Capt. Mosely's men, 
made up the number to two hundred and sixty men, besides 
officers and teamsters, etc., which force, estimated in round num- 
bers at three hundred, marched out of Boston on June 26th. As 
to the exact time of Major Savage's marching, or the force with 
him, the accounts are somewhat vague and conflicting. I give 
briefly the various references bearing upon this point ; and first, 
it is certain that Capt. Paige's troop numbered, according to the 
treasurer's credits, thirty-six men including officers. The state- 
ment in the above letter claims over three hundred and eighty 
men to have been sent, up to June 28th. 

In Mather's " Indian War," strangely enough, no mention is 
made of Major Savage in relation to this first campaign. And 
Mr. Hubbard, the most reliable of all, relates in reference to this 
particular, that Major Savage came up " with other supplies " on 
the evening of June 29th. On the next day they moved forward 
into Mount Hope neck, " with a troop of horse in each wing; " 
encamping that night (June 30th) " in the open field " in a heavy 
rain. Next day (July 1st) they marched back to Swansey. 
That night Capt. Prentice's troop rode to Seekonk, and Major 
Savage appears to have remained at Swansey, July 2d, awaiting 



^1 


22 00 00 


02 


00 


00 


01 


04 


00 


03 


04 


00 


16 


00 


00 


00 


15 


00 


01 


10 


00 



MAJOR savage's STAFF, SUPPLIES, ETC. 91 

their return. On July 3d Henchman and Prentice searched the 
swamps between Swansey and Rehoboth, and Capt. Mosely " and 
Capt. Paige with his dragoons attending on Major Savage," 
marched back into Mount Hope. Mr. Church's account is ex- 
tremely vague in reference to this campaign, especially in regard 
to the Massachusetts forces, making no mention of Maj. Savage 
by name. After a diligent search among published accounts and 
unpublished sources of information, I am unable to find any fur- 
ther reference giving light upon this point, except that the 
Journal has no credits under Major Savage for this campaign, 
save the following, viz. : 

Sept 3"^ 1675 
Thomas Savage for service as Major and other charges, 
Sept. 28th. 
John Paine. 
John Williams. 

Theophilus Frary, Commissary 
.... To ten, Chirurgeon. 
Jacob Eliott, Commissary. 

Feby 29'*^ 1675-6 
Peter Gennings. 

William Locke was the regular surgeon who went out with the 
army on June 26th (Mass. Archives, vol. 69, pages 58 and 60). 
This " Toten " was Dr. John Touton, a Huguenot, who at this 
time lived at Rehoboth, and his service may be inferred in part 
by the following order in Mass. Archives, vol. 67, page 221 : 

Order to Mr. John Toton to take " Peter Sympkins, Robert 
Smith and Isaac Ratt, to attend " him and " go for the reliefe of 
the wounded " . . . " and in case of their refusal you are 
reqired by the Constables to send them forthwith to Capt. Hud- 
son who is required to send them to Boston." Dated July 22, 
1675. 

Mr. Joseph Dudley also went out with Major Savage, and 
received on Sept. 14th credit of 08 11 04, for salary as chaplain. 

In regard to the two vessels, I find in Mass. Archives, vol. 67, 
page 211, the following papers : 

Committee imployed for this present Expedition against the 
Indians, ordered to send the following provisions aboard the Sloope 
Swanne, whereof Samuel Woodbery is master to be sent for the 
supply of our forces, Viz* 2000 weight of Bisket, 40 barrells of pease 
in casks, 10 Barrells of Pork, 10 Kintalls of drye fish, 1 hogshead of 
Rumme, six jarrs of oyle, 4 barrells Raisins, 1 Barrell of sugar, 1 
hogshead of salt, ^ cask of wine. Moreover you are to load aboard 

the Brigaudine called the [Joseph] whereof Edward Winslow is 

Master the like quantity of provisions as above expressed abating two 
barrells of Raisings & with two barrels of powder one in each vessell. 

. . You are also to take bills of lading of these goods and to bee 



92 KING Philip's war. 

delivered to the Commissaries of the Army Theopholus Frary and John 
Moss or either of them. 

Dated in Boston 28 June 1675 

By the Council E. R. Sec'y. 

And on page 211, same date ; 

Instructions to Edward Winslow, Master of the Joseph. 

You are hereby ordered forthwith as wind and weather will permit 
with your vessell to sail to Swansey or as near thereunto as you may 
and there deliver to Left Theophilus Frary and John Morse, Commis- 
saries for this Colony and the forces (now) under the conduct of Major 
Thomas Savage all such provisions Armes &c now on board you for 
the use of the army. 

Signed John Leveret, Gov^ 

It will be seen by this supply, that Massachuseetts then, as 
always since, showed a generous appreciation of the appetites of 
her soldiers. To the uninitiated the above bill of fare may not 
seem particularly inviting ; but to any one who has been a soldier 
and knows the meaning of " pea-porridge-hot," the item " 40 bar- 
rels of pease " will carry its own convictions. " Bisket, stripped 
fish and raisins," as marching rations, compare favorably, accord- 
ing to my experience, with the " hard-tack " and " salt>horse " 
furnished us by the U.S. Commissaries in 1861-5. I cannot 
testify to the " Rumme," as I belonged to a Maine regiment ; but 
many times I have sat down by the camp-fire to a dipper of " pea- 
porridge-hot " and a sop of bread, as to a royal feast. 

In the line of the above information is this curious old paper 
in vol. 68, page 135. A " Committee's estimate of what Provi- 
sions &c will serve 500 souldiers one month." " Biskett 15", Porke 
20 barrills, Beefe 30 barrills (or some think only Pork and send 
salt). Bacon lO'wt. Cheese 10"= : Stockins & Shooes 200 p' each, 
Shirts & Draws 100 of each, Wastcoats 50, Walletts 100, 300 
small baggs for each man to carry nokake, 300 bush oates, 100 
bush barley, 50 bush Indian corne parched and beaten to nokake, 
6 bar. powder, 12=^ shott. Flints 20<=t." 

It appears from the letter above of July 5th, that these two 
vessels had sailed before that date. From Hull's Journal, pages 
10 and 11, which I have restored from the Ledger, the following 
credits are obtained : 

August 20, 1675 
Maritime Disbursements Dr to Viz. 

Nath' Phillips. 01 10 00 

Henry Rock als. Cock 01 10 00 
William Cantrell. 01 10 00 



Samuel Woodbury. 1 03 00 01 

Robert Breck. 01 05 00 

Joshua Matson. 01 10 00 



» In Vol. II. Oolonial History of New York, Holland Documents, I find by report of a council 
held at Fort William Hendrick, May 26, 1674, that " Capt. Cornelia Ewoutse arrived here this day 
with his Snow the Zehont, reports having captured three small New England prizes." One of 
these was the Sloop Swan, of which Samuel Woodbury was master, who appeared and declared 
that he lived at Swansey and was part owner of the Sloop, and that John Dixy's widow of Swan- 
sey owned the other part, and that he was captured " near Prudence Island." The vessel and 
cargo were confiscated by the New York Colony, but on June 29 following were released. 



NAVAL CONTINGENT. 



93 



Nathaniel GaUop. 02 00 00 

Thomas Alson. 01 10 00 

WUliam HascaU. 01 10 00 

Samuel Cross. 02 16 00 
John Kennedye Als. 

Cannede. 02 09 00 

John BaU. 02 09 00 
William Aldridg. 



William Christian. 
Nathaniel. Huett. 
Redeemed. Scott. 
Simon Daniel. 
Thomas Norton. 
John Mane. 
Edward Perkins. 
03 10 00 



02 09 00 
02 09 00 
02 09 00 
02 09 00 
02 09 00 

02 02 00 

03 19 00 



The first nine in the above list I presume to have been the 
master and crew of the " Sloope Swanne ; " the rest were probably 
on the " Brigandine " Joseph. Edward Winslow was master we 
know, and Samuel Winslow was of the crew of this vessel, as I 
find by this order of the Council, July 24th (Archives, vol. 67, 
page 226) : " Ordered that Edward & Samuel Winslow, now on 
board the Brigandine be released to come home." By the letter 
of Capt. Henchman, published heretofore, it appears that he left 
this vessel at Pocasset on July 31st, when he went in pursuit of 
Philip, leaving five files of his men at Fort Leverett. And I 
infer that the vessel had left that place before August 9, when 
he was ordered by Gen. Denison to return and draw off the men, 
since he was to leave there such provisions and ammunition as 
" for want of carriage " he could not bring with him. 

In regard to other matters referred to in the above letters, it 
will be seen that the statement, in the letter of July 5th, of 
forces sent, is simply a restatement of that in the former letter, 
and not, as might appear at first, additional forces sent to Taun- 
ton. No such additional forces and no other vessels were sent 
at that time. 

Capt. Edward Hutchinson was despatched to the forces at 
Mount Hope on July 3d, and paid <£ 5.00.00 on that day by the 
Court's order. There went with him, as appears by the Journal 
credits, the following men : 



Edward Hutchinson jun"^ 
John Bennet. 
Sam' Williams. 
Hugh Clark. 
John Pason. 



00 


12 


00 


00 


19 


00 


00 


10 


00 


00 


10 


00 


00 


10 


00 



John Minott. 00 10 00 

Nathaniel Holmes. 00 10 00 

John Ruggles. 00 12 00 

Dec^ 20. 1675 

James Barrett 00 12 00 



The explanation of the passage in the letter of July 10th, 
relating that Capt. Hutchinson with about one hundred men 
went from our headquarters to the Narragansets, etc., is probably 
this : In their orders to Major Savage by Hutchinson, the Court 
doubtless left the details of the embassy to the discretion of the 
officers at Mount Hope, and they determined to march in full 
force. Hubbard relates that Capt. Mosely crossed over by water 
to attend Capt. Hutchinson in his despatch, the others going 
around. It is likely that Capt. Hutchinson sent back some of 



94 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



his own men with the message of his departure, and from this 
the Court made their report to Connecticut Colony. 

The negotiations with the Mohegans, of whom Uncas was 
chief sachem, are of peculiar interest, but must be deferred to a 
separate chapter, with only brief allusion here. On the return 
of the six Indians referred to in the letter, Ephraim Curtis was 
sent to conduct them, taking along three Natick Indians, who 
volunteered to accompany him. They went by way of Marlbo- 
rough, where, at the Indian fort, they were warned of the danger 
of the journey by the friendly Indians gathered there, and Curtis 
heard of the plundering of his own house at " Quansigamug " 
(Worcester) and was shown some of the plunder which the 
marauders, the Nipmucks, had brought thither, and thereupon 
the Naticks declined to go on unless more men were added to 
their force. Upon his application to the constables of Marlbo- 
rough, two men with horses and arms were pressed for this ser- 
vice. These were John and James Barnard, who receive credit 
in the Journal under date of Sept. 14th, 1675. With this party 
he conducted the Mohegans safely home, and on his return 
sought out the Quabang sachems and had a romantic interview 
with them. A full account of this journey may be found in his 
long and interesting letter, of July 16th, to the Court, preserved 
in Mass. Archives, vol. 67, page 215. The result of the negotia- 
tions with Uncas was that he sent two of his sons to Boston as 
hostages, and his eldest son and successor, Oneko, with fifty 
men, to assist the English against Philip. These were sent to 
Plymouth Colony under the conduct of " Quartermaster Swift 
and a ply of horse," as Major Gookin relates. Their subsequent 
proceedings, joining with the Rehoboth men in the pursuit and 
battle with Philip, their brief service with Capt. Henchman and 
return home, have been related in a former article. The Mohe- 
gans got as wages the plunder they seized from Philip. Swift 
and his " ply of horse " were credited as follows, Sept. 16th, 
1675: 



Thomas Swift, Corpora^Z 


.00 13 06 


Joseph Crosbey. 


00 07 06 


Martin Sanders. 


00 07 06 


Thomas Smith. 


00 07 06 


Samuel Hayden. 


00 07 06 


Thomas Blighe. 


00 07 06 


Ebenezer Hayden. 


00 07 06 


Samuel Blighe. 


00 07 06 


Benjamin Badcocke. 


00 07 06 


Sept 28* 1675 




Samuel Whiting. 


00 07 06 


William Harris. 


00 07 06 


Nathaniel Bullard. 


00 07 06 


Asaph Elliott. 


00 07 06 


William Hawkins. 


00 07 06 


James Barrett. 


00 07 06 


Thomas Toleman. 


00 07 06 


March 25th 1675 


-6 


Joseph Pennemau. 


00 07 06 


Moses Pain. 


00 07 06 



Thomas Swift was the son of Thomas the Emigrant, from 
Yorkshire, Eng., who settled in that part of Dorchester which is 
now Milton. Married Elizabeth Vose, daughter of Robert, 9th 



ESTIMATE OF FORCES EMPLOYED, 95 

Dec. 1657, and had Thomas, Elizabeth, William, John, and 
Samuel. He died 31st Jan., 1718. 

The other company of Indians that went out in this campaign 
was enlisted by Major Gookin from the various friendly tribes 
about Boston, agreeably to an order of the Court of July 2d, and 
to the number of iifty-two marched out of Boston on July 6th, 
under the conduct of Capt. Isaac Johnson, who delivered them 
to Major Savage at Mt. Hope, and then "returned back." 
Seventeen of these were with Capt. Henchman when he crossed 
from Pocasset to Providence, July 31st, in pursuit of Philip. 
Others were credited, as we have seen, under Capt. Prentice, 
the rest returned to their homes " after 25 days," according to 
Major Gookin. The popular prejudice against these Praying 
Indians seems to have extended to our early historians, who, 
except Gookin, seldom mention them or their service ; and since 
they were not generally credited on the treasurer's book, it is 
extremely difficult to give a correct account of them. According 
to the testimony of Major Savage, Capts. Henchman and Pren- 
tice, " most of them acquitted themselves courageously and 
faithfully," and we know that the Mohegans, in company with 
the Rehoboth men, did the most effective fighting of the whole 
campaign. 

We have noted the various elements that made up this expe- 
dition under Major Savage, and now, counting the regular forces 
that went out at first under Henchman, Prentice and Mosely as 
250 men, and under Paige 35, we have but 285 men, 95 less than 
the number stated in the letter of June 28th. This seems a large 
number to allow as guards and attendants, but I think that some 
twenty-five or thirty men besides Paige's troop went out with 
Major Savage and joined the companies already there. It will be 
remembered that 121 men were credited under Capt. Henchman, 
nearly all of whom, after a diligent comparison of their credits 
and subsequent service, I conclude must have joined him as early 
as July 1st. And this reckoning still leaves a large margin for 
attendants and guards. The round number of " about 400 " in 
the letter of July 5th may have included the men of Capt. John- 
son, who conducted the 52 " Gookin " Indians, but not, I think, 
the Indians themselves. It is barely possible that the crews of 
the two vessels were counted, making about twenty men addi- 
tional. The reference to " dragoons " is explained by the fact 
that Capt. Henchman's company was furnished with horses. 

The " Guards and Carriage " account does not show an amount 
of expense corresponding to the large number apparently em- 
ployed for that service, the total amount for the several cam- 
paigns up to January 25, 1675-6, being but £16.10.00. Some 
of the guards in his first expedition were charged directly to 
Plymouth Colony, those evidently who guarded the carts sent 
with ammunition, etc., to supply their wants. The following 



96 KING Philip's war. 

were thus charged at <£00. 03s. OOd. apiece for guarding their 
am munition : Richard Smith, Thomas Lawrence, James Hoxly, 
James Montt, Ebenezer HiU. 

And these are all that I can find credited as guards for this expe- 
dition, so that I must leave the discrepancy between the numbers 
that plainly appear from the Journal credits and other various 
sources, and the statement of the letter of June 28th, to be filled 
in by the number of officers, doctors, quartermasters and their 
attendants, and also allow for some who returned home sick or 
disabled, or else deserted and received no credit on the books, 
though reckoned in the statement of the Court. This campaign 
closed, as concerned Major Savage, when he returned to Boston 
about July 20th. 

Major Savage appears not to have been actively engaged in the 
war after this campaign until the following February, but in the 
mean time as an enterprising merchant, a town commissioner, 
captain of an important company of Boston militia, with charge 
of its training and the impressment of quotas for active service, 
the latter a difficult and trying matter, we can see that he was 
not idle. The situation of affairs in the colonies at the beginning 
of February, 1675-6, was somewhat as follows : The summer and 
autumn campaigns in the west had not made any material gain 
for the English except in experience ; the Narraganset campaign 
had resulted in driving that tribe and the Mount Hope Indians 
to the north and west ; their women, children and old people, that 
survived the Fort fight, were scattered about amongst the various 
tribes nearest them ; Philip and his fighting men were thus left 
free to range up and down, overawing the smaller tribes, inciting 
the stronger to hostility against the colonies ; his agents and 
friends were active in all the tribes ; himself with a body of his 
men had retired as far as the woods above Albany, where they 
were supplied with abundance of arms and ammunition by the 
Dutch ; as a wanderer and outlaw he had nothing further to lose 
and everything to gain by the war ; the young men of the tribes 
looked upon him as a great leader, and were eager to follow him ; 
large bodies of Indians were drawn together in various places ; 
most of the Nipmucks, with some Narragansets, were encamped 
at Wenimesset (now New Braintree) ; many others from different 
tribes had gathered about Mount Wachuset ; another large 
encampment was at Squakeag (Northfield) and beyond, whither 
many of the tribes about Springfield and Hadley had withdrawn. 
And all these made common cause with Philip, and were in an 
attitude of warfare. Thus Philip, at bay, and with nearly the 
whole force of the New England tribes in active sympathy with 
him, was far more dangerous than at Mount Hope. The Eng- 
lish, on the other hand, were weary of the war which they had 
carried on for seven months, at immense expense of means and 
men, without apparent gain. The people in the frontier towns 



STATE OF AFFAIRS, MIDWINTER, 1675-6. 97 

were mostly withdrawn into garrisons, their homes broken up, 
farms laid waste, and they living in constant dread of the lurk- 
ing enemy. Military skill and bravery could avail but little 
against the tactics of a skulking foe, who came when and where 
least expected, nearly always striking those least prepared, apply- 
ing the torch, shooting from the safe covert of the woods, and, 
before effective resistance could be offered, vanisliing again to 
the forests. The Indians were intimately acquainted with the 
habits and plans of the colonists and knew just when to strike 
and where, while the English knew nothing of their movements 
except from the friendly Indians, whom they mostly distrusted. 

The English had many of these friendly Indians acting as 
spies and scouts, who circulated quite freely among Pliilip's 
allies, and brought intelligence of their plans ; but their reports 
were often received with distrust, and the Council was slow to 
act upon them, and in many cases their neglect was followed by 
disaster. One of these spies, James Quannapohit, alias Rumney- 
marsh, after visiting the Nipmucks at Wenimesset, near Brook- 
field, brought word to Boston on January 24th, of the intended 
attack upon Lancaster and other towns, but too little heed was 
paid to his warning, and so these places were one by one attacked, 
and several destroyed. 

Such was the posture of affairs in February, 1675-6, when 
Philip was preparing to strike an effectual blow against the 
colonies. On February 6th, the army returning from the Nar- 
raganset country to Boston, was disbanded. On the 8th the 
Commissioners of the United Colonies voted to raise another 
army of six hundred men for a campaign in the west. No quota 
was required from Plymouth. On the 10th Lancaster was 
attacked by the Nipmucks. On the 15th Mosely and his com- 
pany were ordered to Sudbury, and about that time Capt. Oakes 
with his troop was scouting from Lancaster to Medfield, and was 
at the latter place when it was assaulted on the 21st. On that 
day the Council voted to raise one hundred foot and seventy-two 
troopers to fill the Massachusetts quota of the proposed army. 
Major Savage was captain of this foot company, but when he was 
commissioned as commander of the Massachusetts troops on the 
25th, his lieutenant, Benjamin Gillam, succeeded to that com- 
pany's command. Capt. John Whipple was appointed to com- 
mand the troopers, and Capt. William Turner marched out with 
another company of foot. 

John Curtice and six friendly Indians from the Island were 
to serve as guides. The Massachusetts forces were ordered to 
march immediately to Brookfield, to join the Connecticut men 
under Major Treat, and Major General Denison was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the combined forces, and ordered to Marl- 
borough to direct the movements of the army. 

The Massachusetts forces joined those of Connecticut under 



y» KING PHILIP'S WAR. 

Major Treat on the 2d or 3d of March at Brookfield, and advanced 
to attack the Indians at Weuimesset, but the enemy, having 
intelligence of the design, fled before our troops arrived. Our 
dragoons, it is said, followed a part of these as far as Paquayag 
(Athol), where they crossed the river and escaped towards 
Northfield. Mrs. Rowlandson was with them a captive, in this 
retreat, and gives an account of the affair. They arrived at 
Northfield on March the 7th, went up the river and crossed to 
the west bank, where on tlie 9th they joined Philip and a large 
body of Indians encamped there. By this pursuit, and against 
the earnest advice of the Natick scouts, our army was diverted 
from the intention of attacking the Indians gathered near Mount 
Wachuset, and instead marched into Hadley on March 8th. 
Their coming, however, seems to have been opportune, as the 
evident design of the large force of Indians gathered near was 
upon the towns on the river. On the 9th they attacked West- 
field with a small force, and on the 14th assaulted Northampton 
in full force, but were repulsed. Major Treat and the Connecticut 
forces having entered the town the evening before, and Capt. 
Turner's company being already stationed there. The further 
details of this expedition must be deferred to the future accounts 
of garrisons and the several captains and their companies. 

In a letter of March 28th Major Savage gives the Council some 
account of his movements, of the attack upon the people at Long- 
meadow, of the withdrawal of the Connecticut forces, of the 
gathering of large numbers of Indians about Deerfield and North- 
field, and the danger threatening those towns. This letter is in 
the Mass. Archives, vol. 68, page 189. 

The following letter of the Council to Major Savage shows 
something of the closing movements of this campaign, and is 
copied in full from the original in Mass. Archives, vol. 68, page 
191. It is dated 1st April, 76. 

Maj' Savage, 

Wee receved your letters by the post dated 28"^ of march and perceve 
both by yo" and Mr. Nowel's letters that Coneticut forces are drawne 
of & that by reason of the numerousnes of the enimy (according to 
yo"" information) you are not in a capacity to pursue y"", also you 
intimate y*" feares of the people of these townes y' in case you bee 
drawne of w"^ y"' forces y' they wilbe in danger to be destroyed by the 
enimy allso wee understand that the townes are unwilling to attend our 
advise to draw into a narrow compass whereby wee conceved they would 
have been able to deffend themselves better, but Northampton desires 
more soldiers to be added to y" former number, they offer to mayn- 
tayne all soldiers both for wages and victuall the result of the Council 
touching this matter is y' wee are willing for present that you leave 
soldiers to assist those townes not exceeding 150 men choosing such 
as are fittest for that service and as neare as you can All single men 
Leaving Capt. Turner in Capt Poole place ; loith the Rest of the Army 
we exp'^^ comand you to draw homeward & endeav^ in y"" returne to visit 



council's letter to major savage. yv 

y* enimy about Backqudke & bee careful not to bee Deseved by y^ lap- 
wing stra.taqems: by drawinq you of fro in ir nest to follmo some men; 
Butt if Maj' Treat and the Conetecut forces should returne & y' it be 
advisable to march after y*" enimy to Dearfeld &c. wee leave you to y"' 
liberty to act as you shall judge Best; but if y" 
*and you are thereby Couetect men returnc not or after a returne draw 

Incapacitated to fur- . . ^ ,, , <.„„ , • . i 

ther ace by reason of of agaui,* then o'^ esp'^'''^ Order IS to bee upon y°' 

iighro?^3J«° en°my. °' march homewards & in y°' returne to endevor to visit 

the enimy as in o' past was exp'^^*'^'' ; If you should 

not meet with the enimy then we order you to retreat to Marlborow 

and wait their for further orders** .... 

**froin them sent in another letter Wqq JjayC latle SCUt Capt. GraVS of CharlcS- 
to him as news by order & both ^ -xi i, ^ ca j on u i j 

signed 1" April 76. towu With about 50 men and oO horses laden 

^' ^' brord-^ ^'^^ provisions & Ammunition to Qua- 
bauge ordering him to take y*" charge of y' 
Garrison for p'"sent and to returne y*" horses & men w"' S'' Ingram, so 
y' wee wilbe sufficiently recruited w* ammunition at y^ fort at Qua- 
bauge, touching that Rebuke of God upon Cap' Whiple and y" poore 
people at Springfield it is matter of great shame and humbling to us. 
The inteligence by the woonded woman of what y^ enimy said to her ; 
wee have reason to aprehend much of it is false & y' they have not 
such numbers at Dearelield neither are the Narragansetts or Nipmucks 
there ; o'' Reasons ai e because at this p''sent time & before y"'' letter 
were dated a great Boddy of Indians and wee conceive they are Nar- 
ragansetts have done great mischeif at Secuucke and Providence neare 
Secuucke upon last Lorday Capt Peirce with about 100 English & 
indians Ingaged with a great body of them about 5 miles from Secunke 
neare Mr Blackston tlje consequent of w'^*' fight was y' Peirce was 
slaine and 51 English more with him & 11 Indians y' Assisted him their 
escaped of y'' whole company not above 7 or 8 English & y'' rest the 
enimy tooke all y"" arms and two horse loads with provisions ; there was 
a great body of indians as y*^ escaped report & environed y™ Round 
Capt. Peirce with a smaler p'^ had a skirmish with about 50 of them y^ 
day before and did y'" mischeife & came of without loss w"' [.s/c] On 
the same Lord day another party of indians assalted Malborow in y* 
time of afternone execise they burnt 13 deserted houses & 11 barns at 
y' time & 3 men were wounded. The towne of Lancaster is wholly 
deserted Groton can abide no longer y" untill carts bee sent to bring y"" 
w*^*" will bee next weeke, Chelmsford wee feare will bee soone nessecated 
to do y*^ like & what IMeadfeld and other fronters towns may shortly 
bee put upon y^ Lord know, these things considered you may see the 
Nessecity of having o' Army nearer to us this day wee had intelligence 
of y* euimies assaulting and burning Providence and Rehobath : They 
earnestly sent for succor but we have y"" not we have now about 700 
men out in those westward parts at Marlboroh and o*" other fronters 
and wee are at a plunge where to raise more & kepe the heart in any 
competent safty. Thus committing you to God desiring his presence 
with & protection over you wee Remaine 

Wee have sent out a single Indian from ye Island to carry A letter 
to y^ enimy aboute redemption of Captives, hee [is] ordered to carry a 
flag of truce if hee come into your Army let him bee returned in safty. 



100 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



The following are the credits given under Major Savage, whose 
company in this campaign, from February, 1675-6, to May, was 
under the immediate command of Lieut. Gillam : 



April 24''' 1676 

Phillip Bullis. 00 18 00 

William Pasmore. 00 18 00 

James Hughes. 00 18 00 

June 24* 1676. 

Joseph PoUard. 02 01 00 

Jonathan Fairbanks. 03 07 00 

Maurice Truelove. 01 16 00 

Richard Keates. 02 02 00 

Phillip Bullis. 01 09 00 

Zibeon Letherland. 02 02 00 

Joseph Shaw. 02 02 00 

Joseph Gannett. 02 02 00 

Thomas Clark. 01 12 06 

Samuel Douse. 02 02 00 

Zekery Fowle. 02 10 00 

James Boone. 02 02 00 

John Mulbery. 03 07 00 

Gilbert Cole. 02 04 00 

David Rainsford. 02 06 00 

Joseph Andrews. 02 02 00 

Richard Scott. 03 07 00 

Henry Phillips. 02 02 00 

Richard Woody. 02 09 06 
Benjamin Gillam, Lieut. 05 15 00 

Samuel Rust. 02 02 00 

John Hand. 01 16 10 

Samuel Meares. 02 09 00 

John Hull. 09 06 00 

James Hughes. 02 02 00 

Nathaniel Richards. 03 07 00 

Henry Cooke. 01 18 06 

John Gofif. 02 02 00 

Thomas Read. 01 13 04 

Moses Pam. 02 11 04 

Benjamin Burgas. 02 12 02 

John Chapman. 02 02 00 

Samuel Bill. 02 02 00 

Edmund Gage. 02 02 00 

Ezekiel Levitt. 02 01 00 

Manasses Beck. 02 09 00 

John Figg. 02 01 00 

Benjamin Thurston. 03 03 00 

Joseph Newell. 01 18 06 

Richard Rogers. 06 17 00 

Simon Rogers. 02 00 02 



Thomas Simkins. 01 10 00 

Theophilus Thornton. 02 02 00 

Thomas Savage jr. 04 02 04 

Joseph Bodman. 01 12 06 

Thomas Williams. 02 02 00 

Thomas Bridges. 02 02 00 
Thomas Savage, Major. 28 00 00 

John Williams. 02 02 00 

James Chevers. 02 02 00 

Daniel Landon , 02 02 00 

Richard Beffer. 01 16 00 

Joshuah Hughes. 03 03 00 

Francis Shepheard. 02 08 00 

Thomas Dure. 02 02 00 

William Pollard. 02 02 00 

John Marsh. 02 02 00 

Robert Smith. 02 02 00 

John Wiswall. 04 11 00 

James Lowden. 03 07 00 

John Sage. 01 13 04 

Thomas Chapman. 01 19 04 

July 24''^ 1676 

Samuel Rigbey. 03 14 00 

Richard Woods. 02 01 00 

Joseph Pecke. 02 13 00 

Benjamin Badcock. 03 07 00 

John Alger. 01 03 04 

WUliam Gerrish. 06 11 00 

George Abbott. 02 02 00 

Christopher Cole. 01 16 00 

Charles BMnco 01 16 00 

John ManseU. 01 17 08 

Thomas Wright. 02 02 00 

John Sargent. 01 17 08 

August 24"^ 1676 
John WeUs, jr. (Weld) 01 16 00 

Jonathan Barker. 02 02 00 

James Brayley. 03 03 00 

William Stratton. 02 02 00 

Thomas Howard. 03 10 00 
Thomas Emes,aIs.Eames.01 08 04 

Joseph Knight. 02 02 00 

Sept. 23-^ 

Henry Willis. 01 16 10 

John Ruggles. 02 07 00 

Richard Snowden, 01 16 00 



In accordance with his instructions Major Savage withdrew 



CLOSE OF WESTEKN CAMPAIGN. 101 

his troops about April 7th, leaving one hundred and fifty-one 
men with Capt. Turner to garrison the towns, and with four 
companies under Capts. Mosely and Whipple, and Lieutenants 
Gillam and Edward Drinker, marched homeward. On arriving 
at Brookfield a council of war was held to consider the later 
orders from the Council, advising an attack upon the Indians at 
Mt. Wachuset, but it was decided not advisable. (The officers 
had learned by experience the futility of pursuing the enemy 
with an army.) The expedition of Major Savage thus closed. 
The troops were either returned to Boston or engaged in other 
service, and there appear no further credits under his name. 
Accounts of Capts. Whipple and Turner are to be given here- 
after, also of other officers mentioned in the letters. In Mass. 
Archives, vol. 68, page 208, there is an order of the Council to 
Gen. Denison to inspect the army returned under Major Savage, 
and discharging those unfitted for service to dispose of the rest 
as he shall judge best. The order was dated April 10, 1676. 

It seems that Mr. Samuel Nowell, chaplain, was a member of 
the council-of-war, and voted to march to Wachuset, but the 
officers Mosely, Whipple, Gillam and Drinker voted against it 
on the ground of insufficient supplies and sickness among the 
troops. See Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p, 235t 



V. 

CAPT. THOMAS WHEELER AND HIS MEN; WITH 
CAPT. EDWARD HUTCHINSON AT BROOKFIELD. 

THE genealogy of the Wheelers of Concord is a difficult 
problem, from the fact that as early as 1640-1 no less than 
seven heads of families of that name were in town, viz., 
George, Joseph and Obadiah among the first settlers. Ephraim, 
Thomas and Timothy settled in 1039, and a second Thomas who 
appears in 1640-1. All published accounts are defective, but 
the long and careful research of Mr. George Tolman, of Con- 
cord, has done much to clear up the mystery. By a diligent 
comparison of Mr. Tolman 's papers, kindly loaned me, with all 
I am able to glean from other sources, I derive the following 
account. 

Thomas Wheeler, first mentioned, removed to Fairfield, Con- 
necticut, in 1644: his son Thomas settled on the farm he left 
in Concord, and married a wife Sarah before 1649. Mr. Savage 
erroneously identities this latter with the Captain. But of Capt. 
Thomas, we know that he was the brother of Timothy, who 
mentions in his will, probated Sept. 7th, 1687, "Joseph, Ephraim 
and Deliverance my brother Thomas his sons." He married 
Ruth, daughter of William Wood, and from the record of deaths 
in Concord we find some account of their children. Alice died 
March 17, 1641; Nathaniel died January 9, 1676-7; Thomas 
died Jan. 17, 1676-7; Ephraim February 9, 1689. Joseph and 
Deliverance, mentioned in Timothy's will, were probably the 
sole survivors of the parents. It is possible that James Wheeler, 
who married Sarah Randall in 1682 and settled in Stow, was a 
son of Capt. Thomas and Ruth. " Capt. Thomas Wheeler, hus- 
band of Ruth, died Dec. 10, 1676." Ruth the widow adminis- 
tered upon his estate next year. Their son Joseph, in 1677, 
administered upon the estates of his brothers Thomas and 
Nathaniel. The estate of Thomas consisted of " a horse, pistols, 
cutlash and gun," and was prized at <£6 12s. This was the Cap- 
tain's son who saved his father's life at the fight in Brookfield. 
The son Joseph married Mary Powers and settled in Stow, Mass. 
Deliverance married Mary Davis, and also settled in Stow. 
Capt. Thomas was admitted freeman in 1642, was sergeant 
of the foot company of Concord in 1662, was appointed, at its 
organization in 1669, captain of the horse company, made up of 
troopers from several adjoining towns. He was in command of 



"cAPT. whekler's karkative." 103 

this company in July, 1675, when it was called into the service 
of which some account is to be given. Of this the main facts 
are gathered from the very interesting " narrative " which he 
published in 1675, within a few months after the service was 
rendered. The title of this p'l'nphlet has been transcribed by 
the kindness of A. C. Goodell, Jr., Esq., from a copy of the 
original edition belonging to the Essex Institute, which copy is 
bound up with the Rev. Peter Bulkeley's Sermon, and was per- 
haps published with it. It is as follows : 

A True Narrative Of the Lord's Providences in various dispensations 
towards Captain Edward Hutchinson of Boston and my self ayid those 
that went with us into the Nipmuck Country, and also to Quabaug, alias 
Brookfield. Tlie said Captain Hutchinson having a Commission from 
the Honoured Council of this Colony to Treat with several Sachems in 
those parts, in order to thejmblick peace and my self being also ordered 
by the said Council to accompany him tuilh part of my Troop for Security 
from any danger that might be from the Indians : and to Assist him in 
the Transaction of matters committed to him. 

Of this valuable publication contemporary historians availed 
themselves. Mr. Hubbard evidently used it freely and followed 
it fully in his account. Major Gookin refers to and quotes from 
it in his " History of the Praying Indians." But Rev. Nathan 
Fiske, pastor of the Third Church in Brookfield, who preached a 
centennial historical sermon in 1775 (which was published in 
1776), seems not to have known of it, but follows Gov. Hutchin- 
son's history, who himself evidently had never seen it, at least 
does not notice it. And Rev. Joseph I. Foot delivered a His- 
torical Discourse on Thanksgiving Day, November 7, 1828 (pub- 
lished first in the same year), which discourse (says the Editor 
of the enlarged edition of 1843) was compiled by the author 
"after much inquiry and laborious research," and yet Mr. Foot 
seems to have been entirely ignorant of the existence of the " nar- 
rative," and makes no mention of Capt. Wheeler, leaving the 
natural inference that he could hardly have read either Hub- 
bard's, Mather's or Gookin's History. The edition of 1843 con- 
tains " Wheeler's narrative " in full ; and by the Editor's 
statement and a letter from Lemuel Shattuck, of Concord, it 
seems that Mr. Foot became aware of the existence of the pam- 
phlet but did not receive it from Mr. Shattuck, who possessed 
two copies, until July, 1829, some time after his discourse was 
published, and even then Mr. Shattuck appears not to have 
known that the N. H. Historical Society had published the 
" Narrative " in their Collections two years before, with valuable 
annotations. In the edition of 1843, however, the Editor plainly 
used the publication of the N. H. Society, word for word — ■ 
title, introduction, notes and all, without addition or omission, 
though omitting to make acknowledgment of the same. On July 



104 KING Philip's war. 

4th, 1860, in his oration at the Bi-Centennial Anniversary of the 
Settlement of Brookfield, Rev. Lyman Whiting gives a complete 
and eloquent account of the fight and subsequent defence of the 
garrison by Wheeler's troopers. And later Mr. H. E. Waite has 
made valuable investigations and has kindly furnished assistance, 
advice and material to the present writer, while the late Rev. J. 
H. Temple has made exhaustive researches, going over the whole 
ground and making a complete and detailed history of the whole 
affair in his " History of North Brookfield ; " publishing this 
account by Capt. Wheeler in full. 

It may be in order here to recall the situation of affairs and 
some of the circumstances that led up to this expedition to 
Brookfield. 

Having been twice warned of the designs of Philip, and his 
efforts to stir up the various chiefs of the Nipmucks, by Waban, 
the ruler of the Christian Indians at Natick, the Council at last 
began to realize that something ought to be done. And so, on 
June 13, 1675, an embassy was sent to the Quabaugs and the 
Nipmuck tribes to discover their intentions. 

The messengers visited the various Indian towns of Paka- 
choog, Maanexit, Wabaquasset, Quantisset, Chabonokongkomun, 
Manchaug and Hassanamesit, and received satisfactory promises 
from all the rulers of these towns that they would remain faith- 
ful to the interests of the English. From the Quabaugs they 
received the following document, still preserved in the Archives. 

The Ruler of Quabage being examined by us where his men were : 
he said they were at home. Then we asked him whether there were 
none of them gone to help King Philip to fight against the English of 
Plymouth ; he said No ; and neither would he help him : for he has been 
false to him already, and, therefore, I will not help him : but I wUl still 
continue our subjection unto the English of the Massachusetts Colony ; 
neither wUl I suffer any of my men to go and help him ; and in con- 
firmation of the same I do set my hand, 25 : 4 : 75. 

Conkcascogau, alias Conkganasco. 

The sachems who signed these agreements, for all were of the 
same purport, meant doubtless, to keep them. They were not 
aware that war had already begun at Mount Hope. And when 
Philip with his war-party came amongst them, they were at 
first inclined to stand aloof. But the war fever soon spread 
among the young braves, and Philip's agents went about sowing 
the seeds of disaffection, and making promises of great things to 
be done by the general uprising of all the tribes. Philip made 
presents of wampum to several of these chiefs ; and by the middle 
of July, four at least of them were in the great general war 
camp at Meminimisset, where Ephraim Curtis found them, on 
his first visit. This Ephraim Curtis was an important personage 
in the negotiations at this time and in the subsequent events. 



REVOLT OF THE NIPMUCKS. 105 

He was the son of Henry, of Sudbury, about thirty-three years 
old at this time, a notable scout and hunter, well versed in Indian 
ways, and intimately acquainted with many of these tribes. He 
was also a trader, and had a house at Quansigamug (Worcester). 

He gives a detailed and interesting account of this visit, to the 
Council. This account was published in full, in the " History of 
North Brookfield," by Rev. J. H. Temple. By this account it 
appears that Curtis was employed by the Council to go into the 
Indian country about Quabaug, and find out all he could about 
their present condition and probable designs. 

Three Christian Indians, from Natick, volunteered to go with 
him, and when he arrived at Marlboro', the constable there fur- 
nished him with two men, mounted and equipped, and there also 
another Indian volunteered with him. 

At Marlboro' he heard that his house at Quansigamug had been 
plundered, and that Mattoonas, the Nipmuck chief, with a large 
war-party, and some of Philip's men, was raiding the country to 
the southward. Holding their course through Brookfield, they 
came after several days to a place where the great body of the 
Indians were gathered. He says " These Indians have newly 
begun to settle themselves upon an Island containing about four 
acres of ground, being compassed around with a broad mirey 
swamp on the one side, and a muddy river with meadow on both 
sides of it on the other side, but only one place that a horse could 
possibly pass, and there with a great deal of difficulty by reason 
of the mire and dirt." 

The savages were in an ugly temper, and it was with much 
trouble that he finally prevailed upon them to listen to his mes- 
sage, the Indians in his company pleading earnestly for him. At 
last he gained speech with the Sachems and found them to be 
Muttaump, Konkganasco, Willymachen, Upchattuck, Keehood, 
and Noncatonsoo. Of these Muttaump, the Sachem of Quabaug, 
was leader. Curtis judged that there were about two hundred 
warriors at the place. His conference with these Indians was on 
July 14th, and on that same day Mattoonas had attacked Mendon, 
and killed five men at work in the fields. This report of Curtis 
was made to the Council on July 16th, and greatly disturbed 
them, so that Curtis was at once despatched back to the Indians, 
with a message and with letters to Major Pynchon at Springfield. 
He returned from this second trip on July 24th, and reported 
that he was well received by the Indians who were at the same 
place, and that they had promised to send Keehood and another 
of the Sachems to Boston within four or five days to speak with 
the Governor. The Council, however, did not wait for this time 
to elapse, but determined to send a larger force to confer with 
the Indians, so as to enforce their demands if necessary. But 
they entirely misjudged the strength and temper of the savages, 
and were deluded by their supposed knowledge that Philip was 
securely shut up in the swamp at Pocasset. 



106 KING Philip's war. 

At a meeting of the Council on July 26tli, Capt. Thomas 
Wheeler, of Concord, was summoaed to appear at Boston next 
day at ten o'clock, with twenty of his troop, to receive further 
orders. 

Capt. Edward Hutchinson was also called into service again, 
and on the 26th the following commission was issued to him. 

(Mass. Arch., vol. 67, p. 228). 

Boston 27. July 1675 

The Council beeing informed y' the narraganset Indians are come 
downe with about one hundred Armed men into the Nipmuck country, 
Do order you Capt Edward Hutcheson, to take with you Capt Thomas 
Wheler & his party of horse with Ephraim Curtis for a guide & a suffi- 
cient interpreter, & forthwith to repaire into those parts & ther Laubour 
to get a right understanding of the motions of the Narraganset indians 
& of y" indians of Nipmuck : and for that end to demand of the leaders 
of y'' narraganset Indians an acc'ot of y'' grouns of y*""^ marching in y' 
country & require to understand the orders of their Sachems, And also 
to demand an Account of the Nipmuck Indians why they have not sent 
downe their Sagamore according to their promise unto o"^ messenger 

Ephraim Curtis, And further let y™ know y' wee are informed that 

there are some among them y' have actually joyned with our enemies 
in the murder & spoyle made upon the English by Philip, And that 
Matoones & his Complices who laave Robed & Murdered our people 
about Mendon are now among y"' And y' wee require them to deliver 
up to you or forthwith bring in to us those our enemies, otherwise wee 
must Looke at them to bee no friends to us, but ayders and abettors 
[sic] and unto all these things you shall require y'"'' expr'sse answer; 
& as soon as you have dispatched the affayre, you are to returne home 
& give us an acct, so desiring the Lords pr'"sence with you & in prose- 
cution of this affayre if you should meet with any Indians that stand in 
opposition to you or declare y'"selves to bee yo"" enemies then you are 
ordered to ingage with them if you see reson for it & endeav'' to reduce 
y"" by force of Arms. 

" Capt. Edward Hutchinson was the eldest son of William and 
Ann, and came to this country from England with his uncle 
Edward Hutchinson, probably in September, 1633, a year before 
his parents came. His family were much interested in the civili- 
zation of the Indians, and were widely known amongst them. 
Capt. Edward owned a large farm in the Nipmuck country, and 
had employed several of the sachems in tilling it. He was 
popular with the Indians, experienced in military matters, 
trusted by the colony, and had several times been sent to treat 
with different tribes, and was but lately returned from the treaty 
with the Narragansets." 

Such was the situation when, as we learn from Capt. Wheeler's 
narrative above mentioned, he, with about twenty of his troop, 
reported to the Council as commanded, and with Capt. Hutchin- 
son marched, on July 28th, from Cambridge to Sudbury, and 
thence the next three days into the Nipmuck Country. They 



EXTRACT FROM WHEELER's STORY. 107 

marched to within two miles of New Norwich, and finding all 
the Indians had fled from their towns, and meeting with but a 
few stragglers here and there, who fled from them, they marched 
back to Brookfield, arriving there Sunday, August 1st, and hear- 
ing of Indians in great force about ten miles away, they sent out 
four men to treat with them. One of these was Ephraim Curtis 
(as I find by his testimony in the trial of the Wabaquassa Indian, 
Poquahow, for being engaged in the assault upon Capt. Hutchin- 
son and the rest), two I think were Brookfield men, and the 
fourth was probably one of the Indian guides. They met the 
Indians about eight miles from Brookfield in a swamp, and after 
the young warriors had blustered and threatened a long time, 
their sachems agreed to meet Capt. Hutchinson and his party 
next day at 8 o'clock at a plain three miles from Brookfield. 
Capt. Hutchinson, accompanied by the troopers, scouts and three 
of the " chief men " of Brookfield went to the place appointed ; 
but no Indians appeared. Whereupon the officers suspected 
treachery, and were earnestly warned by the Indian guides not to 
go on; but the Brookfield men were so confident of the good 
faith of the Nipmucks, and urged so hard, that at last they 
prevailed, and the party marched on. 

As Capt. Wheeler relates the story : 

" The said Capt. Hutchinson, who was principally entrusted 
with the matter of Treaty with them, was thereby encouraged to 
proceed and march forward towards a swamp where the Indians 
then were. When we came near the said swamp, the way was 
so very bad that we could march only in a single file, there being 
a very rocky hill on the right hand, and a thick swamp on the 
left, in which there were many of those cruel blood-thirsty 
heathen, who there waylaid us, waiting an opportunity to cut us 
off ; there being also much brush on the side of the said hill, 
where they lay in ambush to surprise us. When we had marched 
there about sixty or seventy rods, the said perfidious Indians 
sent out their shot upon us as a shower of hail, they being (as 
was supposed) about two hundred men or more. We seeing 
ourselves so beset, and not having room to fight, endeavored to 
fly for the safety of our lives. In which flight we were in no 
small danger to be all cut off, there being a very miry swamp, 
into which we could not enter with our horses to go forwards, 
and there being no safety the way we came, because man}^ of their 
company, who lay behind the bushes, and had let us pass by 
them quietly ; when others had shot, they came out and stopt our 
way back, so that we were forced as we could to get up the steep 
and rocky hill ; but the greater our danger was, the greater was 
God's mercy in the preservation of so many of us from sudden 
destruction. Myself being gone up part of the hill without any 
hurt, and perceiving some of my men to be fallen by the enemies' 
shot, I wheeled about upon the Indians not calling on my men 



108 KING Philip's war. 

who were left to accompany me, which they in all probability 
would have done had they known of my return upon the enemy. 
They fired violently from the swamp, and from behind the 
bushes on the hillside and wounded me sorely, and shot my 
horse under me, so that he faultering and falling, I was forced 
to leave him, divers of the Indians being then but a few rods 
distant from me. My son Thomas Wheeler flying with the rest 
of the company missed me amongst them, and fearing that I was 
either slain or much endangered, returned towards the swamp 
again, though he had then received a dangerous wound in the 
reins, where he saw me in the danger aforesaid. Whereupon he 
endeavoured to rescue me showing himself therein a loving and 
dutiful son, he adventuring himself into great peril of his life to 
help me in that distress, there being many of the enemies about 
me, my son set me on his own horse and so escaped awhile on 
foot himself, until he caught a horse whose rider was slain, on 
which he mounted, and so through God's great mercy we both 
escaped. But in this attempt at my deliverance he received 
another dangerous wound by their shot in his left arm. There 
were then slain to our great grief eight men, viz. : Zechariah 
Phillips, of Boston, Timothy Farlow, of Billericay, Edward 
Colborn, of Chelmsford, Samuel Smedly, of Concord, Sydrach 
Hapgood, of Sudbury, Serjeant Eyres, Serjeant Prichard, and 
Corporal Coy, the inhabitants of Brookfield, aforesaid. . . . 
There were also five persons wounded, viz. : Captain Hutchinson, 
myself and my son Thomas, as aforesaid ; Corporal French, who 
having killed an Indian, was (as he was taking up his gun) shot, 
and part of liis thumb taken off, and also dangerously wounded 
through the body near the shoulder ; the fifth was John Waldoe, 
of Chelmsford, who was not so dangerously wounded as the rest. 
They also then killed five of our horses, and wounded some 
more, which soon died after they came to Brookfield." 

Thus far Capt. Wheeler's account is quoted directly. He 
then tells of their retreat back to the town, " as fast as the bad- 
ness of the way and the weakness of our wounded would permit, 
we being then ten miles from it." There is little doubt that in 
this retreat the surviving members of the company were saved 
by the sagacity and fidelity of the two Indian guides, Sampson 
and Joseph Robin, sons of old Robin Petuhanit, a faithful 
Christian Indian. These two led them around by a way they 
knew, but unknown to any of the English, all the Brookfield 
men being killed. 

The popular prejudice against the Christian Indians is here 
illustrated, in the fact, that Capt. Wheeler was fully aware of 
the good service of these guides, and yet here gives them no 
credit for this nor for the urgent warning against entering the 
swamp. He afterwards gave them a certificate, testifying to this 
service. These two were afterwards so unjustly used by some of 



SIEGE OF BROOKFIELD. 109 

the people that they were driven to join the fortunes of the hos- 
tile Indians, to save their lives. Sampson was killed by some 
English scouts near Wachuset, and Joseph was captured and sold 
into slavery in the West Indies. George Memecho was the third 
Indian guide with Capts. Wheeler and Hutchinson at Brookfield, 
and he was captured and kept prisoner for some time but finally 
returned and gave intelligent information of the condition of 
affairs among the hostile Indians. From Capt. Wheeler's further 
narration and from other authentic sources, we learn that after a 
circuitous and difficult march of ten miles the company came into 
Brookfield town, spreading the alarm among the inhabitants. 
There they at once seized and hastily fortified one of the larg- 
est and strongest houses, said to have been the Inn of Sergt. 
John Ayres, just slain in the fight. 

The alarm spread through the town, and the inhabitants im- 
mediately left their own houses and fled to the house held by the 
troopers ; in their fear, bringing very little with them, either of 
food or clothing. Capt. Wheeler, finding himself, by reason of 
his wound, unable to conduct the defence of the garrison, 
appointed to that office Simon Davis, of Concord, James Richard- 
son and John Fiske, of Chelmsford. Within two hours after they 
returned to the town, the Captains sent out Ephraim Curtis, and 
Henry Young of Concord, to carry news of the disaster to the 
Council at Boston, but in tliis time the Indians had crept warily 
about the town, and were found by the messengers pillaging the 
outlying houses. Finding the way encompassed and the whole 
force of the enemy closing in upon them, the messengers returned 
to warn the garrison. Immediately the Indians came swarming 
upon them with fierce volleys and loud shoutings, " sending in 
their shots amongst us like hail through the walls." But one 
man, Henry Young, above mentioned, was killed, and that in the 
evening while looking out from the garret window ; and a son of 
William Pritchard (slain at the fight in the morning), who had 
ventured out of the garrison to fetch some things from his father's 
house still standing near by, was killed just as he was leaving 
the house to return, and his head was cut off and tossed about in 
view of the English, and then set upon a pole against the door 
of his father's house. All night they besieged the house fiercely, 
till about three o'clock in the morning August 3d, when they 
collected hay and other combustibles, and attempted to set the 
house on fire at the corner. Under cover of their comrades' 
muskets, a party promptly rushed out in the face of the enemies' 
bullets, and put it out. Only two of these were wounded. At 
this time, at Capt. Wheeler's request, Ephraim Curtis made an 
attempt to get away through the lines to carry a message, but 
failed ; but near morning he tried again and succeeded by creep- 
ing a long distance on his hands and knees to elude the Indians, 
and after a day and night, fainting with hunger and fatigue, 



110 KING Philip's war. 

reached Marlborough on August 4th. But the news of the 
destruction of Brookfield had preceded him, carried by some 
people who were travelling towards Connecticut, and coming to 
Brookfield and seeing the burning houses and the killing of some 
cattle, turned back and spread the alarm at Marlborough, and a 
post was immediately sent after Major Willard who was to march 
that day from Lancaster to Groton. The messengers overtook 
him already upon the march, and upon receipt of the message he 
promptly turned his force of forty-six soldiers and five Indians 
under Capt. James Parker of Groton, towards Brookfield. 

In the mean time the Indians kept up their furious assault upon 
the garrison, trying by every art to fire the house through all the 
day and night, August 8d, which the English succeeded in pre- 
venting, without injury, except to one Thomas Wilson, who was 
wounded while venturing into the yard outside to draw water. 
On August 4th, the enemy having received large reinforcements, 
proceeded to fortify the meeting-house near by, and also the barn 
belonging to the besieged house, to protect themselves from the 
watchful aim of the English muskets. They filled a cart " with 
flax, hay and candlewood, and set up planks fastened to the cart 
against our shot." This they designed to wheel against the 
house, under cover for the night. And later, they invented a 
machine-of-war, of a style unheard of before or since in war- 
fare. It was a sort of trundling wheel-barrow fourteen rods long, 
a pole thrust through the heads of a barrel for a front wheel, and 
for a body long poles spliced together at the ends and laid upon 
short cross-poles, and lashed to the fore axle and truckle wheels 
placed under at intervals. They constructed two of these centi- 
pede-like carriages and loaded the fronts with quantities of com- 
bustibles, such as hay, flax and " candle wood." These were 
scarcely completed, however, when a heavy shower fell and wet 
down their combustibles, so that they would not readily burn, 
and in the mean time Major Willard and his force arrived, and so 
intent were the Indians about the machines, that his company, 
coming about an hour after dark, gained the yard of the gar- 
risoned house before the enemy perceived them. There was a 
large body of Indians posted about two miles away, on the road 
by which the Major's company had come, and another party of 
over one hundred in a house nearer the garrison. The outpost 
had let the company pass unharmed, depending upon those 
nearer to strike the blow ; and these latter depending upon the 
others for an alarm, which either was not given, or else, in the 
excitement of building the machines, they did not hear, both 
missed the opportunity of attack. As soon as they saw their 
mistake they attacked the Major's party with fury, but without 
much avail, and all were soon safely within the house. The 
Indians seeing their devices defeated and the garrison reinforced, 
set fire to the barn and meeting-house, and in the early morning 
of August 6th, withdrew. 



SIEGE OF BEOOKFIELD. Ill 

Such is Capt. Wheeler's account, in brief, of the famous 
encounter at the Quabaug Swamp, and the subsequent defence 
of Brookfield. And I have followed his account thus fully and 
at some length, because most of the published accounts that I 
have seen have either conflicted with his or have been otherwise 
misleading. 

As to the locality where the above surprise, and almost 
massacre, took place, there has been much interesting discussion 
within the last ten years. Two places seem to answer very 
closely the conditions of the account of Capt. Wheeler and the 
others, whose testimony has been used in the matter. One of 
these places is situated in the north-westerly part of New Brain- 
tree, where was an ancient Indian town called Meminimisset, 
afterwards Wenimisset. Dr. L. R. Paige, D.D., of Cambridge, 
advocates this location, and by an able and convincing array of 
facts and arguments, in the " New England Historical and Gene- 
alogical Register" of October, 1884, leads to the conclusion that 
the scene of the tragic affair was just east of Wenimisset Meadows, 
near what is now known as "■ Brookside Farm." The other 
location mentioned, is the ravine near the New Braintree and 
Brookfield line, some two and a half miles from Wickabaug Pond. 

This location is advocated by the Rev. J. H. Temple, late of 
Framingham, author of the History of North Brookfield, above 
mentioned. In his volume he brings forward equally strong and 
convincing proofs and arguments in favor of his location. Both 
these gentlemen are eminent authorities in antiquarian research ; 
both are equally earnest in their convictions ; both i-eason from 
the same evidences in general, viz. " Wheeler's Narrative," the 
testimony of the various reports of Ephraim Curtis, Mrs. Row- 
landson, the Indian guide, George Memicho, and others, but each 
interprets these witnesses as proving his own theory. I am free 
to say that reading the arguments of both again and again, I am 
unable to decide which is the most probable site of the encounter. 

But fortunately there has been new light shed upon the affair 
from an unexpected quarter. In 1893, an ancient map of a tract 
of country, covering this very territory, was brought to light from 
the unpublished manuscript treasures of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society, by Dr. Samuel A. Green, and published in fac- 
simile in the " Proceedings " of the Society for that year. 

This map is entitled " A New Plan of Several Towns in the 
County of Worcester," and bears date of March 30, 1785. It 
was the work of General Ruf us Putnam, at that time of Rutland, 
but formerly of New Braintree, a distinguished surveyor, a skil- 
ful and painstaking artist, as this plan proves. The feature about 
this map of special interest to us here is the fact that it locates 
" Meminimisset," and the swamp to the east, and here is found 
the inscription, " Hutchinson & Troop Ambushed between Swamp 
& Hill." 



112 



KING PHILIP' 



This evidence would seem to confirm definitely the conclusions 
of Dr. Paige, and settle the location positively at Meminimisset, 
(Wenimisset). It certainly shows that in 1785, that spot was 
known as the scene of the struggle. By the courtesy of the 
Mass. Historical Society I am able to present this ancient plan in 
part to my readers. 

The Nipmuck tribes were alone concerned in this attack upon 
Brookfield; the Quabaugs, Wabbaquassets and Nashaways, 
being the chief. Philip left Pocasset Swamp July 31st, and with 
a small number of his warriors arrived at " Quabaug Old Fort " on 
Thursday, August 5th. By a letter from Major John Pynchon, 
of Springfield, to Gov. Winthrop of Connecticut, we learn that 
Philip was settled with his band on August 7th, not far from 
Meminimisset ; and that Philip's brother was there, and Mattaloos 
(Mattoonas) also with some two hundred men. George Memicho, 
the Indian captive taken at Brookfield, relates that Philip brought 
about forty men with him, and "many more women and chil- 
dren." About thirty of his men had guns, the rest bows and 
arrows. On their return from Brookfield, the victorious Nip- 
mucks told Philip of their exploit, and he gave three of the 
Sagamores, Apequinash, Quanausit and Mattaump, about a peck 
of unstrung wampum apiece. Philip told the Indians that when 
he came from Pocasset he had about two hundred and fifty men 
in his company, besides women and cliiidren, including Weetamoo 
and her company ; but now they had gone by themselves, and 
some were killed. He also said that if Capt. Henchman had 
pursued him closely, he must have been taken with his whole 
company. After this Philip and his company seem to have dis- 
appeared from this vicinity. But the affair at Brookfield had 
stirred up the Pocumptucks and other River Indians so that they 
were ripe for the scenes which ensued along those river towns, 
in which Philip apparently had small part. 

On August 7th fresh forces arrived from Boston, and all 
remained at the garrison till the 10th day, when Capts. Hutchin- 
son and Wheeier, with all of their company that were able to 
travel, came away and arrived at Marlborough on August 14th. 
Capt. Hutchinson died there of his wounds on the 19th, and was 
buried the next day. Capt. Wheeler and the remnants of his 
company remained there until the 21st, when they returned 
home to Concord. 

Of those who were engaged in this affair, the following re- 
ceived credit for military service under Capt. Thomas Wheeler : 



Sept. 15, 1675. 






Simon Davis. 


03 08 16 


Samson Robin. 00 


13 


08 


John Buttrick. 


03 01 06 


Joseph Robin. 00 


13 


08 


Oct. 19"^ 




Sept. 28"^ 






George Howard. 


01 08 06 


Benjamin Graves. 02 


16 


04 


John Hartwell. 


01 11 06 



WHEELER'S FURTHER SERVICE. 



113 



John French, Corp. 07 04 00 
JohnKittery(Kitteridg).03 08 06 

George Farly. 00 14 00 

James Paddison. 01 14 08 

John Bates. 01 14 03 

Simon Howard. 01 10 00 

Samuel Smedly. 00 14 00 



Sidrach Hopgood. 00 10 00 

November 30"^ 
John Waldoe. 04 00 00 

John Fisk. 01 14 09 

Jan'y 25, 1675-6. 
James Richardson. 02 02 00 



Besides these credited above, there are several mentioned in 
the " Narrative " and elsewhere, who doubtless belonged to Cap- 
tain Wheeler's troop — Zechariah Phillips, Timothy Farlow and 
Edward Coleburn, killed at the ambuscade, and Henry Young 
killed at the garrison. These with young Thomas Wheeler, 
make up the number to twenty-one, besides the guides. In Rev. 
John Russell's list of men killed in Hampshire County, I find the 
name of James Hovey, killed at Brookfield, August 2. There is 
no other authority for the statement. The name occurs after 
that of Capt. Hutchinson, and it may be that he, like Capt. H., 
died of injuries received at the fight or garrison. Ephraim Cur- 
tis was credited as directly in the service of the Council, X2 
for his service. It will be noticed that neither Capt. Wheeler 
nor his son receive credit in the treasurer's account, but it is seen 
by two items in the Court Records first, October 13th, 1675, in 
answer to his petition setting forth his necessities, that he receives 
ten pounds, and again in October, 1676, for his own and his son's 
service, he is credited full wages for both from the time they left 
their own homes till they returned to them again, which was ^28 
in addition to the £10 granted him the year before, which in the 
Treasurer's Ledger, is put under the head of "Contingencies," 
and is in part remuneration for his losses and recognition of his 
eminent services. The twenty-eight pounds must have included 
subsequent service. He remained at home for some time, and 
probably in that time wrote out his " Narrative." Together with 
others of his troop, he celebrated the 21st of October, 1675, as a 
day of thanksgiving for their safe return from Brookfield. Before 
February 29th, as is evident from the credits following, he had 
been out again in service. What or where that service was I 
have not been able to find from any published reference. 

There was, however, much quiet, though efficient, service per- 
formed in those times, that the chronicler passed over in giving 
account of the more stirring events ; and such service is often only 
revealed by these dim old pages of Hull's Journal, or the brief 
business or official letters preserved in our precious Archives. 
Such data may be helpful here. And first, the similarity of the 
amounts of credit would indicate that nearly all in this list were 
on the same service, and it would follow that the service was 
rendered before February 29th, 1676. The reference to " Groton 
Garrison " in the credit of a part of the men, seems to point to 
Groton and the neighboring towns as the place of service. And 



114 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



again the letter to the Court from Groton, dated February 6th, 
1675-6, and signed by James Parker, Thomas Wheeler and Henry 
Woodhouse (Woodis), respectfully suggests that the mainten- 
ance of a scout of " forty men, troopers and dragoons," to scout 
between Groton, Lancaster and Marlboro', is unnecessary, the 
garrison at Lancaster being sufficient for such purpose. More- 
over, that such method, considering the distance, renders the 
force unavailable in case of sudden surprise, and that such towns 
as Billerica and Chelmsford are weakened by the withdrawal of 
their troopers for this service, and that now in view of the sud- 
den disappearance of the Weymesit Indians, the troopers from 
those towns " demand a release," etc. I find that many of those 
in the list were from Billerica and Chelmsford. The letter shows 
this scouting service to have been going on, and I think it is safe 
to conclude that most of these thirty-seven men were engaged in 
it under Capt. Wheeler and Lieut. Woodhouse. 





Credited under 


Capt. Wheeler : 






Feb'y 29'^ 1675- 


-6. 






David Batchelor. 


01 


12 10 


Simon Davis (two credits ) 1 


11 


10 


Simon Crosbe. 


01 


12 10 




fNath. Hill. 


01 


12 


10 


Daniel Maginnis. 


00 


06 00 




Jonathan Hill. 


01 


12 


10 


John Kitteridg. 


01 


12 10 




Joseph Foster. 


01 


12 


10 


James Pattison. 


01 


12 10 




John Waldo. 


01 


12 


10 


Jonathan Hide. 


01 


12 10 




Francis Dudly. 


01 


12 


10 


Samuel Davis. 


01 


02 10 




Samuel Fletcher Sen 


.01 


04 


05 


John Brown. 


01 


12 10 


M 


Samuel Fletcher Jun 


.01 


12 


10 


Joseph Hayward. 


01 


12 10 




Eleazer Brown. 


01 


19 


04 


John Hayward. 


01 


12 10 




Cyprian Stevens. 


00 


14 


03 


Stephen Hosmer. 


01 


12 10 




Benjamin Graves. 


00 


19 


04 


John Gould. 


01 


12 10 




John Bates. 


01 


12 


10 


Phinias Sprague. 


01 


19 04 


t Stephen Goble. 


01 


12 


10 


Henry Green. 


01 


12 10 


March 24«^ 








Joseph Winn. 


01 


12 10 


Simon Willard. 


01 


12 


10 


Sept. 23'^ 1676 


. 




Thomas Tarball. 


01 


12 


10 


Abraham Jaque. 


00 


11 00 


Joseph Blood. 


01 


12 


10 


Joseph Fitch. 


01 


09 00 


June 24* 167 i 


. 






Samuel Dunton. 


01 


09 00 


Henry Woodis, Lieut. 


04 


02 


02 


Jonathan Prescott. 


00 


14 03 


Jo 


ses Buckman. 


01 


12 


10 









Of the operations of the troops about Brookfield after the 
retreat of the Indians, some explanation will be given in the 
accounts of the various captains and their companies. In esti- 
mating the number of inhabitants who were in the house and 
took part in the defence, we may consider the following data. 
The whole troop, including Capt. Wheeler and son, numbered 
twenty-two; Capt. Hutchinson, Ephraim Curtis and three 
Indians made it twenty-seven. At the fight five were killed and 
five wounded, one Indian guide captured, Henry Young killed 

1 Under Wheeler at Groton garrison. 



BROOKFIELD ABANDONED. 115 

at the house, and Curtis sent to Marlborough, leaving fourteen, 
presumably, fit for duty. There were some sixteen families 
gathered in the house, including fifty women and children. On 
August 3d Capt. Wheeler reports that only twenty-six, counting 
the men of the town and his soldiers, were capable of service. 
Hence we may infer that twelve of the inhabitants were actively 
engaged in the defence. Recurring now to the list of petitioners 
of October, 1673, published by Mr. Waite (New England Hist, 
and Genealogical Register, vol. xxxv. 336), and counting out 
Ayres, Pritchard, and Coy, killed, and Wilson wounded, we shall 
not be far out of the way in concluding that the others were 
joined with the troopers in making up the twenty-six, allowing 
for some changes by accessions to and removals from town 
between 1673 and '75. The reported numbers of four or five 
hundred Indians present, and eighty killed, will bear liberal 
reduction, though the Enghsh carbines were bravely effective. 

The following fragment may be of interest here as showing 
the presence of the celebrated pirate here just after the assault 
was over. It is taken from the Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 7. 

Boston, October y« 13, 1675. 
To the honored Governor & Councell of the Massathusets Colony in 
New England. 

These are to signyfie that Cornellius [stc] Consort the 

Dutchman was uppon the Contryes Servis Att quabauge and by the 
Councle of Warre there was sent out Capt. of the for lorne And 
Afterward marched to Grotton & Chemsfort According to my best 
Advice continued in the Countryes Servis six weekes CornelUus being 
Reddy to depart the Country & myself being here att boston the 
Major Willard being Absent I granted this ticket. 

Thomas Wheller, Capt. 

This was the famous Cornelius Anderson. In the great trial 
of the pirates he was constantly referred to as Cornelius Consort, 
i. e. Consort of Capt. Roderigo, the chief of the pirates. The 
name " Consort " thus became his familiar cognomen among the 
people and soldiers with whom he was very popular. I cannot 
tell on what occasion he led the "forlorne," but it was after 
Capt. Mosely came, Aug. 11th or 12th, and before the 15th when 
he left. The Council of War was held after Capt. Wheeler had 
gone, but now, Oct. 13th, being in Boston, Major Willard absent 
at Groton, Mosely at Hatfield, Lathrop and Beers both slain, it 
devolved upon him to " grant the ticket." 

Brookfield after the Attack. 

Capt. Wheeler relates that soon after his own return from 
Brookfield, " the inhabitants of the town also, men, women, and 
children, removed safely with what they had left, to several 



116 KING Philip's war. 

places, either where they had lived before their planting or 
settling down there, or where they had relations to receive and 
entertain them," and "the Honored Major Willard stayed 
several weeks after our coming away." 

A small garrison was undoubtedly maintained at the fortified 
house some time after the withdrawal of the inhabitants, prob- 
ably up to the 12th of October, and it is likely that widow 
Susannah Ayres remained during that time, as is indicated by 
her petition and account presented the Court in October, 1677, 
which charges supplies to soldiers under Ephraim Curtis, Major 
Willard and Capt. Poole ; but some time before November 16th 
the place was vacant, foi- the Council on that date instructs Capt. 
Appleton in his march homeward from Connecticut River, if he 
comes by way of Quaboag, to drive down some of the cattle and 
swine which they have heard have gathered about the house, as 
a relief to the " poore people that are concerned therein." There 
is much material preserved in the Mass. Archives bearing upon 
this point of the withdrawal of the garrison from Brookfield, in 
numerous letters and orders of the Council to various officers, 
all giving evidence of the complete desertion of the town about 
Oct. 12th. See especially, correspondence with Capt. Appleton 
and Lieut. John Ruddock, etc.; also petition of John Ayres's 
sons, Mass. Arch. vol. 10. 

The town was doubtless wholly vacated before the middle of 
October, and remained so, except for the frequent passage of the 
troops to and from the west, up to the last of February following. 
On the 21st of that month the Council ordered " Carpenters' 
tooles for six men, nayles of all sorts with hooks and hinges for 
doors and locks and of such sort as the chief carpenter shall 
appoint, to build a quarter at Quabaog ; " and on the 25th the 
committee was ordered to procure either John Brewer of Sud- 
bury, or John Coolidge of Watertown to go up with the army 
and build a house or houses for lodging and shelter of provisions, 
etc. A small garrison was established there under Serg't William 
Ingraham, who writes the Council on March 21st for relief, 
" men few and discouraged, need ammunition," etc. In answer 
the Council sent up Capt. Nathaniel Graves of Charlestown with 
men and horses laden with supplies, as will be seen by the fol- 
lowing order from Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 173 : 

Att a Council held at Boston, 22. March 1675-6 

It is ordered that Capt. Nathaniel Graves of Charlestown shall be 
the Comander of the Garrison at Brookfield & all Inferiour officers 
and Souldjers are requested to be obedjent to him : 

As the said Capt. Graves is ordered to take ye Coinand of twenty 
troopers and thirty horses & fiveteen men besides w*^ the Carriage 
horses to be Loaden w'^ provision & Ammunition to be conveyed to 
the Garrison at Brookfield and after the carriages are Lodged there he 
then send backe the Troopers & Carriage horses, dismissing them to 



BBOOKFIELD REGAREISONED. 



117 



theire several homes, And that W™ Ingram now Comander of the 
Garrison at Brookfield is dismissed after Capt Graves comes there who 
is to returne with the Troopers & Carriages. It is further ordered 
that Major Savage order ten Souldiers more to strengthen the Garrison 
at Brookfield as soon as he Can Conveniently. And the said Capt. 
Graves is ordered with all Convenient dispatch to march up to Brook- 
field w"' the sayd Carriages : dated in Boston as above. 

pr. Edw" Rawson, Secret'y. 

Warrants issued forth to the Constables. 



To Charlestowne for Carriage 

horses, 4 and 2 men 
besides a horse for Capt Graves. 
" Cambridge, Car. hor. 4 and 2 men 
"Watertown, " " 6 " 3 " 
"Sudbury, " " 6 " 3 " 
"Wooburne " " 6 " 3 " 



To Roxbury,Car. hor. 4 and 2 men 



30 15 
To Capt. Prentice for 7 Troopers. 
To the Constable of Marlborough 

for 6 Troopers. 
To Capt. Davis for 6 Troopers. 



The following letter is of interest both for the matter in hand 
and to show that garrison life in idleness is much the same in 
every age. From Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 237. 

Honoured Governer & 

Sir we are all In Indifferent helth we dayly are goeing forth but 
cannot see any Indians : our provissions dus spend apace And if you 
Intend to Continue y^ place we must have more prouissions y' wee have 
may Last about 8 or 10 days : for my owne partt I Can be Content w*^ 
Less y" many of y"" men heare : I have eatten but Littell of your pro- 
vissions : I expect A release by y® next y' Cum up : for I am not fit 
for y' Employ being out of my way & know there are many men more 
fit than I for y' Busines I do not Apprehend any danger to Ly heare 
for I Beleave the Indians will nott Cum to our Garreson all my feare 
is of our men y* go Abroad & are not so Carefull as they shud be we 
have had no damage yet y* makes us Secure if you doe Continue y* 
men heare they will waott showes & Shurtts And Linin drawers and 
Tobacco & A glace to Keap watch w'^ all our discontent Arises from 
y' now afore it was want of meate now we have enough heare are 
many would not care if they did stay there time out. they ow there 
masters here is noething to doe but up to play And down to sleepe if 
y* Country Can Afoard to maynteyn them so : I am Content rather to 
bare my partt of y* Charge then to play heare where I Can do no good 
w*"' showes and other things we had was sent to hadly & I have a 
Resayte for them from y'' Commissarys w'^'' I hoap w" discharge mee 
w*^^ is all y' offers att present from 

Sir, your Seruant In what I am abell & understand. 
28"'Aparell 1676 Nathaniel Graves. 

On May 5th Serg't Ephraim Savage was chosen to go up to re- 
lieve Capt. Graves with new supplies, and to send home those 
that were sick or greatly needed at home, and to take command 



118 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



of the garrison, thirty of the men at least to remain. Serg't 
Savage was excused from the service on account of sickness, and 
Thomas Walker, " the brickmaker," was chosen in his stead. It 
would seem, however, that his health improved, for he went with 
a lieutenant's commission and wages, and the credit below shows 
him to have served, and not Walker. Of the subsequent history 
of the garrison there is no definite account, but frequent refer- 
ences to it as a base of supplies, etc., show it to have been main- 
tained for some time. 

The following names are credited with military service at the 
garrison at Brookfield and " Quabaug." 



June 24, 1676 








Nathaniel Partridg. 


05 08 00 


John Ray man. 


01 


00 


00 


John Sargent. 


03 02 06 


James Kelling. 


05 


01 


00 


Charles Duckworth. 


03 15 00 


Ezekiel Levitt. 


01 


04 


00 


John Cromwell. 


03 15 03 


John Norton. 


01 


09 


00 


John Norton. 


01 12 06 


John Mansell. 


01 


18 


00 


William Bodkin. 


04 12 06 


July 24, 1676 








John Jeffery. 


04 19 04 


Joseph Hide. 


*01 


00 


06 


Joseph Swady. 


04 12 06 


Isaac Perkins. 


01 


01 


04 


Ebenezer Engellsbee. 


04 12 06 


Nicholas Rawlins. 


00 


07 


00 


Henry Pellington. 


05 07 00 


George Norton. 


00 


06 


04 


John Algar. 


03 02 06 


Benjamin Dunnage. 


01 


08 


03 


Thomas Stacie. 


01 12 06 


John Artsell. 


01 


08 


00 


Sylvester Haies. 


04 10 00 


Thomas Scott. 


01 


04 


00 


John Simple. 


03 02 06 


Thomas Cooper. 


05 


00 


00 


August 24«> 1676 


Thomas Philips. 


05 


03 


06 


John Cromwell. 


02 09 06 


Joseph Garfell. 


00 


17 


00 


Charles Duckworth. 


02 09 06 


Benjamin Pickerin. 


04 


10 00 


Edward Blancher. 


05 10 00 


John Glide. 


05 


08 


00 


David Crouch. 


02 06 02 


Benjamin Bucknall. 


04 


15 


00 


David Jones. 


07 06 06 


Ephraim Savage, Lt. 


04 


07 


09 


Philip Sandy. 


05 08 00 


Christopher Cole. 


03 


02 


06 


Thomas PhUlips. 


00 18 00 


Charles Blinco. 


03 


13 


00 


John Cutler. 


05 09 08 


John Mansell. 


01 


10 00 







There is no reliable evidence that the town of Brookfield was 
resettled before 1686 or 7. Many families were there before 
1693, and a garrison house had been built, when, on July 27th of 
that year, a band of twenty-six Canadian Indians attacked the 
town and killed and captured several of its inhabitants. 



yi. 

MAJOR SIMON WILLARD AND HIS MEN. 



OF all the names that stand upon the pages of New England 
history, none are more honored than that of Major Simon 
Willard. His biography has been written in the " Willard 
Memoir," and therefore only a brief outline will be necessary 
here. He was born at Horsmonden, County of Kent, England, 
baptized April 7, 1605. He was the son of Richard and his 
second wife Margery. Simon married in England Mary Sharpe, 
of Horsmonden, who bore him before leaving England (probably) 
three children, and six in New England. He married for a 
second wife Elizabeth Dunster, who died six months after her 
marriage ; and a third wife, Mary Dunster, who bore him eight 
children, between the years 1649 and 1669. Simon Willard ar- 
rived in Boston in May, 1634, and settled soon after at Cam- 
bridge. He was an enterprising merchant, and dealt extensively 
in furs with the various Indian tribes, and was the " chief e in- 
strument in settling the towne " of Concord, whither he removed 
at its first settlement in 1635-6, and remained for many years a 
principal inhabitant of that town. On the organization of the 
town he was chosen to the office of clerk, which he held by annual 
election for nineteen years. It is said upon respectable authority 
that he had held the rank of captain before leaving England, and 
in Johnson's " Wonder Working Providences " he is referred to 
as " Captain Simon Willard being a Kentish Soldier." In 1637 
he was commissioned as the Lieutenant-Commandant of the first 
military company in Concord. At the first election, December, 
1636, he was chosen the town's representative to the General 
Court, and was reelected and served constantly in that office till 
1654, except three years. In that year he was reelected, but was 
called to other more pressing duties ; and afterwards to his death 
was Assistant of the Colony. In 1641 he was appointed super- 
intendent of the company formed in the colony for promoting 
trade in furs with the Indians, and held thereafter many other 
positions of trust, either by the election of freemen or the appoint- 
ment of the Court, too many to admit of separate mention here. 
In 1646 he was chosen Captain of the military company which, 
as Sergeant and Lieutenant, he had commanded from its organiza- 



120 KING Philip's war. 

tion. For many years he was a celebrated surveyor, and in 1652 
was appointed on the commission sent to establish the northern 
bound of Massachusetts, at the head of Merrimac River, and the 
letters S W upon the famous Bound-Rock (discovered many 
years ago near Lake Winnepesaukee) were doubtless his initials, 
cut at that time. In 1653 he was chosen Serjeant-Major, the 
highest military officer of Middlesex County. 

In October, 1654, Major Willard was appointed commander-in- 
chief of the military expedition against Ninigret, Sachem of the 
Nyanticks, as told heretofore, in the Introductory Chapter, p. 22. 
In the settlement of the town of Lancaster Major Willard had 
been of great service to the inhabitants, and their appreciation 
was shown when, in 1658, the selectmen wrote him an earnest 
invitation to come and settle among them, offering a generous 
share in their lands as inducement. This invitation he accepted, 
sold his large estate in Concord, and removed to Lancaster, prob- 
ably in 1659, and thence to a large farm he had acquired in 
Groton, about 1671, at a place called Nonacoicus. 

At the opening of " Philip's War," Major Willard, as chief 
military officer of Middlesex County, was in a station of great 
responsibility, and was very active in the organization of the 
colonial forces. His first actual participation in that war was in 
the defence of Brookfield, the particulars of which have been 
noted. We must admire this grand old man of seventy, mount- 
ing to the saddle at the call of the Court, and riding forth at the 
head of a frontier force for the protection of their towns. On 
August 4th he marched out from Lancaster with Capt. Parker 
and his company of forty-six men, "to look after some Indians 
to the westward of Lancaster and Groton," having five friendly 
Indians along as scouts, and, receiving the message of the dis- 
tressed garrison at Brookfield, promptly hastened thither to their 
relief, which he accomplished, as we have seen in a former chapter. 
Upon the alarm of the disaster at Brookfield, a considerable force 
soon gathered there from various quarters. Two companies 
were sent up by the Council at Boston, under Captains Thomas 
Lathrop of Beverly and Richard Beers of Watertown, and 
arrived at Brookfield on the 7th. Capt. Mosely, also, who was 
at Mendon with sixty dragoons, marched with that force, and 
most of Capt. Henchman's company, and arrived at Brookfield 
probably about August. From Springfield came a Connecticut 
company of forty dragoons under Capt. Thomas Watts, of Hart- 
ford, with twenty-seven dragoons and ten Springfield Indians 
under Lieut. Thomas Cooper, of Springfield. These forces for 
several weeks scouted the surrounding country under Major 
Willard; the details of which service belong properly to the 
accounts of the several Captains. In addition to these were 
forty " River Indians " from the vicinity of Hartford, and thirty 
of Uncas's Indians under his son Joshua, who scouted with the 



SOLDIERS CREDITED UNDER MAJOR WILLARD. 



121 



other forces. The Nipmucks could not be found, and it was 
afterward learned from the Indian guide, George Memecho, cap- 
tured by the Nipmucks in Wheeler's fight, that on their retieat 
from Brookfield on August 5th, Philip, with about forty warriors 
and many more women and children, had met them in a swamp 
six miles beyond the battle ground, and by presents to their 
Sachems and otherwise had engaged them further in his interest ; 
and all, probably, hastened away towards Northfield and joined 
the Pocomptucks, and thence began to threaten the plantations 
on the Connecticut River. After several days diligent search- 
ing, on August 16th, Captain Lathrop's and Beers's companies, 
the latter reinforced by twenty-six men from Capt. Mosely, 
together with most of the Connecticut, Springfield and Indian 
forces, marched towards Hadley and the neighboring towns, 
while Mosely went towards Lancaster and Chelmsford. Major 
Willard remained for several weeks at the garrison. Mr. Hub- 
bard and Capt. Wheeler make this statement, and further relate 
that he soon after went up to Hadley on the service of the 
country. I think the visit to Hadley was after August 24th, as 
on that date I find a letter from Secretary Rawson to him, en- 
closing one to Major Pynchon, and advising him to ride up to 
Springfield and visit Major Pynchon "for the encouragement of 
him and his people." The writer of the "Willard Memoir" 
states that he was in command of the forces about Hadley for 
some time in the absence of Major Pynchon, but I have been 
unable to find any confirmation of this, unless it may be the 
inference drawn from Hubbard, who states that when Major 
Willard "returned back to his own place to order the affairs of 
his own regiment, much needing his Presence," he left "the 
Forces about Hadley under the Command of the Major of that 
Regiment." The letter above contained directions about the 
disposal of his forces, etc., which would naturally take several 
weeks to accomplish, and although the precise date of Major 
Willard's return from Brookfield is not given, some inference 
may be drawn from circumstances noted further on. Following 
is the list of those credited with service under Major Willard, 
from August 7th to January 25th, 1675: 



August 7'S 1675 




Matthias Famsworth. 


GO 12 06 


Richard Keatts. 


01 


02 00 


John Tarball. 


02 03 00 


Sept 17 






Lot Johnson. 


02 04 06 


Thomas Hincher. 


04 


00 00 


Onesiphorus Stanley. 


02 04 06 


Sept 21"' 






Josiah Parker. 


00 11 00 


Jonathan Prescott. 


00 


14 00 


Samuel Davis. 


00 11 00 


John Divall. 


00 


11 00 


James Nutting. 


00 11 00 


Sept 28"^ 






October 5* 




James Parker, Capt. 


01 


02 00 


Paul Fletcher. 


02 10 00 


James Knap, Serg^. 


03 


00 00 


Edward Foster. 


02 10 00 


James Fisk. 


00 


16 09 


John Barrett. 


02 10 00 



122 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



Gershom Procter. 


02 10 00 


John Jefts (or Jeffers). 


02 03 04 


Ephraim Hildred. 


02 07 00 


Anthony Hancock. 


01 01 06 


Jonathan Chrisp. 


01 04 06 


Nov. 20"^. 




John Heale. 


04 15 06 


John Brookes. 


02 04 06 


John Hawes. 


04 00 00 


Simon Willard, Major. 


10 00 00 


James Smedly. 


04 00 00 


John Bateman. 


03 00 00 


Thomas Tally. 


04 00 00 


Paul Fletcher. 


02 01 00 


Josiah "Wheeler. 


02 17 00 


John Coddington. 


03 00 00 


October 19'^ 1675 


John Gleason. 


02 03 00 


Thomas Rogers. 


02 07 04 


Daniel Lincolne. 


01 05 08 


John Shead. 


02 02 04 


William Wade. 


02 03 00 


Benjamin Simmons. 


03 06 08 


William Kerby. 


00 12 00 


Simon Willard, Major. 


30 00 00 


Consider Atherton. 


00 15 00 


Humphrey Jones alias 




Nov. 30"^ 




Johnson. 


01 18 06 


John Brookes. 


00 11 04 


Josiah White. 


00 12 00 


Edward Wright. 


00 10 00 


Daniel Gaines. 


00 12 00 


Abraham Cousens. 


01 05 02 


Ephraim Sawyer. 


00 12 00 


Dec. 20 




Daniel Adams. 


00 08 00 


John Severy. 


00 10 02 


Thomas Beamon. 


00 08 00 


January 25. 1675-6 


Simon WUlard.^ 


03 00 00 


Philip Read, Doctor. 


09 07 04 


Samuel Cleaveland. 


03 06 04 


John Smith. 


02 06 04 


John Bateman. 


03 15 00 







The foregoing list of credits I presume to embrace the company 
of Capt. Parker, who marched with Major Willard to the relief of 
Brookiield on August 4th. I judge that Capt. Parker, with some 
sixteen or more of these men, returned to Groton before August 
16th, as on that date Capt. Mosely had sent twelve men to Groton 
to help secure the town ; and Capt. Parker writes the Council on 
August 25th about their affairs, asking for arms and ammuni- 
tion, as they are expecting an attack upon the town. Those that 
went back with him were very likely Groton men, and it is prob- 
able are represented by the smaller credits. Capt. Parker acknowl- 
edges the receipt of twenty men from Capt. Mosely and Major 
Willard, and these were, doubtless, in addition to the number of 
his own men that returned with him. The rest of his company 
remained with Major Willard, as may be shown by their larger 
credits. 

From a paper which was presented to the Court after Major 
Willard's death, in statement of his unpaid, services and expenses 
for the government, it appears that 

From the 20* of September (1675) tiU the 18«> of April (1676), the 
Major was employed about the country business. Settling of Garrisons 
in towns, and settling of Indians at Concord and Chelmsford, and other 
business, etc. 



The paper is given in full in the " Willard Memoir," and shows 

1 The Major's son. His horse was killed at Brookfield, for which the Court allowed £3 in 
October, 1676. 



MAJOR WILLARD STRENGTHENS MIDDLESEX TOWNS. 123 

that this was a time of constant anxiety and activity in those 
towns, and that the Major's house at Nonacoicus (in the town of 
Groton, now within the town of Ayer) was a place of frequent 
rendezvous for the troops passing hither and thither, and of en- 
tertainment to those who come to the Major on the country's 
business. 

On September 8th the Council issued an order to Cornet 
Thomas Brattle and Lieut. Thomas Henchman to march to 
Chelmsford with fifty men, collected, thirty from Norfolk and 
twenty from Middlesex Counties, and distribute them in the gar- 
risons in the frontier towns of Groton, Lancaster and Dunstable. 
This order was probably in answer to Capt. Parker's appeal of 
August 25th. The men were to be left under the command of 
the chief officers in each town ; and as Major Willard is not 
referred to at all, it would seem probable that he had not yet 
returned from Brookfield ; but some time before September 20th 
he was at home ; and when Capt. Henchman was sent, about that 
date, to organize an expedition to Pennacook with orders to with- 
draw eighty men from the several garrisons before mentioned, he 
was instructed to meet Major WHlard at his home, and consult 
with him and the chief officers of the several garrisons as to the 
expedition. This meeting took place on September 25th, and on 
the same day Major Willard, together with officers Adams, Parker 
and Kidder, addressed a remonstrance to the Council against the 
withdrawal of so many of their soldiers. Capt. Henchman re- 
ports the same meeting in his letter of Sept. 27th. The Council, 
for various reasons, concurred with the Major, and the expedi- 
tion was abandoned. 

For the succeeding months Major Willard was busily engaged 
in ordering the defences of the Middlesex frontier towns and 
settling the various bodies of friendly Indians. Garrisons were 
maintained at Lancaster, Chelmsford, Groton and Dunstable, and 
the entire available force of the county was kept in a " posture of 
war." During the time that the army of the colony was absent 
at Narraganset, there is evidence from frequent letters, petitions, 
etc., from these frontier towns, that the people felt comparatively 
secure ; but when Canonchet, after the Narraganset fight, fleeing 
with his surviving warriors, came into the vicinity, their fears 
were newly aroused, especially when, about February 6th, the 
army abandoned the pursuit, leaving the Indians in the woods 
about Brookfield, and, returning to Boston, were disbanded. The 
Council, not insensible to the danger which thus threatened 
these towns, immediately issued orders to Major Willard to raise 
a large force of dragoons to scout in front of the towns of Groton, 
Lancaster, etc., to Marlborough. This plan met with immediate 
remonstrance from the towns, and appeals were at once made to 
the Council against the measure, as it withdrew many from the 
garrisons to a great distance for days together, leaving them 



124 KING PHILIP'S WAR. 

exposed to sudden incursions from the prowling and watchful 
enemy. 

At this time Major Willard was so busy ordering the defences 
of the towns that he was unable to take his seat in the Council, 
and sent them a letter of explanation. This letter is not found 
in the archives, but the answer of the Council is as follows, giv- 
ing some idea of the contents : 

Sir. The Council received your letter and are sorry for your 
excuse for not coming to the CouncU by reason of the State of Lancas- 
ter, which we desire you to endeavor to the utmost of your power to 
relieve and succour. We are useing our best endeavours to prepare 
more forces to send to distress the enemy. You shall hear more from 
us speedily, and in the interim we desire you to be in readiness if you 
should have a full command over the forces to be sent forth from the 
Colony. E R Secy 

11 Feb. 1675. 

The Council's letter was written the day after the attack upon 
Lancaster, of which evidently they had not heard. Major Willard 
was probably at this time at Groton or Chelmsford, where an 
attack was daily expected, doing all in his power with the small 
force at his command to protect these towns from surprisal. 
After the attack upon Lancaster, a large party of the Indians 
swept down towards Plymouth Colony, taking Medfield on the 
way, February 21st, and for the time distracting attention from 
the main body, which, as soon became evident, were still in 
the vicinity of "Wachusett Hills." On February 19th Major 
Willard and Capt. Parker, in behalf of the people of Groton, sent 
an earnest appeal to the Council for help and advice. On the 
21st the Major was present at the sitting of the Court at Boston, 
and remained during the session. He was at Cambridge on 
March 4th, and certainly did not return to Groton till after 
March 7th, as on that day he was at the Court of Assistants. It 
was probably by his endeavors that a levy was ordered to be 
made on Norfolk and Essex Counties (forty-eight from Essex 
and forty from Norfolk). These forces were hastily collected, 
and under the stress of the news of the attack upon Groton were 
placed under the command of Capt. Joseph Cook, of Cambridge, 
and ordered to report to Major Willard at Groton at once. This 
action was taken by Major Gookin and Thomas Danforth, two 
members of the Council living at Cambridge, and was approved 
by the Council at their next meeting, March 16th. 

On March 9th the Indians again appeared at Groton, doing 
some mischief, and again on the 13th in full force, and destroyed 
all the houses in town except the garrison houses, and one even 
of these, from which, however, the people had escaped. I think 
that Major Willard marched up from Watertown with Capt. 
Cook's force on the 12th or 13th, and arrived at Groton on the 
14th, as the Indians retired on that day, apparently aware of the 



INDIANS ASSAULT GROTON. 125 

approaching force. The people got safely within their garrisons 
before the attack, and but one man, probably John Nutting, was 
killed. The town was abandoned within a few days, and the 
inhabitants removed to the towns nearer the coast. Major Wil- 
lard, with his family, removed to Charlestown. It is likely that he 
had removed his family some time before the destruction of his 
house, on the 13th, as that stood in an exposed position, and 
his son Samuel Willard, the minister of Groton, had another of 
the garrisoned houses. 

The Indians were greatly elated at their success at Groton, and 
threatened to attack and destroy all the towns, including even 
Boston, and Major Willard's orders were, after relieving Groton, 
to scout back and forth to protect the neighboring towns, espe- 
cially Chelmsford and Marlborough. The business of the removal 
of the people of Groton was committed to Capt. Joseph Sill, of 
Cambridge, who went up with troops and some sixty carts for 
that purpose. This design was successfully carried out, although 
the force guarding the long line of carts was so small, and an 
ambush was laid and an attack made upon the advance from a 
very advantageous position. Two of the " vaunt Carriers " were 
mortally wounded, but the English were promptly drawn up for 
battle, and after a few shots the enemy retired before their well- 
aimed volleys. In the mean time Major Willard, and his Essex 
and Norfolk men, were not idle, as will be seen by the following 
account, prepared by him, of his movements from March 21st to 
the 29th. Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 186. 

A short narrative of what I have attended unto by the Councill of 
late, since I went to reheve Groatton. The 21 : 1 : 75-76, I went to 
Concord, and divided the troope committed unto me from Essex & 
Norfolke into three pts one to garde the carte, pressed from Sudbury, 
one pt for y^ carte pressed from concord, both to Lancaster, one pt for 
y* carte that went from Charlestowne & Wattertowne that went vol- 
intiers or wear hiered when I had sent them to their several! places I 
came downe being the 22 : 1 : 75-6 : & went to concord the 25 : 1 : 75, 
when I came there & inquired how it was with Lancaster the answer 
was they weare in distresse, I p'sently sent 40 horse thither to fetch 
awaye corne, and I went that night to Chellmsfoord to sc how it was 
with them, they complayned, Billerikye Bridge, stood in great need of 
beinge fortified, I ordered that to be don, allso they told me, that the 
Indians made two great rafte of board & rayles, that they had gott, 
that laye at the other syd of the river, I ordered 20 souldiers to go 
over & take them, & towe them downe the River, or p'"serve them as 
they se cause, the 27 of this instant I went from Chellmsford to con- 
cord agayne when I came there, the troopers that I sent to Lancaster 
last had brought away all the people there, but had left about 80 
bushells of wheat & Indian corne, yesterday I sent : 40 : horses or 
more to fetch it away, & came down from concord, this day I ex- 
pect they will be at concord, Some of the troope I relesed when this 
last worke was don, the other I left order to scout abroad until! they 
heare from me agayne, I thought it not meet to relese men, when we 



126 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



stand in need of men, my desire is to know what I shall do herin in, 
concord & chelmsford look every day to be fired, and wold have more 
men but know not how to keepe them, nor paye them, your humble 
servant. Simon Willard 29:1:76. 

The troops that went up from Norfolk and Essex were credited 
under their special officers, and will there appear. The following 
are those who receive credit under Major Willard, and are those 
probably who were employed in scouting with him in the early 
part of the winter. 

Credited under Major "Willard. 



February 29*^ 






John Dexter. 


00 07 00 


Thomas Wheeler 


02 


16 08 


Samuel Green. 


00 07 00 


June 24"^ 






Joseph Wilson. 


00 07 00 


Edward Young. 


01 


04 00 


John Lind. 


00 07 00 


July 24"^ 






Thomas Newell. 


00 07 00 


John Bush 


01 


04 00 


John Sprague. 


00 07 00 


Isaac Fellows. 


01 


05 06 


Thomas Munge. 


00 07 00 


Samuel Ingolls. 


01 


10 10 


Peter Towne. 


00 07 06 


Samuel Bishop. 


01 


10 00 


Thomas Wheeler, jr. 


04 00 00 


August 24"= 






William Price, jr. 


01 07 04 


William Green. 


00 


08 06 


September 23*^ 




Phinias Sprague 


00 


07 00 


Francis Whitmore. 


00 10 00 


John Green 


00 


07 00 


Daniel Gowen. 


01 17 04 



On March 29th Major Willard was in his seat at the Court of 
Assistants, and his family was then living at Charlestown. He 
was also at the session of the County Court at Cambridge at its 
session beginning April 4th. On the 11th he was reelected as 
Assistant, having the highest number of votes cast for any magis- 
trate except the governor and deputy governor. He was con- 
stantly engaged in his public duties until April 18th, when he 
retired to his home and was struck down it is thought by an 
" epidemical cold " which was then raging, and on April 24th 
" died in his bed in peace, though God had honoured him with 
several signal victories over our enemies in war," says a con- 
temporary historian. No man was ever more fully or more de- 
servedly honored in life and death than Major Willard. His 
funeral at Charlestown on April 27th was an occasion of great 
pomp for that time, six military companies parading under com- 
mand of Capt. Henchman ; and his death created profound sorrow 
far and wide. There are numerous references to his death and 
funeral in the literature, records and MS. journals of that day. His 
family was reimbursed for his great expense and services, in 1677 ; 
and again in 1681 a grant of laud of one thousand acres was set 
aside for his six youngest children when they should come of age. 

He left a numerous posterity, many of whom have held honor- 
able positions in succeeding generations. His widow married 
Deacon Joseph Noyes of Sudbury, July 14, 1680, and died in 
that town, December, 1715. 



yn. 



CAPT. RICHARD BEERS, CAPT. THOMAS LATHROP, 
AND THEIR COMPANIES. 



RICHARD BEERS was admitted freeman at Watertown, 
March 9, 1637, was granted a license to "keep an ordinary" 
in Watertown in 1654, and continued that business during 
his life. He was representative to the General Court thirteen years, 
and selectman of Watertown thirty-one years, holding both offices 
at the time of his marching to Brookfield, August 6th, 1675. 
Before leaving home on that day he made a nuncupatory will, 
proved Oct. 5, 1675. He left a widow Elizabeth, and their chil- 
dren were Sarah, 1st, died before Oct. 10, 1639 ; Sarah, 2d 
(born probably about 1641) ; Mary, born March 10, 1643 ; Eliezur 
administered jointly with Capt. Richard's widow Elizabeth upon 
his estate in 1682, married, April 21, 1690, widow Susanna (Har- 
rington) Cutting, and died without issue, Dec. 5, 1701 ; Judith, 
born March 26, 1646 ; Jabez, born August 4, 1651 ; Elnathan, 
married about 1681 Sarah Tainter ; Elizabeth ; Richard, born Oct. 
22, 1659 ; and Abigail, born April, 1662. From Hull's Journal I 
find that Eliezur served under Capt. Cutler in 1676. Elnathan 
was sergeant in his father's company in the west, and afterwards 
served under Capt. Sill. Capt. Beers's age was probably about 63. 
A little light may be thrown upon the history of Capt. Beers 
by the following petition in Mass. Archives, vol. 67, page 163 : 

To the Governour, etc., etc. Humble Petition of Rich** Beeres of 
"Watertown. 
Whereas your petitioner hath bin an Inhabitant of this jurisdiction 
ever since the first beginning thereof & according to his weake abillities 
served the same not only in times of peace But allsoe w''' his person in 
pequod warr in two severall designes when the Lord delivered them into 
our hands as allsoe uppon his returne such a weaknesse fell uppon his 
boddy that for Eaight years Space he was disinabled to labor for his 
ffamyly Spending a (grat) ? part of that little hee had uppon Phesitions 
& having hitherto had not any land of the Country & of the Towne 
but one Acre and a halfe besides that he hath purchased, Humbly desires 
this Honoured Court to Grant him Such a parcell of land (where he 



128 KING Philip's war. 

can find it in this wilderness) as shall seem meet to this Honoured 
Courte, and the rather Seeing he hath many children to share in the 
Same which shall further ingage him for the future. As in duty hee is 
bound to Sei-ve & Honor Y^ in the Lord. 
October 24, 1665. 

It will be noted that in the first campaign to Mount Hope the 
troops were drawn almost wholly from the vicinity of Boston, Suf- 
folk and Middlesex counties. In the latter part of July a levy had 
been made in Essex, and when on August 4th or 5th the news of 
the disaster at Brookfield came to the Council, the company from 
Salem and vicinity was summoned and sent up to the relief of the 
distressed garrison, under the command of Capt. Lathrop, and 
another company from Watertown under Capt. Beers. Accord- 
ing to Capt. Wheeler, these troops arrived at Brookfield on Satur- 
day afternoon, August 7th, and it is probable that the troops sent 
up from Hartford and Springfield arrived later, perhaps the same 
evening. It is possible that it was on Monday, 9th, or Tuesday, 
that the troops in force marched out to " Meminimisset, where 
Capt. Hutchinson and Capt. Wheeler were assaulted," and having 
found no signs of Indians in the vicinity, the company from Spring- 
field left the others and marched northward and around to 
Springfield again, while the rest returned to Brookfield. The 
English were sorely puzzled as to the whereabouts of the Indians, 
and continued scouting for several days in the vicinity of Brook- 
field, probably as far as Hadley, knowing that Philip had now 
joined the Nipmucks, and fearing that the main body of the Indians 
were at no great distance. Gardiner's bill, given below, indicates 
Lathrop's presence at Hadley, August 12, but witliin two days 
he was again at Brookfield. There, being recruited by the large 
force that came up with Capt. Mosely from Mendon, an advance 
in force was resolved upon, and on Aug. 15th, Capts. Lathrop 
and Beers with their companies marched by way of Meminimisset 
to Springfield. Capt. Mosely with his troops accompanied them 
as far as the swamp, the scene of Wheeler's fight, where he sep- 
arated from them and marched away towards Chelmsford and 
Lancaster, leaving twenty-six of his men to recruit the company 
of Capt. Beers. The troops under Capts. Lathrop and Beers, 
joined at Springfield by the forces under Capt. Watts, together 
with the Connecticut Indians, spent several days exploring the 
country up along Swift River and the Connecticut, without find- 
ing the Indians, and on Aug. 22d, as we learn from Major Pyn- 
chon's letter to the Connecticut Council, the Massachusetts troops 
had returned to Brookfield again, and Capt. Watts with his forces 
was at Hadley. 

On August 23d Lathrop and Beers had again joined Watts at 
Hadley, and at a council of war held on that day it was resolved 
to disarm the Hadley Indians who had gathered at their fort on 



LATHEOP AND BEERS AT WEQUAMPS. 129 

the west side of the river, about half-way between Hatfield and 
Northampton. Preparations were made for carrying out this 
design on the 24th. Messengers were despatched to Northamp- 
ton to secure the cooperation of the force there, which was to 
move as near to the Indian fort as possible, unperceived, while 
Capts. Lathrop and Beers crossed the river to Hatfield, to 
approach the fort from that side. In the meantime peaceful 
demands had been made upon the Indians to deliver up their 
arms, and one of their sachems had come before the council to 
present their objections ; and it is probable that many of their old 
men and others of their tribe were in favor of submission, but 
were overruled, and before the English had completed their prep- 
arations it was found that the Indians had all escaped, having 
killed one old sachem, who, it is said, opposed the flight and 
refused to join it. 

The Indians fled on the night of the 24th, and on the morning 
of the 25th, Capts. Lathrop and Beers, with one hundred men, 
pursued them, coming upon them unexpectedly " at a place called 
Sugar-Loaf Hill," "about ten miles above Hatfield," according to 
Mr. Hubbard ; " at a swamp beyond Hatfield," says Mr. Russell of 
Hadley, writing soon after. " The place is now unknown," says 
the late eminent historian of Hadley, Mr. Judd ; while Messrs. 
Temple and Sheldon, the careful historians of Northfield, locate 
the scene " in a swamp just south of Mt. Wequamps, in the 
present town of Whately." Here an engagement ensued, which 
is most reliably described perhaps by the following extract from 
a letter written by Rev. Solomon Stoddard of Northampton, on 
Sept. 15th, 1675, to Rev. Increase Mather of Boston : 

They (the English) intended to parley with the Indians, but on a 
sudden the Indians let fly about forty guns at them, and were soon 
answered with a volley from our men ; about forty ran down into the 
swamp after them, poured in shot among them, made them throw down 
much of their baggage, and after a while our men, after the Indian 
manner, got behind trees and watched their opportunities to make shots 
at them. The fight continued about three hours ; we lost six men upon 
the ground, though one was shot in the back by our own men ; a 
seventh died of his wound coming home, and two died the next night, 
nine in all, of nine several towns, every one of these towns lost a man. 
Of the Indians, as we hear since by a squaw that was taken, and by 
three children that came to our town from them the day after, there 
were slain twenty-six. . . . 

From Mr. Russell's " List of the men slain in the County of 
Hampshire," Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 33, from another list in 
vol. 67, p. 254, and from various other sources, it is judged that 
the following is a correct account of the killed at this fight 
of August 25th: 



130 KING Philip's war. 



Samuel Mason of Northampton 
James Levins of Roxbury? 
Azariah Dickinson of Hadley. 
Ricliard Fellows of Hatfield. 
*John Plumer of Newbury. 



*Mark Htman of Marblehead. 

* Joseph Person of Lynn. 

* Matthew Scales of Rowley. 
WUliam Cluffe of Charlestown. 
Edward Jackson of Cambridge 

(perhaps). 
[* Were of Capt. Lathrop's company.] 



After this skirmish the Indians made good their escape and 
probably joined the Pocomtuck tribe then living near Deerfield 
river. The English marched back to Hatfield, and thence 
crossed to Hadley, where other troops from Connecticut and 
from the East were gathering, expecting a general attack from 
the main body of the Indians, now believed to be concentrated 
at Paquoag (Athol). Nothing, however, was done by the Indians 
until Sept. 1st, when the Pocomtucks, now joined by the Nor- 
wottucks (or Hadley Indians), fell upon Deerfield, where but a 
small garrison was stationed, burned most of the houses, and 
killed one of the garrison, James Eggleston, of Windsor, Conn., 
of Capt. Watts's Company. In Mr. Russell's list the name of 
Nathaniel Cornberry is given also as slain at Deerfield, but it was 
probably later, perhaps on the 12th, when Mr. Stoddard relates 
another assault upon some of the people going to meeting, of 
whom one was taken alive by the Indians. 

Hadley was at this time the headquarters of the English, and 
probably Capts. Lathrop and Beers, with their companies, were 
there on September 1st. It is certain that they were there on 
the 2d, and were organizing a force to bring off the garrison at 
Northfield. But on that day (Thursday, Sept. 2d), while this 
expedition was in preparation, and the Northfield people and 
the garrison soldiers were abroad in the fields at work, a large 
body of Indians suddenly fell upon that town, killed many of 
the people as they fled from their homes and fields towards the 
garrison, burned all their exposed houses and destroyed cattle 
and crops. There were sixteen families in the town. The 
English killed at this time, according to Russell's list, were eight : 



Sergt. Samuel Write. (Wright) 
Jonathan Jeans. (Janes) 
Ebenezer Parsons. 
Benjamin Dinwick. (Dunwich) 



Ebenezer Jeans. (Janes) 
Nathaniel Curtis. 
Thomas Scott. 
John Peck. 



In the history of Northfield (by Temple and Sheldon) is 
additional information. Sergt. Wright, aged 45, the Janeses, 
sons of Elder William Janes, aged respectively 16 and 14, were 
all of Northfield ; Parsons, aged 20, and Curtis, were of North- 
ampton ; Peck was of Hadley ; Scott, Ipswich ? and Dunwich, 
residence unknown, perhaps identical with Benjamin Dunnage, 



CAPT. beer's company AMBUSHED. 181 

credited at Brookfield. But one Indian was known to have been 
killed. 

Hadley was thirty miles from Northfield, and, unaware of this 
assault, Capt. Beers, on the next morning, Friday, Sept. 3d, set 
forthwith thirty-six mounted men and one ox team, on his march 
to bring off the garrison and people. The march was slow and 
toilsome, and darkness came upon them when still three or four 
miles from Northfield, and they were obliged to encamp for the 
night. It is supposed that the camping was near the small stream 
called " Four-mile brook." Early on the morning of Saturday 
the 4th, Capt. Beers with most of his force started on foot, and 
leaving the horses at the camp with a small guard, and taking 
the team with stores and ammunition, advanced towards the 
town, still ignorant of the previous day's assault, and, it seems, 
entirely unsuspicious of an enemy in the vicinity. The best au- 
thority for the scene and circumstances of the engagement is 
probably the history of Northfield above mentioned, which I fol- 
low. " He appears to have kept up on the high plain till he came 
in sight of the little brook, now known as Saw-mill brook. The 
ravine was now covered with a rank growth of grass and ferns, 
and the leaves were thick on the young trees." It was at this 
place that the Indians had placed their ambuscade. He advanced 
across the brook by the accustomed fording place, and just at the 
passage, and when his company was most exposed, was furiously 
attacked in front and flank, and all were thrown into great con- 
fusion, but soon rallied and fought bravely for their lives, but 
were forced back by superior numbers some three-quarters of a 
mile to a narrow ravine on the south of a hill now known as 
"• Beers's Hill." Here a stand was made, and here the little band 
fought about their leader, with the courage of desperation, till 
their ammunition was exhausted and the captain with nearly 
every man had fallen ; only a few escaped, joined the guard left 
behind with the horses, and made their way back to Hadley, thir- 
teen in all. An undoubted tradition points out the grave of Capt. 
Beers in the ravine where he fell. Hoyt, in his history, published 
in 1824, says that the bones of the slain were still occasionally 
found protruding from the sandy knoll where the battle began. 
Mr. Hubbard relates that twenty men were killed with their 
leader. Mr. Russell, in his list, says sixteen, and gives the names 
of eleven. His list is as follows : 

At Squakheage y^ 4 of Sept 16 men were Slayn. 

Capt. Rich'^ Beers. William Markham. 

John Chenary. George Lycuss. 

Ephraim Child. John Gatchell. 

Benjamin Craekbone. James Miller. 

Robert Pepper. John Wilson. 
Joseph Dickmson. 



132 KING PHILIP'S WAK. 

Another list in the Mass. Archives, vol. 67, p. 254, adds several 
names and varies the spelling of several, thus : 



List of Capt. Beeres and those slayn soldiers, 


1675. 


Capt. Beers. 


John Genery. 




John Getchell. 


Jeremiah Morrell. 




Benjamin Crackbon. 


Elisha Woodward. 




Ephra' Child. 


William Marcum. 


I Hadley 
) men. 


George Lickens. 


Joseph Dickerson. 


John WiUson. 


James MuUard. 




Thomas Cornish. 


James Egleston. 




Robert Pepper. 


killed with Capt. 


Beeres. 



8 killed at Squakheage with Capt. Beeres of whom there is no acco'. 

It will be noticed that James Egleston, who was killed at Deer- 
field, is set down here. Robert Pepper of Roxbury was not killed, 
but taken captive and returned home afterwards. Besides the 
thirteen that escaped to Hadley that same night, three more 
came in next day. It is said that several others counted as killed 
were taken prisoners and afterwards tortured to death. One, 
whose name is unknown, was reserved for torture, but was freed 
by a friendly Natick Indian and made his escape. John Parke, 
son of Thomas of Cambridge Village, was wounded in the fight 
" in the elbow joint and the bone broken," etc. His petition says 
it was "in the fight in which Capt. Beers was killed." He re- 
mained at Hadley till Major Appleton's march home, Nov. 24. 
(See Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 198.) Probably the Indians 
engaged in the assault were less than one hundred and fifty in 
number, composed of the Squakeags, and parties of Nashaways, 
and Quaboags, led by Monoco, alias " One-eyed John," and Sagar 
more Sam. The number of Indians slain was said to be twenty- 
five, which is probably too large an estimate. 

On the next day, Sept. 6th, Major Treat, who had come from 
Hartford to Hadley on the 3d with a company of Connecticut 
men, one hundred strong, marched up to Northfield. At night 
(Sunday, 5th) he camped, probably near the camp of Beers, and 
on the 6th went forward to the scene of the battle, finding a 
ghastly sight, for many of the heads of the slain had been cut off 
and set upon poles by the wayside. Pausing only long enough 
to perform hasty funeral rites, he passed on to the garrison and 
found all safe. Hurriedly collecting the people and aU their 
effects possible, but obliged to leave the cattle, he marched for 
Hadley the same evening. Mr. Stoddard, in his letter, says " they 
left the bodies unburied," which probably has reference to the 
eight killed at Northfield in the attack on the 2d. Small bodies 
of the enemy were still lurking in the vicinity of the village, and 
a party of the English that ventured into the fields were attacked ; 
they were probably engaged in burying the dead, and Major Treat 



CREDITS UNDER CAPT. BEERS. 



133 



was slightly wounded in the thigh. It is said that many of the 
cattle followed in the retreat of the English, and afterwards came 
into Hadley. The following are the names in Hull's Journal : 



Credited with Military Service 

October, 5 1675. 

John Shattuck, Sergt. 02 07 06 

Edward Jackson. 00 18 00 

Ephraim Beares. 00 12 10 

November 9*^ 1675. 

Joseph Sill, Xemt 08 11 06 

Nathaniel Bright. 03 08 06 

Elnathan Beeres, Sergt. 05 02 09 

Nathaniel Sanger. 04 02 06 

Samuel Prentis. 01 04 00 

November 20''^ 1675. 



under Capt: Richard Beeres. 

William Russell. 04 16 00 

George Licas. 01 05 08 

December 20"^ 1675. 
Richard Wood. 04 16 00 

John Cooke. 02 14 00 

John Harrington. 04 16 00 

Nathaniel Peirce. 03 05 02 

GustinJohn. 05 04 06 

January 25*'^ 1675-6. 
John Wilson. 01 05 08 

John Bowditch. 01 16 00 

Ephraim Child. 01 05 08 

Benjamin Taynter. 04 16 00 

February 29'^ 1675-6. 
Thomas Hastings. 02 05 00 

Nathaniel King. 00 12 00 



The probable reason that so few are credited under Capt. Beers 
is the fact of his brief command, and also that the twenty-six 
men delivered to him at Brookfield by Capt. Mosely would prob- 
ably be returned to Mosely and be credited under him ; and I am 
inclined to tliink that those who survived and continued in the 
service would look to Capt. Joseph Sill, Beers's lieutenant, to sign 
their vouchers, and would receive credit under him or the officer 
that appeared afterwards in command. Shattuck escaped only 
to be drowned shortly after, crossing Charlestown Ferry. 

John Harrington of Watertown was badly wounded, but 
escaped and lived to old age. 



Jacob Hurd. 


03 14 06 


Richard Beeres, Capt. 


06 08 06 


Joseph Fuller. 


03 07 08 


John Parkes. 


03 07 08 


Benjamin Crackbone. 


02 18 00 



CAPT. THOMAS LATHROP AND HIS MEN. 

Thomas Lathrop, or Lothrop, emigrated from England to 
Salem. He was admitted freeman in 1634, and settled on the 
"Bass River" side of the town, where he received a grant of 
land near Mackerel Cove in 1636. He was lieutenant of the 
Salem Train-Band in 1644 under Capt. Hathorn, and succeeded 
him as captain of the Artillery Company in 1645. Mr. Felt 
relates that he was a captain under Major Sedgwick in the expe- 
dition of 1654-5 against Acadia, when St. Johns and Port Royal 
were reduced. He was an active and influential citizen, repre- 
sented Salem in the General Court in 1647, '53 and '64, and when 
Beverly was set off in 1668 was chosen first selectman of the new 
town, and thereafter, till his death, remained a leading actor 
in all its affairs, civil, ecclesiastical and military. He married 



134 KING PHILIP'S WAR. 

Bethia, daughter of Daniel Rea and sister of Joshua, who after 
his death and before June, 1680, married Joseph Grafton, of 
Salem, and again for her third husband, June 26, 1683, Dea. 
William Goodhue, of Ipswich. She died Dec. 6, 1686. Capt. 
Lathrop left no children, and his sister Ellen, who came with 
him from England, and became the second wife of Ezekiel 
Cheever, with her children, inherited his estate. The age of 
Capt. Lathrop is put at 65 years by Mr. Stone in his history of 
Beverly. 

In the Mass. Archives, vol. xlv, p. Ill, there is a petition of 
Capt. Lathrop, showing that he was in the expeditions against 
the Pequods in 1636-7. This petition has the signature 
" Thomas Lawthrop," and is dated 8 : 3mo. 62 ; and while I have 
some doubt whether here the writing is his own, there can be no 
doubt of his signature in vol. Ixvii, p. 50, where it appears in a 
faltering hand as " Tho : Lawthropp." 

In August, 1675, when the news of the disaster at Brookfield 
came to the Council, Capt. Lathrop was placed in command of 
the company raised in Essex County, with some men from Boston 
and vicinity, and marched up to Brookfield, where he joined the 
forces of Capt. Beers. Their companies acted mostly together 
thereafter up to the time of the latter's march from Hadley on 
September 3d. 

Elated by recent successes, the Indians pressed more closely 
about those western towns, watching warily that no opportunity 
might pass to strike a safe and telling blow. Their leaders 
constantly outgeneralled our officers, and in every engagement 
took care to have the odds, in numbers, position, and method of 
attack, on their side ; and while we are horrified at their atroci- 
ties, we can but admire their adroitness and persistence. In the 
meantime additional forces of the English were gathering at 
Hadley and vicinity, and all were under the general direction of 
Major John Pynchon, of Springfield, commander-in-chief in the 
county of Hampshire. On the return of Major Treat from 
Northfield with the garrison and people of that place, a council 
of war was held, at which it was decided to strengthen the 
various garrisons and hold the army for the present on the defen- 
sive. The Commissioners of the United Colonies had agreed to 
raise an army of five hundred men for this campaign on the Con- 
necticut River. Besides the forces of Lathrop and Beers, Capt. 
Appleton had arrived from the East early in September, and 
Capt. Mosely with a company of sixty on Tuesday, Sept. 14th, at 
evening, and probably on the 15th crossed the river and marched 
up to Deerfield. There, on the Sunday before, the Indians had 
made an assault on twenty-two men passing from one garrison to 
another to meeting ; none of ours were killed, but one was taken 
alive and probably afterwards killed, and Mr. Judd suggests that 
this was Nathaniel Cornberry, noted by Mr. Russell as among 



MASSACRE AT " BLOODY BROOK." 135 

the slain. The Indians then burned two houses, secured several 
horse-loads of beef and pork, killed many horses, and with their 
plunder betook themselves to a hill in Deerfield meadow. On 
the reception of this news at Northampton, the officers there 
raised a body of volunteers, who with others from Hadley and a 
part of Capt. Lathrop's company, marched up on Monday, 13th, 
to Deerfield garrison, and on the next day went out with the 
soldiers of the garrison to attack the Indians at the hill, but they 
were all fled. Major Treat, on Sept. 9th, had returned to Hart- 
ford, leaving a part of his force distributed in the various towns 
in garrison. On the 15th or 16th he came to Northampton with 
additional Connecticut troops, and Capt. John Mason, of Nor- 
wich, came there soon after with a body of Mohegan and Pequod 
Indians. I think it probable that the remainder of Capt. 
Lathrop's company, except the sick and wounded, passed over 
with Capt. Mosely. 

Such was the position of affairs on Sept. 18th. At Deerfield 
a large quantity of corn had been gathered from the fields and 
loaded upon carts, teams and drivers provided, and Capt. Lathrop 
with his company were appointed as a guard to Hadley, where it 
was to be stored. The English evidently had no thought that 
any considerable force of the enemy were in the vicinity, and 
Capt, Mosely and his company remained behind and were scout- 
ing in search of them through the woods about. But a large 
body had crossed the river secretly, and, undiscovered, were 
watching every motion of the English ; and now with their usual 
tactics they placed a large ambuscade in a place which offered 
unusual advantage, across the line of march. This place was 
some five miles from the place of starting, at what is now South 
Deerfield village, where a small stream, then known as " Muddy 
Brook " (but ever since as " Bloody Brook "), crossed the road. 
The English seem to have taken no precaution whatever against 
surprise, and many of the soldiers, it is said, had placed their arms 
upon the carts to be carried, and were gathering wild grapes by 
the roadside. 

We can never know with certainty much of the details of the 
battle, or rather massacre, that ensued. The survivors on this 
occasion were few, and doubtless if questioned could give but 
incoherent and exaggerated accounts. Moreover, contemporary 
historians seem to have been indifferent to particulars, and to have 
inclined rather to moralizing upon general events, and succeeding 
historians have mainly repeated the stories of the first, and it is 
only within the last few decades that our devoted historical 
societies, with their increasing facilities, have made the methods 
of intelligent criticism possible. Gen. Epaphras Hoyt, of Deer- 
field, wrote a history of the Indian wars more than fifty years 
ago, which seems to be the first effort at analysis. In that work 
are many important questions raised and valuable suggestions 



136 KING Philip's war. 

presented. In regard to this affair he suggests that the main 
part of the troops had passed over the brook and were waiting 
the slow movements of the lumbering teams over the rough roads. 
The Indians crept stealthily about and encompassed the whole 
company and fell upon them with sudden and terrible fury, so 
that many were shot down or disabled at the first volley, includ- 
ing probably Capt. Lathrop. Doubtless a brave resistance was 
made, but with little avail. The coming of Capt. Mosely upon 
the scene after the disaster, his subsequent fight and opportune 
reinforcement by Major Treat, have been previously related. 

It may be noted that here again Major Treat and the Connecti- 
cut soldiers opportunely, and as at Northfield, brought rescue, 
it is likely, from destruction. Connecticut was wise in trusting 
and employing the friendly Indians, who never allowed their 
troops to be ambushed; while the prejudice of Massachusetts 
brought upon their companies the dreadful massacres and unavail- 
ing pursuits which excite our wonder and shame even to-day. 

As to the number of the English killed in this encounter, early 
accounts vary. In the postscript to a letter from the Massachu- 
setts Council to Richard Smith, of Narraganset, dated Sept. 22, 
1675, and still preserved in the Archives, vol. 67, p. 262, the 
statement is made that " above forty of Capt. Lathrop's men with 
himself were slain ; " and then it is further stated that Capt. 
Mosely lost eleven men in the subsequent fight, which together 
with many lost that were with the teams made up sixty-four in 
all, who were buried the next day. Mr. Mather relates that 
above threescore were slain. Mr. Hubbard reckons eighty as 
the number in the company of the English, including, doubtless, 
the teamsters, and says that not above seven or eight escaped. 
In Rev. Mr. Russell's list, noticed above, the number of slain is 
put at seventy-one. This last is probably nearly correct, as Mr. 
Hull's credits, now for the first time published, after a lapse of 
more than two hundred years, go far to prove. The list pertain- 
ing to " Bloody Brook " is given below entire. It has been copied 
from the original with the utmost care, and proved and tested 
letter by letter till I feel sure of its accuracy. This list was 
first copied by Mr. Coffin some fifteen years before he published 
his " Newbury," and is the most nearly correct of any list that 
has been published hitherto that I know of ; but a comparison of 
his text with the original will show many mistakes. The follow- 
ing is the list : 

At Muddy-Brook bridge y'' 18 Sept. 71 men slane. 

Capt. Thomas Laythi'op Caleb Kemball George Ropes 

Sergt. Thomas Smith Thomas Hobs Joseph Kinge 

Samuel Stevens Robert Homes Thomas Alexander 

John Hobs Edward Traske ffraucis ffriende 

Daniel Button Richard Lambert Abel Osyer 

John Harriman Josiah Dodge John Litleale 



THE SLAIN AT " BLOODY BROOK. 



137 



Thomas Bayley 
Ezekiel Sawier 
Jacob Kilborne 
Thomas Manninge 
Jacob Waynwritt 
Benjamin Roper 
John Bennett 
Thomas Mentor 



Peter Woodberry 
Joseph Bolch 
Samuel Whitteridge 
William Duy 
Serg' Samuel Stevens 
Samuel Crumpton 
John Plum 
Thomas Buckley 



Samuel Hudson 
Adam Clarke 
Ephraim ffarah 
Robert Wilson 
Steven Welman 
Benjamin flarnell 
Solomon Alley 
John Merrit 



The forty-two above were evidently soldiers of Capt. Lathrop, 
and the following were set down by Mr. Russell as including the 
teamsters : 



Robert Hinsdall 
Samuel Hinsdall 
Barnabas Hinsdall 
John Hinsdall 
Joseph Gillett 
John Allin 



Joshua Carter 
John Barnard 
James Tufts 
Jonathan Plimpton 
Philip Barsham 
Thomas Weller 



William Smeade 
Zebadiah Williams 
Eliakim Marshall 
James Mudge 
George Cole 



The Hinsdalls were the father and three sons. Most of the 
others were Deerfield men. George Cole is credited under Capt. 
L., and was probably of his company, perhaps of Lynn. The 
following men are set down as of Deerfield, and credited by Hull 
in the " Beefe " account : Richard Weller, William Pixly, Daniel 
Weld, James Tufts, William Smeade, Joseph Gillett, Experience 
Hinsdall, John Stebbin, John Hawkes. Nathaniel Sutlive is 
credited for cattle. Others credited for cattle, billeting, etc., at 
the same time, June 24, 1676, but of course for the year before : 
Sarah Field, Ephraim Hinsdall, Solomon Stoddard, Thomas Mek- 
ins, Barnabas Hinsdall, Joshuah Carter, John Plimpton, Thomas 
Hastings, Samson Frary, Quentin Stockwell, John Allen, Moses 
Crafts, Samuel Hinsdall, Peter and Jonathan Plimpton. Thomas 
Weller was probably son of Richard, and Barnard was of Hadley, 
son of Francis. Barsham and Williams were of Deerfield, Mar- 
shall and Mudge were probably of Lathrop's company. Marshall, 
sometime of Stratford, Conn., now perhaps of Boston, and Mudge, 
of Maiden, son of Thomas and Sarah. 

From sundry petitions preserved in the Archives, and from 
casual references here and there, we find a few additional names. 
Joseph Prince, of Salem, was pressed under Capt. Lathrop and 
went as far as Quaboag, but was there given leave to go home to 
his dying father, and did not return to the army. Mrs. Ruth 
Bates had two sons, Clement and Solomon, who went out with 
Lathrop and survived the fight, if they were in it, and spent the 
winter in the garrison at Westfield ; Clement was killed there in 
the spring, and the mother petitions in April, 1676, for the 
release of Solomon. Jolin Smith's petition. Archives, vol. 69, p. 
23, shows that two servants of his had been pressed, and one of 



138 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



them having been out some three months, was killed with Capt. 
Lathrop ; his name is not given, but the other, Mungo Craford, 
having been out near ten months, was left through the winter 
as a garrison soldier at Hadley or near, and is still there. Smith 
petitions for his release or pay for his service. Smith was of 
Boston, and Craford returned and settled there ; Mrs. Bates was 
the widow of Clement of Hingham. 

In a note in the Appendix to Edward Everett's Bloody Brook 
oration. Rev. Joseph B. Felt gives the above list, and adds the 
place of residence of many. The following in Hull's Journal are 

Credited under Capt. Thomas Lathrop. 



October 19, 1675 






Andrew Stickney. 


01 


16 00 


John Palmer, Corpl. 


04 


11 


00 


George Ropps. 


01 


17 08 


Nov' 9, 1675 








Benjamin Roper. 


01 


17 08 


John Langbury. 


02 


08 


00 


Ephraim Farrar. 


01 


16 00 


Edmond Bridges. 


01 


00 


00 


Solomon Ally. 


01 


16 00 


Joseph Emons. 


01 


17 


00 


Benjamin Furnell. 


01 


16 00 


Samuel Rust. 


02 


08 


00 


John Merrett. 


01 


17 08 


John Plum. 


01 


17 


08 


February 29"^ 1675-6 




November SO"' 1675 






Edmond Moore. 


03 


12 00 


Richard Lambard. 


01 


18 


06 


Eleazer Keyser. 


00 


12 00 


Samuel Stevens. 


02 


13 


10 


Thomas Manning. 


02 


10 06 


Robert Holmes. 


02 


08 


00 


Thomas Rose. 


03 


00 00 


Joseph Balch. 


01 


18 


06 


Stephen Warman. 


01 


17 08 


Thomas Lathrop, Capt. 


09 


13 


00 


John Littlehall. 


01 


17 08 


Peter Woodbury. 


01 


18 


06 


John Andrews. 


01 


01 09 


Paul Thorndike. 


03 


04 


04 


Samuel Crumpton. 


01 


18 06 


John Plummer. 


00 


18 


00 


Jacob Wainwright. 


02 


14 06 


Edward Trask. 


02 


03 


00 


June 24"* 1676 




Thomas Buckly. 


01 


17 


08 


Thomas Mentor. 


01 


18 06 


Dec. 20'^ 1675 






Zekeriah Davis. 


07 


04 00 


Samuel Steevens. 


01 


17 


08 


Thomas Rose. 


04 


04 00 


Samuel Chapman. 


00 


18 


10 


Thomas Smith. 


01 


18 06 


Thomas Kemball. 


00 


12 


00 


George Cole. 


03 


11 06 


Caleb Kemball. 


01 


16 


00 


Timothy Bray. 


01 


05 08 


Thomas Hobbs. 


01 


16 00 


John Denison. 


00 


16 02 


Jan'y 25, 1675- 


-6. 






July 24"^ 1676 






William Dew. (Due) 


01 


18 


06 


John Bullock. 


15 


08 00 


Josiah Dodge. 


01 


18 06 


Joseph King. 


01 


16 00 


John Harriman. 


01 


18 


06 


August 24«^ 1676 




Matthew Scales. 


00 


18 


00 


Mark Pitman. 


01 


16 10 


Joseph Pearson. 


00 


18 


00 


Thomas Bayly. 


01 


16 10 


Jacob Kilborn, 


01 


18 


06 


Abel Ozzier. 


01 


16 00 


Thomas Baily. 


01 


18 


06 


John Bennett. 


01 


17 08 


Ezekifcl Sawyer. 


01 


18 


06 


Moses Pengry. 


01 


19 04 


Blaze Vinton. 


01 


05 


08 









John Bullock was " crippled " in the war, and his large credit 
may be due to that. He was of Salem, and was afterwards favored 



WOUNDED OF LATHROP S COMPANY. 



139 



by the Court and granted a license to keep a " victualling shop," 
January 9, 1680. 

In addition to the above names and facts, we glean the follow- 
ing from various sources. From Coffin's History of Newbury we 
learn that on August 5th, 1675, were impressed at Newbury, 



Steven Greenleaf 
Thomas Smith 
John Toppan 



Caleb Richardson 
Daniel Rolf 
John Hobbs 



Daniel Button 
John Wheeler 
Henry BodweU 



and fourteen days' provision supplied them by the town. John 
Toppan at Bloody Brook was wounded in the shoulder, but con- 
cealed himself in the bed of a brook nearly dry by pulling grass and 
weeds over his body, and thus escaped, though several times the 
Indians stepped over him. A similar story is told of a soldier who 
escaped at Beers's fight. Henry Bodwell had his left arm broken, 
but being of great strength and courage seized his gun in his right 
hand and swinging it about his head charged furiously through the 
Indians and got away. Greenleaf, Toppan, Richardson, Wheeler 
and Bodwell were credited Dec. 10th, under Major Appleton, with 
such large amounts that I think the service must have included 
time under Capt. Lathrop. Rolf was credited at Marlborough 
garrison. Thos. Vary (Very), under Capt. L., was wounded. 
See his petition, Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 260. In Felt's Ipswich 
it is stated that Thomas Scott (killed at Northfield) had been 
of Ipswich, as also Thomas Manning, Jacob Wainwright, Caleb 
Kimball, Samuel Whittridge. Robert Dutch, of whom Mr. Hub- 
bard relates the wonderful recovery from apparent death, was also 
of Ipswich. Mention is made also of James Bennet slain, and John 
Fisher wounded. 

The following bill of Jacob Gardiner, from Mass. Archives, vol. 
69, p. 44, contains further names and suggestions. 



An Amount of worke Done for Souldiers under y^ Commands of Capt : 
Latherup by Jacob Gardner & by y" order John Coalman Comesary & 
Daniel White Counstable of Hattfield 12"^ of August '75 



Tho: Hobbes. a paire of shewes .... 

Sam: Hudson ; A paire of Shewes & Leather 

Tho: Bayleff ffor mending shewes 

Josiah Bridges Scabert ..... 

Robert Leach a Scabert and mending His Shewes 

Tho: Tenne a pouch & Belt and Mending His Shewes 

Thomas Peckes a pouch 

Capt. Latherup 3 belts 

Daniel Ring a pouch & belt 

Abiell Sadler a pouch & belt 

ffrances Young a pouch & belt 

Gershom Browne a pouch & belt 



0. 6 

0. 9 

0. 1 

0. 1 



0. 3 

0. 1 

0. 2 

0. 1 

0. 1 



140 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



0. 


1. 


9 


0. 


1. 


9 


0. 


1. 


9 


0. 


1. 


9 


0. 


1. 


9 


0. 


1. 


9 


0. 


1. 


9 


0. 


2. 


9 


0. 


2. 





0. 


1. 


3 


0. 


1. 


3 



John Tapin ; a pouch and belt 

Steven Butler a pouch & belt 

John Presson a pouch & belt 

John Dauis a pouch & belt 

Samuel Hibbert a pouch & belt 

Tho: Hayson a pouch & belt 

Tho: Hobbs a pouch & belt 

"Walter Hickson a powder bage & belt 

John Boynton for mending Shewes 

John Wicher a belt 

Tho: Hayson a belt . 

TheTotall 2. 12. 1 
To the Honnoured Comety This is to Certifie you that these goods 
have been delivered to y* persons above written by y* order of : 

I think it may be fairly inferred from the above bill that nearly- 
all, if not all, those mentioned vrere in Capt. Lathrop's company. 
Fourteen of these were credited afterwards under Major Appleton, 
and will there appear with names a little differently spelled ; for 
instance, Whicher, Hazen, Toppan, Tenney, etc. Hobbs and Bay- 
ley are in Russell's death-hst, Hickson was credited under Capt. 
Poole. Presson served under Gardner at Narraganset, and next 
year under Capt. Turner. Hudson and Peckes appear in a later 
Ledger, proving that they were not among the unknown slain. 

Gen. Hoyt, before mentioned, writing in 1824, relates that, 
" The place where this tragic affair happened is near the centre 
of the village of Muddy-Brook, and about thirty rods southerly of 
the meeting-house in that place. The stage road passes over the 
ground and crosses the brook on a small bridge, precisely where 
Lathrop passed. A rude monument was erected near the place 
of attack sometime after the catastrophy. It stood in what is 
now the front yard of the house of Stephen Whitney, Esq., on 
the east side of the pubUc way, but is now gone to decay, and two 
plain stone flags, lying near the front of the house, are its only 
remains. Several gentlemen have it in contemplation to repair 
the old or erect a new monument, near the same spot, with ap- 
propriate inscription." The " stone slab " spoken of below may 
have been placed by the gentlemen referred to. See N. E. H. G. 
Reg., vol. xxvi, p. 435. 

On September 30, 1835, the Anniversary of Lathrop's defeat 
was celebrated at Deerfield, and a monument was afterwards 
erected there, bearing this inscription : 

Erected August, 1838. 
On this ground Capt. Thomas Lathrop and eighty men under his 
command including eighteen teamsters from Deerfield, conveying 
stores from that town to Hadley, were ambushed by about 700 Indians, 
and the Captain and seventy-six men slain Sept. 18th, 1675. 



SCENE OF THE MASSACRE. 141 

Some twenty rods south of this monument the grave of the slain 
is marked by a stone slab bearing the simple inscription, " Grave 
of Capt. Lathrop and men slain by the Indians, 1675." 

On the occasion of the celebration in 1835, Edward Everett 
delivered the oration, and Miss Harriet Martineau was present, 
and afterwards wrote a sharp criticism of it. Both address and 
criticism were fine as literary productions, but equally faulty as 
history. 

I am indebted to the Hon. George Sheldon, of Deerfield, for 
many valuable suggestions in preparing the above chapter. 



ym. 

MAJOR SAMUEL APPLETON AND THE FORCES 
UNDER HIM. 



A FULL account of the Appleton family has been published 
in the " Appleton Memorial " and various other works, and 
renders a brief sketch sufficient for our purpose here. 
Samuel Appleton, the ancestor of nearly all of the name in this 
country, and the first to appear here, was descended from the 
ancient family of Appulton of Waldingfield, Suffolk, England. He 
was the son of Thomas, and was born at Little Waldingfield in 
1586 ; married Judith Everard, by whom he had six children born 
in England. John, born 1622 ; Samuel, born 1624 ; Sarah, born 
1629 ; Mary, Judith and Martha. With his family he came to 
New England in 1635 and settled at Ipswich, where he was ad- 
mitted freeman. May 25, 1636. He was chosen deputy to the 
General Court, May 17th, 1637, and was prominent in the affairs 
of his town thereafter, and died at Rowley in June, 1670. The 
eldest son John became an influential man in the colony. Was 
successively lieutenant, captain and major, and deputy to the 
General Court for fifteen years between 1656 and 1678, and was 
honorably prominent in opposition to the Andros government. 
He married Priscilla Glover, by whom he had a large family, and 
died in 1699. Of the daughters above mentioned, Sarah married 
Rev. Samuel Phillips, of Rowley, 1651. Judith married Samuel 
Rogers, son of Rev. Nathaniel, of Ipswich. Martha married 
Richard Jacob, of Ipswich. 

Major Samuel Appleton, second son of Samuel first, and the 
subject of this article, was born as noted above, at Waldingfield, 
and came with his father to Ipswich at the age of eleven years. 
His first wife was Hannah Paine, of Ipswich, by whom he had 
Hannah, Judith and Samuel. By his second wife, Mary Oliver 
(at marriage, Dec. 8, 1656, aged sixteen), he had John, Major 
Isaac, Oliver and Joanna. He was chosen deput}^ to the General 
Court in 1668, under the title Lieut. ; also in 1669 to 1671, in 
company with his brother Capt. John, and again by himself in 
1673 and 1675. 

I have not been able to find the exact date on which Capt. 
Appleton marched from the Bay up towards Hadley, but infer 



APPLETON MARCHES TO HADLET. 143 

that it was about the first of September, and Mr. Hubbard relates 
that when Major Treat (on Sept. 6th) marched down from the 
rescue of Northfield, bringing the garrison, he met Capt. Apple- 
ton going up, who strongly urged him to turn back and pursue 
the Indians ; but the Major overruled his wishes, and all marched 
back to the headquarters at Hadley. The course of events from 
this time to September 18th has been previously related. In the 
assignment of troops for the defence of the various towns, Capt- 
Appleton seems to have remained at Hadley, and to have been 
in close relation with Major Pynchon in the conduct of affairs. 
His Lieutenant, John Pickering, and doubtless a part of his com- 
pany, were with Capt. Mosely in the fight succeeding Lathrop's 
defeat, and when a few days after it was decided to abandon 
Deerfield, and the garrison and inhabitants were removed to Hat- 
field, Capt. Mosely was stationed there with his force. Major 
Treat and his men quartered at Northampton and Northfield, and 
Capt. Appleton remained at Hadley busily employed in reorgan- 
izing the Massachusetts forces, caring for the wounded, and pre- 
paring for the next attack of the enemy. 

Although Capt. Appleton had been in this service several weeks, 
his commission as " Capt. of a company of 100 men " was not 
issued by the Council until September 24th. (He already held 
the rank of Captain of the local company in Ipswich ; this was a 
special commission for active service.) By the heavy losses 
under Capts. Lathrop and Beers, the Massachusetts forces were 
greatly reduced, and the survivors of their companies were much 
demoralized by the loss of the captains, and gloom and discour- 
agement prevailed throughout the colony. It was therefore with 
great difficulty that the Council filled the quota of three hundred 
assigned by the commissioners. Secretary Rawson wrote to 
Major Pynchon, September 30th, "The slaughter in your parts has 
much damped many spirits for the war. Some men escape away 
from the press, and others hide away after they are impressed." 

It will be seen by the following orders that the Council was 
using every endeavor to push forward troops to repair their 
losses. Mass. Archives, vol. 67, p. 265. 

The Council do order & appoint Capt. John Wayte to conduct the 
120 men appointed to rendevooze at Marlborough the 28* day of this 
instant September & to deliver them unto the order of Maio"" John Pin- 
cheon Commander in Cheefe in the County of Hampshire & it is fur- 
ther ordered y' in case Capt. Samuel Appleton should be com away 
from those parts then the said Capt. Wait is ordered to take the con- 
duct and chardge of a Company of 1 00 men under Maio'' John Pincheon 
but in case Capt Apleton do abide there then Capt. Wait is forthwith 
to returne Backe unles Maio' Pincheon see cause to detyne him upon 
y^ service of the country 

past. E. R. S. 24 Sept. 1675 



144 KING PHILIP'S WAK. 

On the same paper is the following : 

It is ordered that there be a comission issued forth to Capt. Sam- 
uel Appleton to Command a foot Company of 100 men In the service 
of y* country. But in case hee should be com away from those parts 
then that Capt. Waite is to have (a) like comission. past 24 Sept. 
1675 

By y« Council E R S 

Ordered y' y* Commissary Jn° Morse deliver Mr Thomas Welden 
snaphant musket. 

The Indians were gathered in great numbers on the west side 
of the river. Small parties were constantly lurking near the 
frontier towns, Hatfield, Northampton, and as far as Springfield, 
where, on September 26th, they burned the farm-house and barns 
of Major Pynchon on the west side of the river. Major Pynchon 
says, in a letter to the Council, Sept. 30th : 

"We are endeavouring to discover the enemy and daily send out 
scouts, but little is effected. Our English are somewhat awk and fear- 
ful in scouting and spying, though we do the best we can. We have 
no Indian friends here to help us. We find the Indians have their 
scouts out. Two days ago two Englishmen at Northampton being 
gone out in the morning to cut wood, and but a short distance from 
the house, were both shot down dead, having two bullets apiece shot 
into each of their breasts. The Indians cut off their scalps, took their 
arms and were off in a trice. 

According to Russell's list of killed, these men were Praisever 
Turner and Uzacaby Shakspeer. Up to this time the Springfield 
Indians had been friendly and remained quietly in their large 
fort on the east side of the river towards Longmeadow. Some 
uneasiness had been felt of late in regard to them, and Major 
Pynchon had consulted the commissioners about disarming them. 
The Connecticut Council advised against the measure, and rec- 
ommended rather to receive hostages from them, to be sent to 
Hartford for security. This plan was adopted and the hostages 
sent; but the Indians, excited by the successes of the hostiles, 
and probably urged by secret agents of Philip, resolved to join 
the war against the English. They managed the escape of their 
hostages, and waited the opportunity to strike their blow. On 
Monday, Oct. 4th, a large body of the enemy had been reported 
some five or six miles from Hadley, and immediately all the 
soldiers were withdrawn from Springfield to Hadley, and were 
preparing to go out against the Indians the next morning ; but 
during the night a messenger arrived from Hartford or Windsor, 
reporting that Toto, a friendly Windsor Indian, had disclosed a 
plot of the Springfield Indians to destroy that town next day, 
and that five hundred of Philip's Indians were in the Springfield 
fort, ready to fall upon the town. Thereupon, early on the 



DEFENCE OF THE RIVER TOWNS, 145 

morning of Tuesday, October 5th, Major Pjmchon, with Capts. 
Appleton and Sill, and a force of one hundred and ninety men, 
marched for Springfield, arriving there to find the town in flames 
and the Indians just fled. Major Treat had also received news of 
the intended attack, and hastened from Westfield with his com- 
pany, arriving on the west side of the river some hours before the 
Massachusetts forces came, but was unable to cross, though five 
Springfield men escaped through the enemy's lines, hotly pur- 
sued, and carried over a boat in which a party attempted to cross, 
but the Indians gathered upon the east shore and fired upon 
them so fiercely that the attempt was abandoned until Major 
Pynchon came. The Indians burned some thirty dwelling-houses 
and twenty-five barns with their contents, Major Pynchon's mills, 
and several of his houses and barns, occupied by tenants. Fif- 
teen houses in the "town-plat," and some sixty more in the out- 
skirts and on the west side were left unharmed. The people 
had taken refuge in the garrison-houses, which were not attacked. 
Two men and women were killed, viz., Lieut. Thomas Cooper, 
who before the assault rode out towards the fort to treat with 
the Indians, having two or three men with him, and was shot by 
an enemy concealed in the bushes a short distance from the town, 
but managed to ride to the nearest garrison-house, where he 
died. His companion, Thomas Miller, was killed on the spot. 
During the assault, Pentecost, wife of John Matthews, was 
killed, and Nathaniel Browne and Edmund Pringridays were 
mortally wounded. 

The above account is the substance of letters written by Major 
Pynchon and Rev. John Russell, October 5th and 6th. The 
number of Indians engaged has probably been much over-esti- 
mated. The Springfield squaw captured at the time reported 
the whole number at two hundred and seventy. Mr. Russell 
said the Springfield people thought there were not " above 100 
Indians, of whom their own were the chief." Rev. Pelatiah 
Glover, the minister of Springfield, lost his house, goods and pro- 
visions, together with a valuable library which he had lately 
removed to his house from the garrison-house where it had been 
stored for some time. 

On October 8th Major Pynchon writes to the Council an 
official account of the situation, teUing of the great discourage- 
ment of the people and their sad state ; the loss of their mills 
makes a scarcity of bread, and the many houseless families 
throng the houses that remain. The Major advises to garrison 
all the towns, and abandon the useless and hazardous method 
of hunting the Indians in their swamps and thickets. The com- 
missioners were opposed to this course, especially those of Con- 
necticut, who insisted that the purpose of the army in the field 
was to pursue and destroy the enemy instead of simply protect- 
ing the towns. In this letter of the 8th, Major Pynchon says 



146 KING Philip's war. 

they are scouting to find which way the Indians have gone, and 
also that on that day Major Treat is summoned away to Connecti- 
cut by the news of a large body of the enemy near Wethersfield. 
He then earnestly reiterates his unfitness for the chief command, 
and declares that he must devolve the authority upon Capt. 
Appleton, with the permission of the Council, unless Major 
Treat return, when he will await their orders. The Council had, 
however, already granted his former request, and on Oct. 4th 
had appointed Capt. Appleton to the chief command in his place. 
His commission, together with letters and orders to Major 
Pynchon, were sent up by Lieut. Phinehas Upham and his com- 
pany of recruits, and did not reach them until October 12th, 
when he immediately took command. The commission is as 
follows : 

Cajjt. Appleton. 

The Councill have seriously considered the earnest desires of major 
Pynchon & the great affliction upon him & his family, & have at last 
consented to his request to dismiss him from the cheefe command over 
the Army in those parts, and have thought meet upon mature thoughts to 
comitt the cheefe comand unto yourself e, being pers waded that God 
hath endeowed you with a spirit and ability to mannage that affayre ; and 
for the Better inabling you to yo"" imploy, we have sent the Councills 
order Inclosed to major Pynchon to bee given you ; and wee reffer you 
to the Instructions given him for yo'' direction, ordering you from time 
to time to give us advise of all occurences, & if you need any further 
orders & instructions, they shall be given you as y^ matter shall require. 
So coinitting you to the Lord, desireing his presence with you and bless- 
ing upon you, wee remaine : Your friends and Servants 

Boston 4"" of October 

Capt. Samuel Appleton, 

Commander in cheefe at the head quarters at Hadley. 

The letter of October 4th, from the Massachusetts Council to 
Major Pynchon, in which the orders above referred to were in- 
closed, is in the Massachusetts Archives, vol. 67, p. 280, as 
follows : 

Mass. Council to Major Pynchon 
Honoured S'' 

Your letter dat Sept. 29. wee received and although wee could have 
desired your continuance in that trust committed to you as coiiiander 
over o"^ forces in y"^ p'% yet considering your great importunity y^ reasons 
alledged wee cann but greatly simpathize with you in y'' present dispen- 
sation of Divine Providence towards your family in your absence and 
have ordered Capt. Apelton to take the charge as Comander in Cheife 
over the united forces whiles in o'' Colony, and uppon a removal! of the 
seat of Warr the Coraauders to take place according to (the) appoynt- 
ment of y* Commissioners. We have considered (that) you will not 
be wanting to afford the best advice & assistance you may, although 
dismist from y^ perticular charge. It is the Lord's holy will yet to 



LETTERS FROM THE COUNCIL. 147 

keep his poore people at a p'adventure and y' in this case wherein our 
all is concerned and there is none to tell us how long, yet is it o"^ duty 
to wayte on him who hideth his face from the house of Israel, and to 
say w"' y* Ch: I will brave y*' indignation of God untill he pie (ad )e our 

case, &G. Commending you & yours, & y low estate of his 

people to y*" shepardly Care of him who hath made it one p' of his great 
name. Mighty to Save ; wee take leave and remayne, 

Y°' assured ffreinds, E R S 

Past y*" Council. 
Boston 4''^ of Sept. (should be Oct.) 1675 

s-- 

Wee have ordered L' Upham to lead up to you 30 men and do fur- 
ther order that L' Scill be dismissed home to his family, and his sould- 
jers to make up some of y'' companies as y® chiefe Coriiander shall 
order & y^ above named L' Upham to be L* under Capt Wayte. These 
for Major John Pynchon. 

S'' It is desired when the companies with you are filled up, such as 
are fitted to be dismist be sent back with Lef Sill & Corporal Poole & 
to send downe what horses you cann, and as may be conveniently 
spay red. 

On assuming command on October 12tli, Capt. Appleton writes 
a long letter, expressing his sense of the honor conferred and the 
great responsibility imposed by the appointment, and declaring 
that he is led to accept by the urgency of the occasion and his 
regard for the earnest vv^ishes of Major Pynchon ; and while dep- 
recating his own incapacity, promises to do his best until they 
may find some abler officer for the position. He agrees with 
Major Pynchon in regard to present methods, and asks that the 
commissioners revise that part of their instructions which strictly 
prohibits fixing soldiers in garrisons. He adds his account of the 
condition of Springfield, and asks the Council to support him in 
the step he has taken in stationing Capt. Sill and his company 
there for the town's security. He complains of the prolonged 
absence of Major Treat and his company at Hartford. He says 
that " There being now come in sixty men under Capt. Poole and 
Lieft. Upham, and we needing commanders, especially part of our 
men being now at Springfield, & we not daring to send all 
thither, we have retained Capt. Poole to comand these sixty men 
untill further orders be given." 

October 17th he writes an account of their movements up to 
that date : 

On Tuesday Octo: 12. we left Springfield & came y* night to Hadley 
neer 30 mile. On y^ 13"" & 14"" we used all diligence to make discovery 
of y^ enemy by Scouts, but by reason of y*" distance of the way from 
hence to Squakeage & y^ timorousnesse of y* Scouts it turned to little 
account ; thereupon I found it very ditficult to know what to doe. 
Major Treat was gone from us, and when like to return we knew not. 
Our orders were to leave no men in garrison, but keepe all for a field 



148 KING Philip's war. 

armye, w'^'' was to expose the Towns tomanefest hazzard. To sitt still 
and do nothinge is to tire o'^s [ourselves] and spoyle o'' souldiers, and 
to ruin y'' country by y* insupportable burden and charge. All things 
layed together, I thought it best to goe forth after the enemy w"" o' 
p''sent forces. This once resolved, I sent forth warrants, on y^ 14'''^ in- 
stant, early in the morning to Capt. Mosely & Capt. (as he is called) 
Seely at Hatfeild and Northampton, to repair fourthw* to y^ head- 
quarters, y' we might be ready for service, etc. 

Capt. Mosely came promptly, but Seely tardily and then with- 
out his company, pleading his want of commission from Connecti- 
cut authorities, but finally agreeing to return and bring his men. 
Before he started from Northampton, however, he received orders 
from Major Treat not to leave that town, and sends that word 
to Capt. Appleton. The Captain much exercised by this seem- 
ing insubordination, posts away letters of complaint to the Con- 
necticut Council, and urges the return of Major Treat, whom 
he highly commends as " a worthy Gentleman and discreete and 
incouraging Coihander." After this he drew out his own men 
and marched towards Northfield, but before proceeding two miles 
intelligence came that the Indians were discovered in great num- 
bers on the west side of the river. Thereupon he crossed to 
Hatfield with the purpose of marching to Deerfield. Night came 
on as they left Hatfield, and after marching some miles his officers 
urged the exposed condition of the towns left without garrisons 
and the uncertainty of the enemy's movements, and the night prom- 
ising to be tempestuous, he yielded his purpose and returned, 
against his inclination, to headquarters. On the evening of the 16th 
an urgent request for reinforcement comes from Northampton, 
which is threatened, and later, word from Capt. Mosely that the Ind- 
ians are discovered within a mile of Hatfield ; and so at midnight 
he crosses the river to Hatfield, leaving only about twenty men to 
guard Hadley and their wounded men. In a postscript to this 
letter, added on the afternoon of the 17th, he says that after " a 
tedious night and morning's march " they had not succeeded in 
finding the enemy. 

It is supposed that Philip had an active part in the planning 
of the various operations of this time, though there is no evidence 
that he was personally present at any of the attacks. 

Several letters in this time passed between Capt. Appleton and 
the Council of Connecticut, which are full of interest as showing 
the varying aspects of affairs at the time. Connecticut urges that 
their own towns are threatened, and further that Plymouth Colony 
has not sent its quota, and that there is no certain movement on 
foot that demands the presence of their troops at Hadley, etc. 
These letters are preserved in the Mass. Archives, vols. 67 and 68. 
and have been published in the " Appleton Memorial." and certain 
of them elsewhere. 

It is unfortunate that no letters of Capt. Appleton relating to 



APPLETON AT HADLET AND HATFIELD. 149 

the attack upon Hatfield on October 19th are preserved. There 
can be no doubt that he wrote an official account of it ; but the 
Massachusetts Council had not received the news on October 23d, 
for on that day they wrote Capt. Appleton in answer to his of 
the 17th, and make no reference to any attack. The next letter 
to him from the Council, so far as known, is dated November 1st, 
and refers to one from him of the 29th October, which would 
seem to have been mainly taken up with a relation of the insub- 
ordination of the Connecticut officers. Doubtless several letters 
passed that are lost. The letters from a merchant of Boston to 
his friend in London, published in Drake's " Old Indian Chron- 
icle," give information of the beginning of the attack. The Ind- 
ians built large fires north of Hatfield, and then lay in ambush 
by the way leading thither. Ten horsemen were sent out as scouts 
about noon, of whom nine were shot down or captured by the 
Indians in ambush, and one escaped back to Hatfield, and im- 
mediately the enemy came with fury about the town. But, 
says Mr. Hubbard • 

According to the Good Providence of Almighty God, Major Treat 
was newly returned to North-Hampton, Capt. Mosely and Capt. 
Poole were then garrisoning the said Hatfield, and Capt. Appleton for 
the like end quartering at Hadley, when on a sudden 7 or 800 of the 
enemy came upon the town in all quarters, having first taken or killed 
two or three of the scouts belonging to the town and seven more 
belonging to Capt. Mosely 's company, but they were so well enter- 
tained on all hands where they attempted to break in upon the town 
that they found it too hot for them, Major Appleton with great courage 
defending one end of the town, and Capt. Mosely as stoutly main- 
taining the middle, and Capt. Poole the other end ; that they were by 
the resolution of the English instantly beaten off without doing much 
harm. Capt. Appleton's serjeant was mortally wounded just by his 
side, another bullet passing through his own hair, by that whisper tell- 
ing him that death was very near but doing him no other harm. 

Night came on, and in the darkness it was impossible to tell 
the losses of the enemy ; numbers were seen to fall, some ran 
through a small river, others cast away their guns, and as usual 
they carried away their dead. Of the English slain at Hatfield, 
Mr. Russell's list has the names of ten, viz. : Freegrace Norton 
(Appleton's sergeant), of Ipswich, mortally wounded, and died 
at Hadley soon after ; and of the scouts, Thomas Meekins, Jr., 
of Hatfield ; Nathaniel Collins, his servant, Richard Stone, Samuel 
Clarke of Mosely's company, John Pocock of Captain Poole's, 
Thomas Warner, Abram Quiddington, perhaps of Boston, 
William Olverton (possibly Overton), John Petts. Three of 
these are said to have been taken alive, of whom two were 
redeemed by some gentlemen at Albany, and arrived at New 
York the next February ; one of these belonged in Boston. The 
third man was barbarously killed by the Indians. The Indians 



150 KING Philip's war. 

evinced a stubborn determination to destroy these river towns, 
and a few days after the attack upon Hatfield prepared to 
asault Northampton ; Major Treat's opportune arrival foiled 
them again. They waylaid every road between the towns. On 
the 27th a party with Major Pynchon were thus ambushed, and 
John Dumbleton and John and Wilham Brooks were killed. 
About this time also a Mr. Granger was wounded. 

In their letter of November 1st the Massachusetts Council 
assure Capt. Appleton of speedy action in regard to his affairs at 
the seat of war. They sustain him in his authority and position 
towards Connecticut troops, and advise him that in case Major 
Treat again withdraws, to improve his own troops as best he may, 
and await their further advice. They rebuke him for assuming 
to appoint Cornet Poole captain without their authority, and 
instruct him that it is his place to recommend any officer for pro- 
motion to the Council to receive his commission at their behest. 

On November 10th Capt. Appleton had not received any further 
advices from the Council and writes them for orders, and gives ex- 
planation of his action in regard to appointing Poole, that he acted 
from necessity, and as is evident very wisely. He then details his 
motions since October 29th, when two men and a boy at Northamp- 
ton were attacked. (These were Joseph Baker, Joseph Baker, Jr., 
and Thomas Salmon, and Mr. Russell puts with them John Rob- 
erts, a wounded soldier, who died there soon after.) On the 30th, 
at night, upon an alarm from Hatfield, Capt. Appleton was called 
out of his bed and pushed his troops across the river, where he re- 
mained over the next day, Sunday. On Monday he marched ten 
or twelve miles out through the " Chestnutt Mountains," scouting, 
without avail. Tuesday he consulted with Major Treat, and agreed 
to march on Wednesday night with their whole force towards 
Deerfield, which they did without finding the enemy, and returned 
late at night. On the 5th an alarm at Northampton, and another 
fruitless search. Upon a request of Major Treat on the 6th for 
permission to withdraw his soldiers from Westfield to seek the 
enemy down the river, a council-of-war was appointed for Monday 
the 8th, at which meeting Capt. Appleton took the ground that he 
had no authority from the commissioners to grant them leave to 
withdraw. Major Treat took a very frank and manly position, 
by no means hostile to Capt. Appleton. The trouble seems to 
have been the unwillingness of the Connecticut soldiers to remain 
in garrison at Westfield. The report of the council-of-war is sub- 
mitted to the Massachusetts Council for the orders of the commis- 
sioners. He says they are at loss to find out the present location 
or intention of the enemy, but fear they may be upon them in 
force at any moment. He suggests that if the army be drawn off 
for the winter and the towns garrisoned, Connecticut troops 
might more conveniently be placed and supplied at Westfield and 
Northampton, and the other three towns garrisoned with Massa- 



OFFENSIVE OR DEFENSIVE ? 151 

chusetts men. He reports a council-at-war, at which David 
Bennet, chirurgion, was expelled from the army for " quarrel- 
some and rebellious Carriage," and submits the action for ratifi- 
cation to the Council. He sends down as posts, Serg. James 
Johnson, Serg. John Throp, and Nathaniel Warner of Hadley, 
and with them Capt. Poole, to whom he refers them for a more 
detailed account of matters. 

While awaiting the long delayed instructions of the Council, 
Capt. Appleton stood in a very difficult position, the Connecticut 
officers and soldiers in great impatience and almost open mutiny 
at being kept in garrison ; and the people, crowded into the gar- 
rison-houses in fear that Philip's whole force might at any hour 
fall upon them, were threatening to abandon their towns. The 
Council of Connecticut, too, were apparently interfering with his 
command of their troops. On the other hand were the authority 
and orders of the United Commissioners, to which he adhered 
with inflexible energy. On November 12th he issued a proclama- 
tion (Archives, vol. 68, p. 54) to the inhabitants and soldiers of 
all those towns under his charge, forbidding any one to with- 
draw from his appointed place without special permission " given 
under his hand ; " giving his reasons for the step, and asserting 
the authority of the commissioners. The Connecticut people 
were very loud in their complaints against this measure, but he 
rigidly held to it, daily expecting the further directions promised 
by the Council of Massachusetts, till finally despairing of such 
relief he reluctantly yielded to the importunities of Connecticut, 
and on November 19th dismissed Major Treat and his forces at 
Westfield to march downward to the Connecticut towns, accom- 
panying the order of permission with an urgent request to the 
Council there that Westfield and Springfield may be regarrisoned 
by their forces. On the same day he writes to Governor Leverett, 
complaining of the long neglect of the Council at home, and say- 
ing that it has kept him in constant and tedious expectation until 
obliged to yield to Connecticut's demands, and now necessity 
forces him to dispose of his forces as best he may. He complains 
of the condition of the horses ; many will soon be unfit for ser- 
vice, and if put upon " dry meate " (i.e. hay), the cattle of the 
people must perish during the winter, as hay is very scarce. 
They have no certain intelligence of the enemy, but have received 
word from Owenequo, son of Uncas, that Philip boasts himself 
to be a thousand strong. He speaks of his proclamation and its 
results, and encloses a copy of the same and his correspondence 
with Connecticut Council also, and urges the Governor to send 
him further directions speedily. He then proceeds to garrison the 
several towns with the forces at his disposal, the details of which 
will be given in a special chapter. The following orders of dis- 
posal are dated November 19 and 20, and are preserved in full 
in the Mass. Archives, vol. 58, pp. 65 and 66. 



152 KING Philip's war. 

Twenty-nine soldiers taken out of the companies of Capts. 
Mosely and Poole and Lieut. Upham are left at Westfield in 
charge of Sergt. Lamb, and all under the command of Capt. Aaron 
Cooke. John Roote is appointed commiosary of this garrison, 
and orders are drawn upon James Richards, of Hartford, or Mr. 
Blackleach, for whatever of clothing is necessary. Thirty-nine 
men from Capt. Sill's company are left at Springfield with Lieut. 
Niles, all to be under command of Major Pynchon. Twenty-six 
men are left with Sergt. at Northampton, to be under com- 
mand of Lieut. Clark; and thirty men under command of Capt. 
Poole are stationed at Hadley. Thirty-six are left at Hatfield 
with Sergt. Graves, under command of Lieut. Allice. 

Capt. Appleton appointed a council-of-war for the ordering of 
military matters in the towns, consisting of the commissioned offi- 
cers of the various garrisons, together with Dea. Peter Tilton, of 
Hadley, and Sergt. Isaac Graves, of Hatfield, and Capt. Poole was 
made president. These arrangements seem to have been made in 
anticipation of the order of withdrawal of the army, which was 
authorized by the Council on November 16th. — Mass. Archives, 
vol. 68, p. 58. Their letter had not reached him on November 19th. 
This letter gives a long account of the operations of Capts. Hench- 
man and Syll now in the Nipmuck country. Then " touching the 
disposal of the Army," the direction is left at his discretion, and as 
to the wounded men, those fit for garrison duty are to be left as part 
of the garrison soldiery and the rest to be comfortably provided for. 
The special instructions seem to have been in accordance with the 
Major's own suggestions in his last letter to the Council. On the 
march home it is suggested that he come by way of " Wabquisit " 
(now in Woodstock, Conn.), and, if convenient, to form a 
junction with Henchman and Syll and "distress the enemy" 
gathered near there. This little plan, so easy to conceive in 
the Council Chamber, for excellent reasons was never realized. 
Capt. Appleton, with his forces, marched homeward probably 
about November 24th. Very little is known of the march home- 
ward. This campaign cost the colony very dearly in men and 
means, but had saved from destruction five of the seven western 
towns. For the first time since the war began, a competent com- 
mander is at the head of the Massachusetts troops. 

Upon the organization of the army for the expedition against 
the Narraganset Fort, Major Appleton was appointed to the com- 
mand of the Massachusetts forces. A partial account of that 
expedition and its results has been given in a previous chapter 
relating to Capt. Mosely. On December 9th the Massachusetts 
force, consisting of six companies of foot under Capts. Mosely, 
Gardiner, Davenport, Oliver and Johnson, and a troop of horse 
under Capt. Prentice, mustered on Dedham Plain under com- 
mand of Major Appleton, who himself led the first company. 
They were joined by the Plymouth forces, two companies under 



appleton's command at nabraganset. 153 

Major William Bradford and Capt. John Gorham. The quota of 
Plymouth Colony was one hundred and fifty-eight men. That 
of Massachusetts five hundred and twenty-seven. 

In the Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 91, I find this fragment rela- 
tive to Major Appleton's division : 

The full complement of the Massachusetts is 527, 13 under the im- 
pressed men, so that if there should want 13 troopers and be but 62 
troopers besides their officers there would be but 465 foote & if less 
than 62 troopers they must be suplyed with so many foote soldjers. 

These seem to be fragments of memoranda, the latter list being 
on the back of the paper. This refers to the number in the six 
companies, and gives an excess of 99 over the estimated quota of 
465 foot. I doubt that this excess includes Capt. Prentice's 
troopers as might at first appear, his company not being set down ; 
but his lists and credits published hereinbefore give few if any 
of the names included in Appleton's, Mosely's or Johnson's 
lists, which were taken at Dedham, December 9th, and contain 
exactly the numbers above. It is probable that the excess con- 
sisted of volunteers, the regular quota being impressed men. In 
this expedition Capt. Mosely took Capt. Hubbard's place, and 
then his company was not made up wholly of volunteers. 



Troopers — Boston 


15 foote 


Major Appleton 


136 




Prentice 


20 




Capt. Johnson 


75 




Hasey 


20 




Capt. Ollivers 


83 




Corwine 


10 




Capt. Davenport 


75 




Appleton 


1 




Capt. Gardiner 


95 






— 




Capt. Mosely 


92 






75 


465 












540 




556 


465 

099 



Mr. Hubbard says that the force from the latter colony mus- 
tered there four hundred and sixty-five " fighting men besides a 
Troop of Horse " under Capt. Prentice. Gov. Josiah Winslow, 
of Plymouth, was commander-in-chief of the army in this expe- 
dition, and with this force marched to Woodcock's Garrison 
(Attleboro'), that day, thence to Seaconck, where they arrived 
on the night of the 11th, and on the 12th passed over Patuxet 
River, and by way of Providence arrived at Wickford, at Smith's 
Garrison, at night. After several days spent in scouting and 
skirmishing, as previously related, on the 18th they all marched 
out to Pettisquarascott and met the Connecticut forces, consist- 
ing of five companies, three hundred and twenty-five men, under 
Major Treat, and the whole army were forced to bivouac in the 
open air in a driving snow-storm during the night. Bull's Garrison- 
house at that place having been burned by the Indians but a few 
days before. At daybreak next morning they took up their 



154 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



march over the rough country through the deepening snow, each 
man carrying his own arms, rations, etc. In this march the Massa- 
chusetts division led ; Plymouth held the centre and Connecticut 
the rear. This army, the largest and best organized that had 
ever been in the field in the American colonies, arrived about 
1 o'clock, P.M., at the borders of the great swamp where the 
Indians had gathered in great numbers and had built a strong 
fortification and now awaited the attack. The full account of 
the battle must be completed in several chapters, wherein the 
names of those in the remaining companies of Major Appleton's 
division are given. The conduct of the Major and his men here, 
as elsewhere, was creditable. In May, 1676, the Court voted to 
repay the losses of divers persons who were " damnified" by the 
burning of Major Appleton's tent at Narraganset. 

Credited under Capt. Samuel Appleton. 



December 10. 


1675. 






Isaac EUery 


02 


10 06 


Thomas Davis 


04 


18 06 


Daniel Ringe, Corp^ 


04 


11 00 


John Ford 


03 


10 


00 


John Pengilly, Corp^ 


02 


19 00 


Israel Thorn 


03 


18 


00 


Stephen Greenleaf 


08 


16 10 


Thomas Waite 


03 


18 


00 


Richard Hancock 


03 


18 00 


Francis Young, Corp 


04 


11 


00 


John Whicher, Serg^ 


05 


17 00 


Ezekiel Woodward 


05 


17 


00 


WUliam WiUiams 


03 


18 00 


Samuel Rust 


04 


00 


00 


Joseph Blancher 


02 


14 10 


Sylvester Hayes 


05 


03 


00 


George Stedman 


02 


10 06 


Stephen Gullifer 


02 


10 


06 


Thomas Sparke 


03 


18 00 


Thomas Hastings 


02 


14 


00 


John Raymond 


03 


18 00 


Roger Vicar 


02 


10 


06 


Samuel Foster 


03 


18 00 


Stephen Butler 


03 


18 


00 


Henry Cooke 


03 


18 00 


Robert Sibly 


02 


10 


06 


Samuel Hebard 


03 


18 00 


William Knowlton 


04 


16 


10 


John Davis 


03 


18 00 


Thomas Brown 


02 


10 


06 


Samuel lerson 


03 


18 00 


Thomas Ferman 


04 


16 


10 


Joseph Eaton 


02 


10 06 


Isaac Ilsley 


02 


10 


06 


James Brearly 


04 


16 00 


Samuel Brabrook 


02 


10 


06 


Abial Sadler 


03 


18 00 


Arthur Neale 


02 


10 06 


William Wainwright 


03 


18 00 


John Boynton 


04 


16 


10 


Benjamin Webster 


04 


16 10 


Israel Henerick 


03 


18 


00 


John Warner 


02 


10 06 


Robert Simson 


03 


18 


00 


Ephraim Cutter 


03 


04 06 


Samuel Very 


03 


18 


00 


Thomas Abbey 


03 


18 00 


Philip Matoone 


02 


10 06 


John Dennis 


04 


18 06 


Philemon Dean 


05 


17 


00 


Josiah Bridg 


07 


16 00 


Gershom Browne 


03 


18 00 


Roger Markes 


02 


10 06 


Andrew Heding 


02 


10 


06 


Timothy Breed 


03 


18 00 


Robert Downes 


03 


18 


00 


Thomas Chase 


03 


18 00 


Robert Pease 


03 


18 


00 


John Parker 


01 


10 00 


Thomas Tenny 


03 


18 


00 


John Wheeler 


09 


12 00 


Thomas Hazen 


03 


18 


00 


John Conant 


04 


16 10 


William Webb 


02 


10 


06 


Edmond Sheffeild 


04 


16 00 


Solomon Watts 


02 


10 


06 


John Robins 


03 


18 00 


Nathaniel Masters 


04 


16 


10 


Anthony Williams 


03 


18 00 



CREDITED UNDER MAJOR APPLETON. 



155 



John Gamidg 


04 


16 


10 


Thomas Hazon 


02 14 00 


Elias Tatingham 


03 


18 


00 


Simon Gawin 


02 02 00 


Eleazer Flagg 


02 


10 


06 


Ephraim Cutter 


02 14 00 


Samuel Pepar 


02 


10 


06 


William Brown 


02 14 00 


Seth Story 


04 


16 


00 


Thomas Waite 


02 14 00 


Nathaniel Wood 


02 


10 


06 


William Russell 


02 14 00 


Joseph Mansfield 


03 


18 


00 


William Sawyer 


02 15 08 


Benjamin Chadwell 


02 


10 06 


April 24, 1676 


John Pikering, V 


04 


05 


10 


Francis Young 


04 05 02 


John Newell 


03 


18 


00 


Samuel Browne ) 
Gershom Browne j 


02 14 00 


Richard Sutton, Conp^ 


05 


12 


00 


John Rily 


02 


10 06 


Solomon Watts 


02 02 00 


Michael DeReeke 


04 


16 


10 


Stephen Gullipher 


03 03 00 


Jeremiah Swaine, Z/' 


09 


15 


00 


Manasseh Kempthorne 


03 08 06 


Benjamin Langdon 


02 


10 06 


Thomas Abby 


05 02 00 


Richard Bryar 


03 


18 


00 


June 24% 1676 


William Stanly 


03 


16 


02 


John Thorp 


08 18 00 


Joseph Richardson 


03 


18 


00 


Joseph Eaton 


02 14 00 


Henry Bedwell 


04 


16 


10 


John Mors, Commisary 


07 10 00 


John Tappin 


04 


16 


10 


John Dodge 


01 10 00 


Caleb Richardson 


04 


16 


10 


Edward Neland 


02 00 00 


Edward Ardway 


04 


16 


10 


Edward Marston 


01 04 00 


Thomas Parlor 


03 


18 


00 


Ambros Dawes 


03 06 06 


Daniel Hawes 


02 


10 


06 


Jonathan Emery 


02 14 00 


Robert Dutch 


04 


16 


10 


Jonathan Copp 


04 19 06 


Samuel Ingolls 


03 


18 


00 


Thomas Davis 


02 14 00 


Jonathan Copp 


02 


10 


06 


Simon Adams 


02 14 00 


William Bateman 


04 


16 


00 


William Knowlton 


02 16 06 


Stephen Greenleaf 


00 


16 


00 


Thomas Rogers 


02 15 08 


January 25, 1675-6 






Jonathan Emery 


01 00 00 


William Hawkins, Dr. 


04 


08 


06 


Christopher Keniston 


04 10 00 


John Warner 


01 


16 


00 


Thomas Dow 


02 14 00 


Ralph PoweU 


01 


12 


06 


Eleazer Flagg 


02 14 00 


Jonathan Copp 


01 


04 


00 


John Davis 


02 14 00 


March 24, 1675-6 






George Stedman 


02 14 00 


Thomas Kylam 


02 


15 


06 


Thomas French 


02 15 08 


Samuel Peirce 


02 


15 


08 


James Butterick 


02 14 00 


Edward Ardway 


02 


15 


08 


Seth Story 


03 06 00 


John Thomas 


02 


15 


08 


Eliah Tottingham 


01 15 02 


Samuel Foster 


02 


14 


00 


John Pengilly 


04 04 09 


John Harvy 


03 


00 


00 


Henry Poore 


02 15 08 


Edmund Brown 


03 


05 


08 


John Raymant 


02 16 06 


Samuel Tiler 


03 


07 


08 


Isaac Ashby 


02 16 06 


Lewis Zacharius 


02 


15 


08 


James Spike 


00 18 00 


Philemon Dane 


05 


11 


04 


Samuel Poore 


02 16 06 


William Hodgkin 


02 


15 


08 


John Cutler CUrurgion 


10 00 00 


John Perkins 


03 


05 


00 


Robert Simson 


04 04 00 


Thomas Palmer 


02 


14 


00 


Robert Leech 


03 18 00 


Joseph Bigsby 


02 


14 


00 


John Lovell 


02 15 08 


Robert Downes 


02 


15 


08 


Abiell Sadler 


02 15 08 


John Layton 


02 


14 


00 


Philip Matoon 


02 15 08 


John Stickney 


02 


14 00 


Thomas Sparkes 


02 14 00 



166 


KING Philip's war. 




Jacob Wilier, Ch>rurgionl5 00 00 


Richard Prior 


02 15 08 


Samuel Appletou, J/a/or 30 00 00 


David Bennett 


13 00 00 


July 24"^ 1676 




John Lovitt 


01 04 00 


Richard Godfrey 


04 16 00 


Israel Blake 


01 04 00 


Morgon Jones 


02 14 00 


Abraham Drake 


01 04 00 


Joshuah Boynton 


02 14 00 


Morris Hobbs 


01 04 00 


Nicholas Rawlins 


02 15 08 


Francis Gennings 


01 04 00 


August 24* 1676 




John iSleeper 


01 04 00 


Zacheus Newmarch 


02 14 00 


Israel Clifford 


01 04 00 


Richard Way 


06 15 00 


Micael Towsely 


01 04 00 


Benjamin Newman 


02 08 10 


William Samborn 


01 04 00 


Abraham Fitch 


02 14 00 


Thomas Roby 


01 04 00 


Samuel Perkins 


02 15 08 


John Browne 


01 04 00 



Mass. Archives, vol. 



). 104. 



4 men Slayne 



A List of Major Sam' Apletons Souldjers y' were slayne & wounded 
The 19"^ Decemb '75 at the Indian's fort at Narraganset 

SamueU Taylor of Ipswich y 

Isaac Illery of Glocester i 

Daniel Rolfe of Newbery ( 

Samuel Taylor of Rowley ^ ) 

Leift. Jerrimyah Swayne of Redding 

Roger Markes of Andiver 

Isaac Ilsley of Newbery 

W" Standley of Newbery 

Dani. Somersby of Newbery 

Jonathan Emery of Newbery 

Jn° Dennison of Ipswich 

Jn° Harvey of Newbery 

George Timson of Ipswich 

Tho: Dowe of Ipswich 

Symon Gowen of Rowley 

Benj. Webster of Salem 

EUja Thathan of Oborne 

Tho: Abey of Wenham 

Benj. Langdon of Boston 

Solomon Watts of Roxbury 

Jn° Warner of Charlestowne 

Samuel! Boutericke of Cambridge 

The following paper, preserved in the Mass. Archives, vol. 68, 
p. 97, is the roll of Major Appleton's company in the Narraganset 
campaign. Jeremiah Swain of Reading was Lieutenant. 



eighteen men wounded who 
are at Road Island except y* 
Left. & Roger Marks 

January 6 '75 



Serg't Ezek Woodward 
Serg't John Whicher 



Steven Buttler 
Samuell Verry 



Steven Gullever 
Daniell HaU 



1 In the liBt of killed appear two Samuel Taylors. In the credits is found Samuel Tiler. In a 
list of men impressed at Rowley, Nov. 29, 1675, 1 find Samuel Tiller. Among the wounded, Timson 
undoubtedly meant Stimpson, and "Illja Thathan of Oborne," was what the clerk made out of 
Elijah Tattingham of Woburn. The name appears elsewhere as Totenham and Totman. Th« 
other changes are simple. 



OTHER LISTS OF APPLETON S MEN. 



157 



Serg't ffrancis Young 
Serg't Daniel Ringe 
Corp John Pengillie 
Corp James Brarly 
Clarke Phillemon Dean 
Trump'^ John Wheeler 
Trump Josiah Bridges 
Thomas Wayte 
Thomas Sparkes 
Abiell Saddler 
Gershom Browne 
Israel Henricks 
Thomas Tennie 
Thomas Hazon 
Robert Downes 
Richard Briar 
Joseph Richardson 
Thomas Chase 
"William "Williams 
Thomas Abbey 
John Rayment 
Robert Leach 
Samuell Hebbert 
Anthonie Williams 



William Waynright 
Samuell Foster 
Henry Cooke ^ 
Robert Sim son 
Israel Thorne 
Samuell lerson 
John Newhalle 
Timothie Breed 
Samuel Pipin 
Phillip Mattoone 
Nath Wood 
Robert Sibbly 
Will. Webb 
Joseph Eaton 
Roger "Vicar 
Arthur Neale 
Isaac Ellirie 
Ben Chadwell 
John Davis 
Samuel Brabrooke 
Isack Ilsley 
Roger Markes 
Ben Leingdon 
John Reylie 



Solomon Watts 
Eliezer Flagg 
John Warner 
Thomas Firman 
Will Knowlton 
Nath Masters 
Michale Derrick 
Thomas Davis 
Calleb Richardson 
John Boyenton 
Seth Story 
Ben Webbster 
Edward Ardaway 
Samuel Ruste 
Silvester Haz 
Wm Russel 
Sam. Peirce 
Sam. Buttrick 
Ephraim Cutter 
George Stedman 
Edmund Sheffeild 
Roger Joans, 75 



Those yt are wanting 

John Ford John Davis 

Thomas Parlor Robert Peas 



The men yt are now listed 



Mosses Pengrie 
John Denison 
John Perkins 
Abraham Knowlton 
Thomas ffossey ^ 
Lewis Zachriah 
John Lovwell 
Sam. Peirce 
George Stimson 
Thomas Dow 
Thomas ffrensh 
Sam. Hunt 
John Thomas 
Abraham Fitts 
Richard Bedford 
Thomas Killam 
Isack Cummins 
Richard Partsmore 



Samuel Perkins 
Peter Emmons 
Nath Emerson 
Symond Adams 
Zacheus Newmarsh 
John Hobkins 
John Sticknie 
Joseph Jewett 
Joshua Boyenton 
John Ley ton 
John Jackson 
Will Brown 
Caleb Jackson 
Sam. Tyler 
Thomas Palmor 
Joseph Bigsby 
Simond Gowin 
Daniell Somersby 



Christopher Bartlet 
Edmond Browne 
Jonathan Emerie 
Christopher Kermiston 
Christopher Cole 
John Straton 
John Harvey 
George Maier 
Nicolaz Rollings 
Thomas Roggers 
Cornelius Davis 
Jonathan Clarke 
Will'm Say ward 
William Warrin 
John Shepard 
John Guylie 
Morgain Joanes 



> Are scratched out in the MS. ffossey appears elsewhere as Fausee, Pipin as Pepar, Gnylia 
as Guild. Some twenty -five on this list do not appear in Hull's credits under Major Appleton, 
but I have found nearly all mentioned elsewhere. 



158 KING Philip's wak. 

Richard Priar Sauiuell Lovewell 61 new men 

Ben Newman Steven Swet 75 old souldjers 

Will Hodskins Izrah Roff 136 

Sam Taylor Sam. Poore 

Amos Goddin Henry Poore 

Soon after the battle of Narraganset Major Appleton retired 
from his protracted and arduous service in the field. On the 
19th of October, 1676, the Court appointed him to command an 
expedition to Pascataqua ; but he probably declined, as the order 
was rescinded on October 23d. He was reelected deputy in 
1676, and subsequently, except 1678, until 1681, when he was 
chosen Assistant, and remained in that office till the coming in of 
the Andros government in 1686. He was proscribed by Sir 
Edmund's officer, Randolph, as one of the " factious." He was 
arrested on the general complaint of being " evil disposed and 
seditious," October 19th, 1687, and refusing to submit and give 
bonds for his good behavior, was committed to Boston jail, where 
he was kept many months till his age and increasing infirmities 
forced a reluctant submission, and he was set at liberty, March 7, 
1688. In the new charter of William and Mary, in 1691, he was 
made one of the Council. He died May 15, 1696, leaving an 
honored name which his posterity have continued in honor to the 
present day. " Of all the military commanders of this war I must 
consider Major Appleton the ablest ; and the tide of warfare in 
the western towns turned towards safe and successful methods 
from the time of his appointment to the command. I should 
place Major Treat, of Connecticut, next to him, and perhaps in 
the same position he would have been equal." 



IX. 

CAPT. ISAAC JOHNSON AND HIS MEN. 



ISAAC JOHNSON was the son of John, of Roxbury. He was 
born in England and came to Massachusetts with his father's 
family, probably in the company with Gov. Winthrop. He 
was admitted freeman March 4, 1635. 

He was of the Artillery Company in 1645, and was its captain 
in 1667. He was ensign of the " Rocksberry " military company 
previous to 1653, and on June 13th of that year was elected cap- 
tain. He was representative 1671. 

He married Elizabeth Porter, of Roxbury, January 20, 1637, 
and had Elizabeth, born Dec. 24, 1637 ; John, born Nov. 3, 1639, 
died 1661 ; Mary, born 24 April, 1642 ; Isaac, baptized 7 Jan'y, 
1644 ; Joseph, baptized 9 Nov., 1645, died soon ; Nathaniel, born 
1 May, 1647. The daughter Elizabeth married Henry Bowen, 
who became lieutenant of his company and was in the Swamp 
Fight. The Bowens, with many other Roxbury people, removed 
sometime after 1686 to the township of New Roxbury, granted 
them by Massachusetts Colony, but was afterwards found to 
be within the Connecticut bounds and was renamed Woodstock. 
The eldest son Isaac married Mary Harris and removed to Middle- 
town, Conn. Isaac's son Joseph inherited his grandfather's 
Narraganset claim, being then of Woodstock. The captain's 
daughter Mary married, in 1663, William Bartholomew, and re- 
moved to Branford, Conn. The youngest son, Nathl. Johnson, 
married Mary Smith in 1667, and sometime after 1683 removed, 
probably to Marlborough. Through these four surviving children 
Capt. Johnson's descendants were quite numerous. His widow 
died 13 Aug., 1683. 

On the 6th of July, 1675, while the forces under Major Savage 
were at Mount Hope, Capt. Johnson was sent with a small escort 
to conduct the fifty-two friendly Indians, raised by Major Gookin, 
to the army. From the fragment of a letter from Capt. Johnson 
to the Court, dated at Boston, July 10, 1675, we learn that a 
company of these Indians was sent back from Mount Hope with 
him, and that some trouble occurred with one of the oldest, called 
Tom, at Woodcock's Garrison, where they were resting on the 
march. This is the letter as it remains. I am not sure that this 
is not the whole of the letter or statement : 



160 KING Philip's war. 

Upon the 4'*' day of this week being at Woodeockes house and the 
Inglish and the Indians geting some refreshment and fixing their arms 
there was one from the oldest of them iudians that was sent backe with 
us from the Army and withdrew himselfe from our Company under 
the pretence of geting a helve for his hachet but staying long we sent 
out 6 men to see if they could find him in their search they found his 
hachet and a new knife : of his and returned without him we being de- 
su'ous if it might be to find what had becom of him sent againe 6 men 
they could not yet find him, we went to super (that is we seaven Inglish) 
before it was quite darke and while we were at super the said Tom did 
make aproach towards the other Indians and was deserned by them and 
som of them called to him (sum say it was one or more of the iudian 
Sentinells called to him) and bid him stand but he would not but fled 
away upon the which there being sum stire or commosion amongst the 
Indians we rose from super and went out they telling us what was the 
cans of the tumult amongst them ; there was an Indian seen as before and 
now was run away telling of us which way he went I bad them follow 
and see if they could each him and Woodcock sent out his doggs also 
they did soone take him and one of the Indians laying hold of him this 
Indian did strike him on the side of the necke with a hatchet which he 
had borrowed to get a helve for his owne ; but the Indian that was 
strooke by sum iudians preventing the force of the blow the hurt was 
small which otherwise might have beene mortall for any thing we know ; 
we Inglish making all the hast to them we could did rescue the man that 
is that torn out of the rest of the Indians hands as wee did apprehend 
cans lest he should have beene pulled in peeces or killed by them ; we 
had him in to Woodcocks hous ; I asked him the reson of his doing 
after that maner as he did doing as though he intended mischeef e where 
as he had promised the govenor of the bay he would doe faithful 
service against phillip and his men ; he answered he was counseled to 
doe as he did by Samson and another long Island Indian they two 
Indians were called and I asking of them if they did give Tom counsell 
to doe us hurt or to make trouble amongst us Samson first spake 
dening to have given Tom any such counsell ; then the long Island 
Indian spook denieing any such thing : upon which said Tom laid two 
peeces of mony in my hand and told me they each of them gave him 
one of them peeces to hire hime to do what he did : they bothe denied 
the giving of him any mony ; woodcoke being by desired he might se 
the mony I gave it him ; he says Tom had that mony of him he having 
soe much lickors of him as cam to 'd^ he changed a shilling for the said 
Tom & gave him a 6*^ & a 3<^ and that was the G'^ & 3'^ which Tom did 
not denie. I told Tom he pretending soe as he had done to the gover- 
nor as before and marching with us now part of two dayes and serve 
us thus he did acknowledg he had rebelld & deserved to dye only de- 
sired he might die a quick . . . death by which I doe supose his 
meaning was that he might not be delivered into the hands of the 
Indians 

boston IS"" July 1675 youer honnor" Servant 

Isaac 

Mass. Archives, vol. 67, p. 219. Johnson 

Here we see the prejudice against the Indian blinding the 



JOHNSON AT NAEKAGANSET. 



161 



captain to the real culprit, Woodcock, whose "lickors" had 
made the poor savage "crazy drunk." 

On July 15th, on the news of the attack upon Mendon, Capt. 
Johnson was sent out with a company to relieve that town, and 
was joined there by Capt. Prentice and his troop about July 21st. 
The two captains address letters to the Court July 23d, explain- 
ing the situation of affairs at Mendon ; these letters are lost, but 
notice of them occurs (Mass. Arch. vol. 67, p. 226) in a Court 
Order of July 26th, commanding the return of both companies, 
except a guard to be left at Mendon by Capt. Johnson. 

Upon the mustering of forces for the Narraganset campaign, 
Capt. Johnson was placed in command of a company made up of 
men from Roxbury, Dorchester, Milton, Braintree, Weymouth, 
Hingham and Hull, seventy-five all told. Eight more were im- 
pressed, but did not appear. The company took part in the 
memorable march and attack on the fort, as before related, and 
the brave captain was among the first to fall while gallantly lead- 
ing his men across the fallen tree-trunks at the entrance to the 
fort. 

Credited under Capt. Isaac Johnson. 



August 27 1675 

Benjamin Wilson 00 12 00 

John Gates 00 12 00 

John Barnes 00 12 00 
WiUiam Gemmison (alias 

Jamison) 00 12 00 

Thomas Hunt 00 12 00 

Experience Orris 01 12 00 

Richard Cowell 00 12 00 

Isaac Johnson Capt. 05 17 03 

James Couch 00 12 00 

David Landon 00 11 02 

John Rugles 00 12 00 

Sept. 3"^ 

Ephraun Child 00 12 00 

George Walden 00 12 00 

Nath^Toy 00 12 00 



Sept. 14"» 
John Whaley 
Thomas Wadduck 

Nov. 30''^ 
John Ireson 
William Jaques 

Jan'y 25"^ 1675-6 
Nathaniel Beale 00 17 00 

February 29 
John Langley 
William Hasey 
Samuel Lincolne 
Joshua Lazell 

March 24*^ 1675 
Joseph Richards 02 1 6 00 

AUinDugland 00 11 02 

Thomas Thaxter 02 16 00 

John BurreU 02 14 00 



02 09 00 

00 11 00 

00 11 00 

00 11 00 



01 00 00 

02 14 00 
04 01 00 
02 14 00 



Under Capt Johnson and Capt Jacob 



March 24«^ 1675 



Francis Gardnett 
Ephraim Lane 
James Read 
William Mellowes 
John Whitmarsh 
John Read 
James Humphreys 
John Lovell 
Isaac Cole 



02 
02 
02 
02 
02 
02 
02 
03 
02 



14 


00 


14 


00 


14 00 


14 


00 


14 


00 


14 


00 


14 


00 


00 


00 


14 00 1 



Isaac Prince 


02 14 00 


George Vicary 
John Bosworth 


02 09 00 
02 14 00 


Christopher Wheaton 
Joseph Benson 
Isaac Morris 


02 08 00 
02 16 00 
02 14 00 


April 24, 1676 
John Fenner 00 15 04 


WilMam Davenport 


02 14 00 



162 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



Under Capt Johnson, June 24* 



John Scott 
Benjamin Bates 
Samuel Gardner 
Joseph Goard 
Nathaniel Wilson 
Samuel Basse 
Joseph Tucker 
Ebenezer Owen 
William Savell 
Francis Nash 
Thomas Copelane 
Martin Sakins 
Jonathan Pitcher 
James Atkins 
Isaac Johnson Capt. 
William Lincolne 
John Watson 
John Langley 



The following list of Capt. Johnson's company, made at Ded- 
ham December 10th, 1675, is preserved in Massachusetts 
Archives, vol. 67, p. 293. 



02 


14 


00 


05 


02 


00 


02 


16 


00 


02 


14 


00 


02 


14 


00 


02 


14 


00 


04 


01 


00 


02 


14 


00 


03 


12 


00 


02 


14 00 1 


02 


14 


00 


02 


14 


00 


00 


12 


00 


02 


14 


10 


05 


11 


00 


02 


09 


00 


01 


16 


00 


04 


00 


00 



Hezekiah King 


02 


19 00 


Henry Bowen Lieut. 


06 


03 00 


Ebenezer Hill 


02 


14 00 


July 24 






John Plum 


02 


14 00 


Zachariah Gurny 


02 


14 00 


Charles Cahan 


02 


14 00 


Onesiphorus Stanly 


02 


14 00 


John Spurr 


02 


14 00 


August 24 






Henry Bartlett 


02 


14 00 


Hopestill Humphries 


02 


14 00 


Thomas Grant 


02 


14 00 


John Watson 


00 


18 00 


Sept 23'! 






John Bull 


00 


18 00 


Thomas Davenport 


00 


10 02 



List 



Roxbury, 
Henry Bowen 
John Watson 
W'" Lincolne 
Abiel Lamb 
John Scot 
Onesiphorus Stanly 
Isaack Morrice 
W™ Danforth 
Joseph Goad 
Sam" Gardiner 
Nath: Wilson 
John Hubbard 
Tho: Baker 

wanting 
rhora: Cheney 
John Corbin 
John Newel 

Dorchester 
Hen'y Mare his man 
Hopestill Humphrey 
John Spurre 
Ebenezer Hill 
Nicholas Weymouth 
John Plummer 
Charles Cahan 



of Capt Johnson's 
Tho: Grant 
Tho: Davenport 
Robert Stanton 

wanting 
Henry Witliington 
George Minot 
Isaac Ryall 

Milton 
John Fennow 
Obadiah Wheaten 
Joseph Tucker 
Benj. Crane 

Braintry 
Ebenezer Owen 
Sam. Basse 
W'" Sable 
Tho: Holbrook 
Rich Thayer 
Martin Saunders 
Francis Nash 
Increase Niles 
Henry Bartlet 
Tho: "Copeland 
James Atkins 
Jonathan Pitcher 



Company 

Weymouth 
Hezek: King 
Jonas Humphrey 
Joseph Richards 
Allin Dugland 
John Whitmarsh 
Peeter Gurnay 
Edward Kingman 
John Read 
James Read 
John Lovet 
Will Mellis 
John Hollis 
John Burril 

Hivgham 
Benj. Bates 
John Jacob 
John Langley 
Edward Wilder 
Tho: Thaxter 
Ebenezer Lane 
Sam: Lincolne 
Ephraim Lane 
Joshua Lazel 
John Bull 
W" Hearsey 



THE WOUNDED AND SLAIN. 



163 



Francis Gardiner 
Nath Beales 
Nath Nicliols 
Humphrey Johnson 
wanting 



W" "Woodcock 

Hull 
George Vicar 
John Bosworth 
Joseph Benson 



W" Chamberlin 
Christo: Wheaton 
Isaack Prince 
Isaack Cole 
Henry Chamberlain 
75 appeared 
8 appeared not 



The following is preserved in the Mass. Archives, vol. 68, page 
104: 



The names of those soldiers y' 
Johnson's Comp^ December 1675 
Capt Isa: Johnson of Roxhury 
Jonathan Pitcher, Bran ; (Brain- 
tree) 
Tho: Davenport Dr {Dorchester) 
AUin Dugland of Weymouth, 

4 slain 
Jos° Watson of Roxhury 
W" Linckorn of Roxbury 



were slayne & wounded of Capt 

John Spur of Dorchester 
Benj. Crane of Milton 
Jn° Langley of Hingham 
Jn° faxton of Hinghnm 
Isaack King of Weymouth 
Left. Phineas Upham of Maiden 
wounded eight, and were at 
Road Island Jan. 6* 1675-6 



Upon the death of Capt. Johnson and the mortal wound of 
Lieut. Upham, the command of that company devolved upon 
Ensign, afterwards Lieut., Henry Bowen. After the battle, it 
would appear that Capt. John Jacob of Hingham was appointed 
to the command of the company, as many of the credits show his 
vouchers in the account. 



X. 

CAPT. JOSEPH GARDINER AND HIS MEN. 



JOSEPH GARDINER (or Gardner) was the son of Thomas and 
Margaret Gardner of Salem. He married, before August, 
1656, Anne Downing, daughter of Emanuel Downing and 
niece of the first Gov. Winthrop. 

He was a man of energy and ability, and held many positions 
of honor and importance in Salem. In May, 1672, he was 
appointed by the General Court of Massachusetts lieutenant of 
the foot company under Capt. William Price of Salem. 

On May 12, 1675, the militia of Salem was divided into two 
companies by order of the Court, and by the same order the elec- 
tion of Joseph Gardiner as captain of the First Company in Salem 
was confirmed. When the expedition against Narraganset was 
organized, Capt. Gardiner was appointed, November 3, 1675, to 
command the company raised at Salem and the adjoining towns, 
and mustered his men, ninety-five strong, at Dedham Plain De- 
cember 10th, and marched with the army towards the rendezvous 
at Wickford. During the march several skirmishes took place, 
and Mr. Hubbard relates that some of Stone-wall-John's crew 
"met with some of Capt. Gardiner's men that were stragling 
about their own business contrary to order, and slew his Sergeant 
with one or two more." In " Capt. Oliver's Narrative " it is re- 
lated that on this occasion the Indians " killed two Salem men 
within a mile of our quarters and wounded a third so that he is 
dead." The names of these are given in the list below. The 
fall of Capt. Gardner is thus related in Church's " Entertaining 
History:" 

Mr. Church spying Capt. Gardner of Salem amidst the Wigwams 
in the East end of the Fort, made towards him ; but on a sudden while 
they were looking each other in the face, Capt. Gardner settled down, 
Mr. Church stepped to him, and seeing the blood run down his cheek 
lifted up his cap and calling him by name, he looked up in his face but 
spake not a word, beiug mortally Shot through the head. 

After the death of Capt. Gardiner, the command of his com- 
pany fell upon his lieutenant, William Hathorn, under whom 



CAPT. GARDINER S COMPANY. 



165 



the men served during the campaign, until disbanded in Febru- 
ary. It is thus that the men were credited sometimes under Gar- 
diner, sometimes Hathorn, occasionally both ; the latter's name, 
signed to the voucher or " debenter " which each soldier presented 
to the paymaster, doubtless confused the clerk and caused this 
appearance of double command. Capt. Hathorn's subsequent 
career at the eastward will be given in its proper place. 

Capt. Gardiner's widow, then aged about thirty-four, married 
June 6, 1676, Gov. Simon Bradstreet, whose age was about 
seventy-three. She died April 19, 1713, aged 79. Leaving no 
children, Capt. Gardiner's Narraganset claim fell to the oldest 
male heir of his eldest brother Thomas. This heir was Habakkuk 
Gardiner, son of the Captain's nephew Thomas, who in the list 
of claimants claims in the " right of his uncle, Capt. Joseph 
Gardiner." 

Capt. Joseph Gardiner and his men. 



February 29«^ 167, 


5 & 6 




Amos Gurdon 


02 


14 10 




£ s. 


d, 


Peter Emons 


02 


14 10 


William Hathorne, Capt 


.11 09 


08 


William Webb 


02 


14 00 


Samuel Gray 


03 06 


07 


Robert Sibly 


02 


14 00 


Peter Gary 


02 14 


00 


Andrew Ringe 


05 


08 00 


Jeremiah Neall 


04 18 


00 


Benjamin Langdon 


03 


00 00 


Peter Cole 


02 14 


00 


James Briarly 


04 


01 00 


Joseph Price 


01 13 


00 


Benjamin Webster 


02 


14 00 


Samuel Tarbox 


03 09 


03 


Freegrace Norton 


03 


12 00 


Sam. Beadle 


04 01 


00 


Israel Thorne 


02 


14 00 


Benjamin Hooper 


02 14 


00 


Ezekiel Woodward 


02 


04 00 


Rice Husband 


02 14 


00 


John Wheeler 


05 


08 00 


Marke Stacy 


02 14 


00 


William Wainwright 


02 


14 00 


William Holhs 


02 18 


00 


John Boutell 


00 


18 00 


John Clark 


01 14 


00 


Jonathan Clark 


02 


14 00 


Thomas Weymouth 


02 14 


00 


William WiUiams 


02 


14 00 


WUliam Hutchins 


02 07 


00 


Samuel Rust 


04 


01 00 


Christopher Read 


02 14 


00 


Benjamin Sweet, Lieut 


03 


00 00 


William Bassett 


05 04 


04 


Henry Dow 


01 


16 00 


Samuel Graves 


02 14 


00 


Silvester Hayes 


03 


03 00 


John Farrington 


02 02 


00 


Thomas Tenney 


02 


14 00 


William Driver 


02 14 


00 


Joseph Jewett 


02 


14 00 


Andrew Townsend 


02 14 


00 


John Boynton 


02 


14 00 


Jonathan Looke 


02 14 


00 


Peter Coomes 


03 


08 00 


Charles Knight 


03 03 


00 


Jonathan Copp 


01 


04 00 


John Prince 


03 15 


08 


John Mann 


02 


04 00 


Andrew Sargeant 


02 19 


02 


March 24"^ 1675-6 




Edward Haradine 


02 19 


02 


John Vowden 


02 


14 00 


John Trask 


02 17 08 


Lawrence Majore 


02 


14 00 


Joseph Houlton 


02 14 


00 


Thomas Flynt 


02 


16 00 


Isaac Welman 


02 14 


00 


Thomas Greene 


02 


14 00 


William Pritchett 


02 14 


00 


John Read 


02 


14 00 


John Maston 


02 14 


00 


Adam Gold 


02 


14 00 


Benjamin Chadwell 


02 14 


00 


Zacheus Perkins 


02 


14 00 


Stephen Greenleaf 


01 10 


00 


WiUiam Pabody 


02 


14 00 



166 



KING Philip's war. 



Joseph Gardiner, Capt. 


05 


03 


00 


Amos Gonrdin 01 04 00 


James Fry 


02 


14 


00 


Daniel Johnson 03 10 00 


Leonard Toser 


02 


14 


00 


Jeremiah Neale, Lieut. 03 00 00 


April 24"^ 1676. 






August 24"^ 1676 


Thomas Kenny 


02 


14 


00 


Edward Counter 02 14 00 


John Stacy 


02 


14 


00 


Ebenezer Barker 02 02 00 


June 24"^ 1676 








Thomas Rpssell 02 14 00 


Francis Jefiford 


02 


14 


00 


Joseph Jefifords 01 09 00 


Samuel Phelpes 


02 


14 


00 


Thomas Vely 02 05 00 


John Presson 


02 


14 


00 


Eleazer Linsey 01 16 00 


Joseph Abbott 


02 


14 


00 


Thomas Bell 04 05 08 


Samuel Pickworth 


00 


11 


06 


Sept23M676 


Abraham Snitchell 


01 


01 


00 


Mark Bacheler 00 14 00 


Michael Towsley 


02 


15 


08 


Robert Cocks 02 02 00 


Thomas Kemball 


02 


14 00 


Moses Morgaine 02 14 00 


Thomas Blashfield 


02 


14 


00 




William Allen 


02 


14 


00 


Credited under Capt. Hathorne. 


Edward Whittington 


02 


14 00 


Samuel Story 04 05 08 


John Parker 


02 


14 


00 


Peter Ashamaway 04 05 08 


Philip Butler 


02 


14 


00 


Jacob Knight 01 10 00 


James Wall 


04 


10 


10 


William Wainwright 04 16 06 


John Ballard 


02 


14 


00 


Samuel Moulton 01 04 00 


July 24, 1676 








James Creeke 04 04 00 


William Hathorne, Capt 


.07 


03 


09 


James Cox 04 05 00 


A list of y* names of Capt. Gardiner's 


Souldiers for this p'sent Expedition 


Salem. 








James Wall 


Serjeant Jeremiah Neall 






Joseph Holton jun' 


Serjeant WiUiam bassett 






Tho. Reny 


Ser^ Samuel bradell 








Joseph Dees — wounded 


Corp. Samuell Pikwortt 








Abraham Switchell 


Charls Knight 








Samuell ffrail— not apearing 


John boden 








flfrances Jefford 


William holess 








Clem. Rumeall 


Marck Stace 








Adam Gold 


Samuell Gray 








Samuell Tarbox 


Larance Magery 








Marhlehead. 


John Polott 








Petter Coll 


Philip butteler 








Henry Codner 


Benimen Lemon 








Auguster flferker 


Edward Counter 








David Shapligh 


Lenard Tossier 








Petter Cary 


William Hind 








Robertt Cooks 


Joseph Price 








Edward Severy 


Th° Flint 








Ephraim Jones 


Pelter Prescote 








Lenerd Belinger 


Isack Read 








Philip Brock 


Tho. Buffingtog 








Thomas Weymouth '\ These men 


John Stacey 








Thomas Weymouth >• wanting of 


Henery Rich 








Thomas Russell ) their Comp'y 


Tho. Greene 











CAPT. Gardiner's company. 



167 



Topsjield. 
William Peabody 
Zacheus Curtis 
Zacheus Perkins 
Robertt Andrews 
Isek burton 

Andover. 
Nathan Stevens 
James Fry 
Eben barker 
John Parker 
Joseph Abett 
John balard 
John Lovejoy 
Edward Whittington 
Samuell Philips 
John P'ston 

Gloster. 
John Prince 
Andrew Serjant 
Joseph Somes 
Vinesont Davis 
Moses duday 

Beverly. 
Christopher Brown 
John Trask 
Thomas Blashfield 



Lott Cunant 
Christopher Read 
"William fferyman 
Moses Morgine 
John Clark 
William Allen 
William bath 
Richard Hussband 

Lyn. 
Nicholas Huchin 
John Linsey 
Robert driver 
Daniell Huchin 
John Davis 
Samuell Graves 
Andrew townsend 
Thomas baker 
Johnathan Looke 
Iseck Welman 
Isaack Hartt 
John Farington 
Samul Rods 
Mark Bacheler 
Richard Hutten 
Thomas Kemball 
Philip Welsh 
John Hunkens 
Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 93. 



A Lyst of Capt Joseph Gardiner Company y' were wounded and 
Slayne of his Company, some y'^ 16 Dec"" & Other 19* dec 75 
Joseph Rice of Salem 



Samuel Pikeworth of Salem 
M'ke Batchiler of Wenham 
Capt Joseph Gardiner of Salem 
Abra. Switchell of Marblehead 
Joseph Soames of Cape Anne 
Robert Andrews of Topsfield 
Charles Knight of Salem 
Nicholas Huchins of Lynn 
Thomas flint of Salem 
Jn° Harrington of Lynne 
Robert Cocks of Marblehead 
Eben Baker (Barker) of Andiver 
Edw** Mardin of Cape Ann 
Joseph Read of Beverly 
Joseph Abett of Andiver 
Joseph Holeton of Salem 



wch. 3 were slayne .... 
abroad from y* garrison 



4 men Slayne more 



10 men wounded 



Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 104. 



XI. 
CAPT. NATHANIEL DAVENPORT AND HIS MEN. 



CAPT. NATHANIEL DAVENPORT was born in Salem, 
Mass., and was the son of Richard Davenport and his wife 
Elizabeth Hathorn. Richard came to Salem with Endicott 
in 1628, from Weymouth in Dorsetshire, was admitted freeman 
September 3, 1634, was ensign in the local militia same year, and 
in 1637 served as lieutenant in the Pequod expedition, where he 
was wounded. He was representative in 1637, and joined the 
Artillery Company in 1639. Removed to Boston in 1642 and 
was appointed captain of the Castle, which post he filled for 
many years, and was there killed by lightning on July 15, 1665. 
His children were Nathaniel ; Truecross, born 1634-5 ; Experi- 
ence, baptized August 27, 1637 ; John, baptized September 19, 
1641, at Salem ; and at Boston he had Samuel, baptized June 
28, 1656 ; Sarah, September 30, 1649 ; Elizabeth, September 13, 
1652 ; William, born May 11, 1656. The widow died June 28, 
1678. 

Nathaniel spent his boyhood and youth at Salem and at the 
Castle. He was evidently a man of enterprise and ability, and 
for some time was concerned with several Boston men in an ex- 
tensive business between Boston and New York. He married 
Elizabeth Thacher, daughter of Thomas. 

From his early surroundings at the Castle he naturally ac- 
quired experience of military matters, and his business pursuits 
gave him wide acquaintance with the affairs of the colonies in 
their commercial relations. In the difficulties with the Dutch 
at New York he was evidently a trusted agent of Massachusetts, 
his residence for some time in New York giving him great 
advantage. In volume II. "• New York Colonial History " are 
found letters passing between Edward Rawson, Secretary of 
Massachusetts, and N. Bayard, Secretary of " New Netherlands," 
showing that in 1673 Mr. Nathaniel Davenport and Mr. Arthur 
Mason were sent by the Massachusetts Colony to demand the 
restoration of some vessels which had been seized by the N. N. 
government, and they threatened reprisal, etc., if the vessels 
were not given up. In a later letter of Bayard to Rawson in 



DAVENPORT AT NARRAGANSET. 169 

regard to this demand, he refers to Mr. Davenport as a " spy." 
His experience and prominence would thus seem to mark him as 
a leader in the war, but it is evident that his residence abroad 
had precluded his holding military office in the colony, where 
the choice was made by the people of each town, and was made 
a matter of confirmation by the Court. Capt. Davenport had 
returned to Boston in 1673, and at the time of the fitting out of 
the Narraganset Expedition in December, 1675, was serving on 
the jury at the Court of Assistants, whence he was summoned to 
take command of the 5th Company in the Massachusetts Regi- 
ment. This company was made up chiefly of men from Cam- 
bridge and Watertown, to most of whom Captain Davenport was 
a stranger ; but it is said that he, on the occasion of " taking pos- 
session of his company, made a very civil speech to them, and 
also gave them free Liberty to choose their own Serjeants them- 
selves, which pleased them very well, and accordingly did so." 
The company joined the rest of the forces at Dedham plain, and 
marched to Narraganset with the army. In " Oliver's Narra- 
tive," one item concerning Capt. Davenport appears, mentioned 
with characteristic brevity. " Dec. 17'*" That Day we sold Capt. 
Davenport forty-seven Indians young and old, for Eighty Pounds 
in money." I have found nothing to solve the doubt as to 
whether it was the enterprise of the merchant or the humanity 
of the man that prompted the purchase. I find no mention of 
such sale on the treasurer's books. On December 19th, at the 
great Fort fight, Mr. Hubbard relates that " Capt. Mosely and 
Capt. Davenport led the van." 

The death of Capt. Davenport is thus related in the " Old 
Indian Chronicle " above mentioned, p. 181 : 

Before our men came up to take possession of the Fort, the Indians 
had shot three Bullets through Capt. Davenport, whereupon he bled ex- 
treamly, and immediately called for his Lieutenant, Mr. Edward Ting, 
and committed the charge of the Company to him, and desired him to 
take care of his Gun, and deliver it according to Order and immediately 
died in his Place. . . . And it is very probable the Indians 
might think Capt Davenport was the General because he had a very 
good Buff Suit on at that Time and therefore might shoot at him. 

Capt. Davenport left no children, and his nephew, Addington 
Davenport, inherited his Narraganset claim. 

Lieutenant Edward Ting (or Tyng) commanded the company 
during the rest of this campaign, and many of the credits are 
given under him as Captain. He was the son of Capt. Edward 
Tyng of Boston, and was born March 26th, 1649. He removed to 
Falmouth in 1680, and soon after married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Thaddeus Clark and great-granddaughter of George Cleeves. He 
was in command of Fort Loyal 1680 and 1681 ; was a counsellor 
and magistrate for Maine under President Danforth, and in 1686 



170 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



was appointed by the King one of the council of his brother-in- 
law Joseph Dudley, and afterward under Andros, who made him 
lieutenantrcolonel and placed him in command in the province of 
Sagadahoc in 1688 and 1689, and after the reduction of Nova 
Scotia was appointed governor of Annapolis, but on his way to 
that place his vessel was captured by the French, and he was 
taken to France, where he died. He was a man of great energy 
and ability, and was a large land-owner in Maine ; but as he 
favored and served the Andros party, became very unpopular with 
the people. 

Credited under Capt. Nath' Davenport & Capt. Ting, February 29"" 
1675-6 



Nathaniel Sanger 


02 


14 00 


Timothy Rice 


02 14 00 


Thomas Hall 


02 


14 00 


James Smith 


02 14 00 


John Cutler 


02 


14 00 


Jacob Bullard 


02 14 00 


Caleb Simons 


02 


02 00 


Matthew Gibbs 


02 14 00 


William Peirce 


02 


14 00 


June 24* 1676 


John Baldwin 


00 


10 03 


Joshuah Woods 


02 14 00 


Nathaniel Damport Capt.05 


07 00 


Daniel Woodward 


02 14 00 


Theoder Atkins 


00 


15 00 


James Haughton 


00 19 08 


Edward Ting Capt. 


11 


13 06 


Abraham Temple 


02 02 00 


Gershom Cutler (Cutter) 02 


14 00 


David Batchelor 


01 18 06 


Thomas [Nicho]is 


02 


14 00 


Ambros Mackfassett 


02 14 00 


Stephen Farr 


02 


14 00 


Jonathan Remington 


10 18 08 


Samuel Lamson 


03 


07 00 


Peter Bateman 


02 08 00 


John Shelden 


04 


13 00 


Samuel Dymon 


02 14 00 


Moses Whitny 


02 


14 00 


John Taylor 


02 14 00 


Jonathan Smith 


02 


14 00 


John Wood 


02 14 00 


Joseph Smith 


02 


14 00 


Zachariah Snow 


02 02 00 


Daniel Warrin 


03 


03 00 


Isaac Emsden " als Alms- 


Isaac Lerned 


01 


15 02 


den " 


03 06 06 


Thomas Parker 


00 


18 00 


William Gleson 


02 14 00 


John Polly 


02 


14 00 


Samuel How 


02 12 02 


William Roberts 


02 


14 00 


Thomas Brown 


02 02 00 


John Baker 


00 


10 03 


John Salter 


02 14 00 


Joshua Bigalo 


02 


14 00 


Jacob Amsden 


02 14 00 


March 24"^ 1675-6 




Jeremiah Toy 


02 14 00 


Joseph Buss 


03 


03 00 


George Hayward 


00 12 00 


John Wheeler 


02 


14 00 


Dennis Hedly 


02 14 00 


Nathaniel Healy 


02 


02 00 


July 24'^ 1676 


George Herington 


02 


14 00 


Joseph Wheeler 


02 09 00 


William Wade 


02 


14 00 


John Baker 


05 05 00 


Thomas Rutter 


02 


14 00 


John Parker 


02 14 00 


John Haws 


00 


18 00 


James Mathewes 


01 09 00 


Samuel Swan 


03 


00 00 


August 24*^ 1676 


John Drury U 


04 


05 10 


John Priest 


03 10 00 


WilUam Price 


02 


14 00 


Nicholas Lunn 


02 12 00 


April 24th 


1676 




Jonathan Lawrence 


02 14 00 


John White 


02 


14 00 







CAPT. Davenport's soldiers. 



171 



4 men Slayne 



The following is preserved in the Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 
104; 

The List of those y' were slayne & wounded of Cap Nath^ Daven- 
port — 

Capt. Nath: Davenport 
Sarg' Theod' Atkinson 
^George Howard of Concord 
Jn° Hagar of Watertown 
1 Sam. Swayn of Cambridge 
Sam. Read of Cambridge 
Sam. Stock er of Meadford 
Nath Healy of Watertowne 
Isaac Learned of Watertowne 
Tho. Browne of Concord 
Abra: Temple of Concord 
David Batchelor of Redding 
Caleb Symon' of Ooburne 
John Backer of Wooborne 
Zachary Snow of Woobom 

The following lists of men impressed in several towns where 
Capt. Davenport's company was raised will serve to identify 
many of the names. Of course, many of those impressed were 
either excused for disability or escaped from the service in some 
other manner. See Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 100, and for 
separate lists, pp. 67-100. The returns were dated from Nov. 25 
to Dec. 3, 1675. 



11 men wounded 



From Cambridge. 
Corp^ Jonathan Remington 
James Hubbart 
Edward Win ship juni'"' 
Isaack P2msden 
Nathaniel Patten 
William Glesson 
John Withe 
Jacob Emsden 
Jonathan Laurenc 
John Emsden 
John Salter 
Samuel Swan 
Daniel Woodward 
Samuel Read 
Gershom Cutter 15 

From Watertown. 
Daniell Warrin, S"^ 
John Bigulah, S' 
Nathaniell Hely 
Joseph Tayntor J"^ 
John Whettney S' 



George Herrington 
James Cutting. 
William Hagar Jr 
John Parkhurst 
Michaell Flegg 
Jacob Bullard 
Isaack Learned 
Joseph Waight 
George Dill 
Jonathan Smith 
Willyam Price Jr 
Nathaniell Sangar 
Moses Whettny 
Enoch Sawtell 
John Bright 
John Hastings 
John Bacon 
John Chadwick 
John Windam 
Ben Douse 
Nath Barsham 
John Barnard 



' In the credits these appear as Hayward and Swan, 



172 



KING PHILIP'S WAB. 



Ephraim Gearffield 
Joseph Smith 29 

From Woburn. 
John Carter 
William Johnson 
James Convars 
John Cutler 
"William Peu-ce 
John Baker 
Zachariah Snow 
John Polly 
John Preist 
John Berbeane 
John Shilden 
Thomas Hale 
John Bolen 
Caleb Simons 
Peter Bateman 
Jerimiah Hood 16 

From Sudbury. 
William Wade. 
Samuell Bush 
John White Jim^ 
Tho. Rutter 
Peter Hopes Jr 
James Smith 
Dennis Hedley 
Matthew Gibbs Ju' 
Daniel Herrington 9 



From Cambridge Village. 
Samuell Hides Jr 
Peter Henchet 
Joshua Woods 
Jonathan Bush 4 

From Reading. 
Samuel Lamson 
David Bachelder 
James Carr 
Samuel Daman 
Seabred Taylor 
Thomas Nichols 
William Robards 
Nicholas Lunn 8 

From Meadford. 
James Stokes 
Jeremiah Toy 2 

From Concord. 
Joseph Busse 
Abraham Temple 
Samuel How 
John Wood 
Joseph Wheeler 
Thomas Browne 
John Wheeler 
Timothy Rice 
George Hayward 
Stephen Farre 
John Taylor 11 



Capt. Davenport's company numbered seventy-five men. Sub- 
stitutes often appear instead of those impressed. Fifty-seven 
in the above list, and three besides among the wounded and 
killed, are thus accounted for. Some of the rest received credit 
in a later Ledger. 



XII. 
CAPT. JAMES OLIVER AND HIS MEN. 



JAMES OLIVER was the son of Thomas and Ann, who came 
from England in the ship " William and Francis " (by another 
account the Lion) 9 March, 1632, with their family of six 
sons and two daughters. Bristol, Somersetshire, is said to have 
been the old home of the family. They settled in Boston, where 
the father became ruling elder and of wide influence in the affairs 
of the new town. He died June 1, 1658, aged ninety years, 
according to John Hull's Diary, leaving sons who held places of 
honor and trust in the colony, and whose posterity, in successive 
generations to the present, have held the name honorably. 

James was admitted freeman 12 October, 1640. Was of the 
Artillery Company, and chosen Ensign 1651, Lieutenant 1653, 
Captain 1656 and again 1666. Was chosen selectman of the 
town in 1653 and served several years ; was also an inspector of 
the port and a merchant of eminence. He was of the First Mili- 
tary Company of Boston, and was elected Captain probably in 
1673. He was appointed to command a Boston company in the 
Narraganset campaign. His appointment was dated November 
17, 1675, and men to fill this company were impressed from the 
several town companies, including his own, as is seen by the 
second list below. Taking command of his company, he joined 
the army at Dedham Plain and took part in the subsequent 
movements of the campaign, being one of the few fortunate 
officers who passed through the great Swamp Fight unscathed, 
and remained in command of his company until the return and 
dismissal at Boston February 5th, 1675-6. 

While the army was at Narraganset, at the Garrison House of 
Mr. Richard Smith (their rendezvous after the great fight, now 
embraced in the town of Wickford, R.I.), Capt. Oliver wrote 
the following account ^ of the campaign, the original of which 

1 The letter, as here given, is taken from the foot-notes of Gov. Hutchinson's History of Massa- 
chusetts, vol. i. p. 300, of first and second editions, and 272 of the third edition. Mr. Hutchinson 
eaid there was no signature, and attributes it to Major Bradford, but a simple comparison with 
Hubbard's account shows the author to have been Capt. Oliver, and this conclusion is rendered 
certain by Mr. Drake ("Book of the Indians," p. 219, foot-note), who had seen the original, 
signed James Oliver, and found this, which appears in Mr. Hutchinson's notes "correct in the 
main particulars," when compared with the original. He thought Mr. Hutchinson used a copy 
without signature, as must have been the case ; and I would suggest that copy was made by Mr. 
Hubbard for his own use in compiling his history, and was found among his papers which Mr. 
Hutchinson used extensively in his work. It is to be regretted that Mr. Drake did not speak 
more definitely about the original, or better still, publish it in some one of his many works. Mr, 
Drake refers to it as " Capt. Oliver's Narrative." Is the original now in existence ? 



174 KING Philip's war. 

I have failed to find trace of, after diligent search and in- 
quiry. 

The letter, as published by Gov. Hutchinson, is as follows : 

Narraganset 26'^ ll**^ month 1675 
After a tedious inarch in a bitter cold night that followed Dec. 1 2''', 
we hoped our pilot would have led us to Pomham by break of day, but 
so it came to pass we were misled and so missed a good opportunity. 
Dec 13*, we came to Mr. Smith's, and that day took 35 prisoners. 
Dec. 14"", our General went out with horse and foot, I with my com- 
pany was left to keep garrison. I sent out 30 of my men to scout 
abroad, who killed two Indians and brought in 4 prisoners, one of 
which was beheaded. Our Army came home at night, killed 7 and 
brought in 9 more, young and old. Dec. 15"\ came in John, a rogue, 
with pretence of peace, and was dismissed with this errand, that we 
might speak with Sachems. That evening, he not being gone a quarter 
of an hour, his company that lay hid behind a hill killed two Salem 
men within a mile of our quarters, and wounded a third that he is dead. 
And at a house three miles off where I had 10 men, they killed 2 of 
them. Instantly, Capt Mosely, myself and Capt Gardner were sent to 
letch in Major Appleton's company that kept 3 miles and an half off, 
and coming, they lay behind a stone wall and fired on us in sight of 
the garrison. We killed the captain that killed one of the Salem men, 
and had his cap on. That night they burned Jerry Bull's house, and 
killed 17. Dec. 16* came that news. Dec. 17* came news that Con- 
necticut forces were at Petaquamscot, and had killed 4 Indians and 
took 6 prisoners. That day we sold Capt. Davenport 47 Indians, young 
and old for 80/. in money. Dec. 18* we marched to Petaquamscot with 
all our forces, only a garrison left ; that night was very stormy ; we 
lay, one thousand, in the open field that long night. In the morning, 
Dec. 19*, Lord's day, at 5 o'clock we marched. Between 12 and 1 
we came up with the enemy, and had a sore fight three hours. We 
lost, that are now dead, about 68, and had 150 wounded, many of 
which are recovered. That long snowy cold night we had about 18 
miles to our quarters, with about 210 dead and wounded. We left 8 dead 
in the fort. We had but 12 dead when we came from the swamp, besides 
the 8 we left. Many died by the way, and as soon as they were 
brought in, so that Dec. 20* we buried in a grave 34, next day 4, next day 
2, and none since here. Eight died at Rhode Island, 1 at Petaquam- 
scot, 2 lost in the woods and killed, Dec. 20, as we heard since ; some 
say two more died. By the best intelligence, we killed 3U0 fighting 
men; prisoners we took, say 350, and above 300 women and children. 
We burnt above 500 houses, left but 9, burnt all their corn, that was 
in baskets, great store. One signal mercy that night, not to be for- 
gotten, viz. that when we drew off, with so many dead and wounded, 
they did not pursue us, which the young men would have done, but the 
sachems would not consent; they had but 10 pounds of powder left. 
Our General, with about 40, lost our way, and wandered till 7 o'clock 
in the morning, before we came to our quarters. We thought we were 
within 2 miles of the enemy again, but God kept us ; to him be the 
glory. We have killed now and then 1 since, and burnt 200 wigwams 



CAPT. Oliver's letter. 175 

more ; we killed 9 last Tuesday. We fetch in their corn daily and that 
undoes them. This is, as nearly as I can, a true relation. I read the 
narrative to my officers in my tent, who all assent to the truth of it. 
Monhegins and Pequods proved very false, fired into the air, and sent 
word before they came they would so, but got much plunder, guns and 
kettles. A gi-eat part of what is written was attested by Joshua Teffe, 
who married an Indian woman, a Wampanoag. He shot 20 times at 
us in the swamp, was taken at Providence Jan'y 14, brought to us the 
16"", executed the 18"*. A sad wretch, he never heard a sermon but 
once these 14 years. His father, going to recall him lost his head and 
lies unburied. 

This letter shows something of the well-known sympathy of 
Capt. Oliver with the popular party which at that time so bitterly 
opposed all concessions towards the Indians, and denounced even 
their most trusted magistrates and ministers, like Major Gookin 
and Rev. John Eliot, who sought to protect the friendly or 
" Christian " Indians from persecution. On one occasion many 
of these had been seized and imprisoned (by Capt. Mosely, as 
has been related) at Boston, awaiting trial. On Sept. 10th, at 
9 o'clock at night, a mob collected, and presuming upon Capt. 
Oliver's sympathy, went to his house and proposed that he should 
lead them and take one of the Indians out of the prison and hang 
him; but the Captain, boiling with rage at this insult to him- 
self, "cudgelled them stoutly" with his cane from his house. 
Capt. Oliver married, between 1641 and 1655, Mary, widow of 
John Frend and daughter of Thomas Dexter, who died before 
he did, and left no issue to him ; at his death in 1682, two of 
his nephews, John and Nathaniel Oliver, administered upon 
his estate, and his nephew, Daniel Oliver, Esq., inherited his 
Narraganset claim. 

In a petition to the Court, May 19, 1680, he states that he has 
served town and country many years, at home and abroad, and 
hath spent therein the prime of his strength and estate, 
and later much of what was left to him was consumed by fire, 
and now being aged and infirm in body, prays to be dismissed from 
further service as captain of the town compan}^ and also that 
the Court, in view of his decay, grant to him "the Island whereon 
the Indian Wianenset lately dwelt lying neer Dunstable," etc. 

In answer to this the Deputies passed a vote : " Considering 
the petitioner's present Incapacity of getting a livelyhud by Reson 
of his Lameness," etc., and " y he dweling with his kinsman 
Nathaniel Barns, Doe for the Relife of y* petitioner, give 
and grant unto s^ Barns, his heires and Assignes forever, a 
small Island of upland Containing about twenty acres (more or 
less) w"^ lyeth in Merimak River near to Mr Jonathan Tings 
farme, w'^'' Island hath been Commonly Caled & knowne by y 
name of Tinker's Island," etc. Mass Archives, vol. 45, p. 174. 
See also vol. 70, p. 47. 



176 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



The magistrates did not concur in the grant while consenting 
to the dismissal, but appointed a committee, Capt. Samuel Adams 
of Chelmsford and Lieut. William Johnson of Woburn, to see if 
the Island was included in any former grant. I have not found 
their report, but Barnes' was granted, " Oct. 1681 two hundred 
acres of land where it is to be found not prejudiciall to any new 
plantation." See Colonial Records, vol. v, pp. 278-9 and 331. 

The following are in Hull's Journal : 



Credited under Capt. James Oliver ; 



February 29*^ 


1675 




Richard Barnam 


00 


12 04 


Ezekiel Gilman 


03 


03 00 


Joseph Bemish 


02 


14 00 


Alexander Boyle 


03 


00 00 


John Harwood 


00 


18 00 


Richard Cowell 


03 


03 00 


Aaron Steevens 


02 


15 06 


Daniel East 


03 


03 00 


Thomas Stanes 


02 


14 00 


Thomas Hunt 


02 


14 00 


April 24, 


1676. 




David Landon 


02 


14 00 


William Backaway 


02 


14 00 


James Couch 


02 


14 00 


James Harrington 


02 


14 00 


John Cann 


02 


14 00 


WiUiam Dinsdell 


02 


14 00 


Samuel Measy 


02 


14 00 


Gamaliel Rogers 


02 


14 00 


Richard Read 


02 


19 00 


James Harris 


02 


10 06 


Jeffery Jefferies 


02 


14 00 


Henry Critchett 


04 


10 10 


Patrick Moroone 


02 


14 00 


Roger Brown 


02 


14 00 


Thomas Warren 


02 


14 00 


William MadriU 


02 


14 00 


William Baker 


02 


14 00 


Mark Round 


02 


14 00 


Rowland Boulter 


02 


14 00 


John Crooke 


02 


14 00 


John Kendall 


02 


14 00 


June 24, 


1676. 




Josiah Belcher 


02 


14 00 


Daniel Clough 


02 


14 00 


Robert Emans 


02 


14 00 


John Verin 


02 


14 00 


Alexander McKenney 


02 


14 00 


Ephraim Turner Lieut. 07 


01 06 


Samuel Jenkins 


00 


18 00 


Benjamin Pickering 


02 


14 00 


Thomas Hansett 


03 


00 00 


Hemy Kerby 


02 


14 00 


John Casey 


03 


00 00 


Gilbert Foresight 


02 


14 00 


John King 


03 


03 00 


James Knott 


02 


14 00 


James Lindall 


03 


03 00 


Joseph Barber 


02 


14 00 


Samuel Lane 


02 


14 00 


John Wilkins 


02 


14 00 


March 24"^ 1675-6 




July 24* 


1676 




Thomas Bingly 


04 


01 00 


WiUiam Kemball 


02 


14 00 


Thomas Brown 


00 06 10 


Roger Prosser 


02 


14 00 


Thomas Burch 


02 


14 00 


August 24 


1676 




Richard Drue 


03 


13 — 


Richard House 


02 


14 00 , 


Joseph Knight 


04 


01 00 


Sept. 23'* 


1676 




Alexander Forbs 


00 


12 00 


Ralph PoweU 


02 


14 00 


Henry Timberlake 


03 


12 00 


Archabald Forrest 


02 


14 00 



The following list, which contains the names of those impressed 
out of the various Boston companies for this service, under Cap- 
tain Oliver, will be found different in several respects from the 
credit list above. In the credits but sixty-one names appear, 
while among the slain and wounded are four more, making, with 



CAPT. OLIVER'S SOLBIERS. 



177 



the Captain, sixty-six. In the second list there are seventy-nine 
in all and thirty-one not credited in Hull. Many of these latter 
are doubtless boys and substitutes, as appears in the list of slain 
and wounded, where so many are " Servants " (i.e.) apprentices 
probably. 

There are fourteen names in Hull's list not found in the 
second. In the official muster at Dedham Plain Capt. Oliver's 
company numbers eighty-three. The discrepancy would doubt- 
less be explained had we the later journal of Mr. Hull's 
accounts. 

The Boston companies are designated by the names of theii 
captains, and the numbers accompanying each denote the numbei 
of men from each. 



A List of the Souldiers und'' Command of Capt. James Olliver. 



Imprimis 

Capt. UlUvers, 17 
Capt. James Olliver 
Lieut. Turner 
The. Bingley 
Serg' Bennitt 
Serg' Ingram 
Serg' Timberleys 
Serg' Meares 
Charles Lidgett 
James Butler 
James Coutch 
Mr Symon Lynds 
W°' Midleton 
Rich: Crispe 
Will: Douglis 
Natt: Ellkin 
Rich: Burford 
James Lendall 

Major Savidge, 7 
WUl" Elliott 
Jn° Brigs 
Jo: Knight 
Sam" Laine 
Patraick Moraine 
Gilbert fforesyth 
Jn° Kendall 

Major Clark, 12 
Will: Blackwell 
Splande Decroe 

Mass, Archives 



Tho: Burch 
Henry Timberley 
Henry Kerbee 
Joseph Wakfeild 
Will™ Kemble 
Will-" Backua 
Rich: Travis 
Peter Ingsbee 
Will: Drue 
Jn° Allen 

Cap' Hudson, 9 
Gamaliell Rodgers 
Tho: Brown 
Dan" East 
Roger Procer 
Jn° ffeilder 
James Thomas 
David Landon 
Will"" Dinsdell 
Jn° Wilkins 



Cpt. Richards, 
Ezekiell Gillman 
Jn° Cann 
Dan" Cluff 
Eliezar Gilbert 
Hugh Prize 
Will: Madareell 
Henry Crittchitt 
Marke Rounds 
Jo" Bevis 
, vol. 68, p. 95. 



10 



WiU"" Dolliver 

C. Hinchman, 6 
James Whippo 
Sam" Jenkins 
Tho: Staines 
Jn° Verin 
Rob' Emins 
Ralph Powell 

Cp' Clark, 8 
Rowland Bowlter 
Tho. Hunt 
Jefery Jeffers 
Aron Stevens 
Houell Davis 
James Harrington 
Rich: Drue 
Rich: CoweU 

Cp' Hull, 10 
James Harris 
Allexander BogeU 
W" Baker 
Archibell fiforest 
Josiah Bellcher 
Dan" Harris 
Henry Lizonby 
J° Hudson 
Jn" Case 
Jn° Cleares 



178 KING Philip's war. 

A List of y^ Slayne & wounded in Capt OUiver'a. 19*^ of December, 1675 
Thomas Broune for Paul Bat of Boston 
Alexander fforbes 

Splende Decroe Serv' to Dani, /• 5 men Slayne. 

James Thomas 

Hen: Hall, for Mr Ligett, lost 

Sarg' Peter Bennet 
Sarg' Timberley 

James Lendall / 7 men 

W" Kemble Serv* to Jn° Cleere I wounded and 

Ezekiel Oilman / are at 

Marke Rounds Serv' to Hen: Kemble ( Road Hand. 

Alexander Bogell 

John Casey Servant to Tho: Gardiner, Muddy River. 
Mass. Archives, vol. 68, pp. 103-4 

Besides these, many more were disabled from active service, 
from the cold and exposure. 

EPHRAIM TURNER, Capt. Oliver's lieutenant in this ex- 
pedition, was the son of Robert Turner, who came to Boston, 
September 4, 1633, in the ship Griffin, with Rev. John Cotton. 
Robert is styled " Vintner " in the deed of April 1, 1652, from 
Richard Fairbanks, conveying the estate upon which he rebuilt 
or enlarged the house where he established the famous hostlery 
known as the " Blue Anchor Tavern " for more than fifty years. 
The " Boston Daily Globe," April 2, 1885, whose building now 
occupies the site of the ancient hostlery, published a very interest- 
ing account, by William R. Bagnell, of the successive buildings 
and residents that have occupied the premises. Among the 
occupants was Gen. Henry Knox. Of this Robert, the vintner and 
innholder, and his wife Penelope, Ephraim, the eldest son, was 
born December 13, 1639 ; of the Artillery Company 1663, freeman 
1666, Ensign in Capt. Oliver's company at home from 1676 to 
1680, when he was relieved of the office at his request. He 
married Sarah Phillips, daughter of Major William, of Charles- 
town, Boston and Saco, and through her came into possession of 
large tracts of land in what is now Sandf ord, Alfred and Water- 
boro'. The children of Ephraim and Sarah, born in Boston, were 
— Derlow, born Dec. 3, 1663 ; Robert, born June 17, 1665 ; Sarah, 
born March 24, 1666-7 ; Abigail, born June 8, 1669 ; Ephraim, 
born Nov. 23, 1670 ; Elizabeth, born August 19, 1672 ; Deliver- 
ance, born August 1, 1673. 

Mr. T. Larkin Turner, of North Weymouth, who has 
thoroughly investigated the various branches of the Turner 
family, and has kindly assisted in the above sketch, informs me 
that he has found nothing relative to Ephraim Turner subsequent 
to 1680-1, and thinks he must have removed from town. 



XIII. 

THE NARRAGANSET CAMPAIGN TO THE CLOSE OF 
THE "SWAMP FORT" BATTLE. 



PREPARATIONS AND MARCH AGAINST THE NARRAGANSETS. 

AFTER their somewhat disastrous campaign of the autumn 
of 1675 in the western parts of the colony of Massachusetts, 
the United Colonies, upon information that the hostile 
Indians with Philip were retiring towards the south and to winter 
quarters amongst the Narragansets, determined to carry the war 
against this powerful tribe, who for some time had shown them- 
selves actively hostile. The veteran troops were recalled and 
reorganized; small towns in various parts of the colonies were 
garrisoned, and an army of one thousand men was equipped 
for a winter campaign. General Josiah Winslow, Governor of 
Plymouth Colony, was appointed commander-in-chief of this 
Army ; Major Samuel Appleton to command the Massachusetts 
Regiment, Major William Bradford that of Plymouth, and Major 
Robert Treat that of Connecticut. War was formally declared 
against the Narragansets on November 2d, 1675, in the meeting 
of the Commissioners of the United Colonies held at Boston. 

General Winslow, upon his appointment to the command of 
the army in this expedition, went to Boston for consultation with 
Gov. Leverett and the Council. Thence on Thursday, December 
the 9th, he rode to Dedham, having Benjamin Church as aid, and 
probably the gentlemen who constituted the Massachusetts part 
of his staff or " guard," consisting of the ministers, among whom 
was Mr. Joseph Dudley, and the surgeons, of whom the chief 
was Daniel Weld, of Salem. I presume other general officers and 
aids went along with him, of whom we find no mention. Com- 
missary John Morse was probably of this number. The General 
assumed command of the Massachusetts forces drawn up on 
Dedham Plain, and formally delivered to him by Major General 
Denison of Massachusetts, on Thursday, December 9th. This 
force consisted of six companies of foot, numbering four hundred 
and sixty-five, besides Captain Prentice's troop of seventy-five. 
The full quota of Massachusetts was five hundred and twenty-seven 
soldiers, but there were doubtless many others along as servants 



180 KING Philip's wak. 

to the officers, scouts, and teamsters. To the soldiers a proclama- 
tion was made at this time, on the part of the Massachusetts 
Council, " that if they played the man, took the Fort, & Drove 
the Enemy out of the Narragansett Country, which was their 
great Seat, that they should have a gratuity in land besides their 
wages." On the same afternoon they marched twenty-seven 
miles to Woodcock's Garrison, now Attleboro'. In the evening 
of Friday, December 10th, they arrived at Seekonk, where vessels 
with supplies were in waiting. And here also Major Richard 
Smith was waiting their arrival with his vessel, and took on 
board Capt. Mosely and his company, to sail direct to his garrison' 
house at Wickford. Some others, it is likely, went with them to 
arrange for quartering the troops, and Benjamin Church was sent 
to make ready for the General's coming. The rest of the forces 
" ferried over the water to Providence," and probably formed a 
junction with the main part of the Plymouth regiment at 
Providence, on Saturday, December 11th. From Mr. Dudley's 
letter of the 15th, it will be seen that an account had been sent 
the Council of their movements to the time of arriving at Pau- 
tuxet. This letter is now lost from the files. In the evening 
of Sunday, December 12th, the whole body advanced " from 
Mr. Carpenter's," crossed the Pautuxet River and marched a 
long way into " Pomham's Country," now Warwick, R.I. ; but 
from the unskilfulness of their Warwick scouts (probably Eng- 
lishmen, for if they had been Indians their failure would have 
been deemed treachery), their purpose of capturing Pomham 
and his people was defeated, and after a whole night spent 
in weary marching about, they arrived at Mr. Smith's garrison- 
house at Wickford on the 13th, and found their vessels from 
Seekonk already arrived. Capt. Mosely's company that day 
captured thirty-six Indians, including Indian Peter, who proved 
afterwards such an indispensable guide. 

There were many doubtless at Smith's garrison, employed by 
him and gathered thither for security. Church speaks of finding 
" the Eldridges and some other brisk hands," and going out and 
taking eighteen Indians, and finding the General arrived on his 
return to the garrison next morning before sunrise. This would 
seem from his story to have been on the morning of the 12th; 
but the other accounts and his own reference to the General's 
arrival settle the day as the 13th and the time as before daybreak. 
This exploit of Mr. Church seems to have been unknown to 
Messrs. Dudley, Oliver and other contemporary writers. On 
Monday, 13th, no movement was made, but on the 14th the Gen- 
eral moved his whole force, except Capt. Oliver's company, which 
kept garrison, out through the country to the westward, and 
burned the town of the Sachem " Ahmus," of whom I can find 
no mention except this of Mr. Dudley's, and the " Quarters " of 
Quaiapen, Magnus, or Matantuck, as her Indian name was under- 



THE ARMY AT NARRAGANSET. 181 

stood by the English, " Old Queen " or " Sunke Squaw," as she 
was called by them. She was the widow of Mriksah, or Makanno, 
son of Canonicus, Her dominions were in the present towns of 
South and North Kingston and Exeter, and near the line between 
the latter, upon a high rocky hill, is still to be found the remains of 
an old Indian fort, known from earliest times as the " Queen's 
Fort," and probably near the place where her deserted " Quarters " 
were raided. The army that day destroyed one hundred and fifty 
wigwams, killed seven and captured nine Indians. In the mean 
time Capt. Oliver had sent out " five files," i.e. thirty of his men, 
under Sergeant (Peter) Bennet, who, scouting abroad, killed two 
Indians, a man and woman, and captured four more. 

Mr. Dudley, writing on the next day, Wednesday, December 
15th, states that up to that time they had captured or killed, in all, 
fifty persons, and their prisoners in hand were forty. Capt. Oliver's 
account makes the number fifty-seven " young and old." Adding 
Mr. Church's eighteen, and we swell the number to seventy-five. 
From a careful survey of the matter in all its relations, I am 
inclined to think that Church was acting in conjunction with, 
and under the command of Capt. Mosely, to whom the official re- 
turns accredit the capture of the whole body, eighteen of whom 
Church claims to have been his own captives. 

Wednesday, December 15th, the army seems to have been held 
in parley most of the day by the pretended negotiations of 
" Stone-wall," or " Stone-layer," John, an Indian who had lived 
much with the English, and had learned the trade of stone-mason, 
but was now hostile, and very serviceable to the Indians in many 
ways. Whether he was treacherous or not, the Indians were 
gathering and skulking about the English quarters while he was 
negotiating, and when he was safely away they began to pick off 
our men wherever they found opportunity, and later lay in ambush 
behind a stone wall and fired upon several companies of the 
English sent out to bring in Major Appleton's company, quartered 
some miles away. They were quickly repulsed with the loss of 
one of their leaders, and seem to have gone towards the general 
rendezvous at the great fort, and on the way they assaulted and 
burned the garrison of Jireh, or " Jerry " Bull at Pettisquamscot 
(Tower Hill, S. Kingston, R.I.), killing fifteen of those at the 
garrison, two only escaping. 

Thursday, December 16th, Capt. Prentice vtdth his troop rode 
out, probably following the trail to Pettisquamscot, where he 
found the garrison-house in ruins. This is said to have been a 
very strong stone house, easily defended by a small number, and 
its destruction, of which there is no detailed account, must have 
been accomplished by either surprise or treachery. The news 
had a very depressing effect upon the army, who had hoped that 
the Connecticut forces had already arrived there. 

Friday, December 17th, came the news of the arrival of the 



182 KING Philip's war. 

Connecticut regiment at Pettisquamscot. Our army seems to 
have been disposing of the captives and preparing for the march. 
Forty-seven of the captives were sold to Capt. Davenport on 
this day, Saturday, Dec. 18th. The General, leaving a small 
garrison at Wickford, pushed his army forward to Pettisquamscot, 
and about 5 P.M. joined the Connecticut troops consisting of 
about tliree hundred English and one hundred and fifty Mohegan 
Indians. In a severe snow-storm, the whole force, about one 
thousand men, encamped in the open field through that bitter cold 
night. Sunday, Dec. 19th, before daybreak (Capt. Oliver says, 
" at five o'clock "), the whole force marched away towards the 
enemy's great rendezvous. 

The following, gleaned from all available sources, may be of 
interest at this point : 

ROSTER OF THE OFFICERS OF THE ARMY OF THE 
UNITED COLONIES, 

AS ORGANIZED FOR THE NARRAGANSET CAMPAIGN, AND MUSTERED AT 
PETTISQUAMSCOT, DECEMBER 19, 1675. 

General Josiah Winslow, Governor of Plymouth Colony, 
Commander-in-chief. 

General Staff. 
Daniel Weld, of Salem, Chief Surgeon. 
Joseph Dudley, of Boston, Chaplain. 
Benjamin Church, of Little Compton, R.I., Aid. 

MASSACHUSETTS REGIMENT. 

Samuel Appleton, of Ipswich, Major and Captain of First Company. 

Regimental Staff. 
Richard Knott, of Marblehead, Surgeon. 
Samuel Nowell, of Boston, Chaplain. 
John Morse, of Ipswich, Commissary. 

Officers of the Line. 
First Company : Jeremiah Swain, Lieutenant. 

Ezekiel Woodward, Sergeant (Acting Ensign) . 

Second Company : Samuel Mosely, Captain. 
Perez Savage, Lieutenant. 

Third Company : James Oliver, Captain. 

Ephraim Turner, Lieutenant. 

Peter Bennett, Sergeant (Acting Ensign) . 



ROSTER OF ARMY AT NARRAGANSET. 183 

Fourth Company : Isaac Johnson, Captain. 

Phineas Upham, Lieutenant. 
Henry Bowen, Ensign. 

Fifth Company : Nathaniel Davenport, Captain. 
Edward Tyng, Lieutenant. 
John Drury, Ensign. 

Sixth Company : Joseph Gardiner, Captain. 

William Hathorne, Lieutenant. 

Benjamin Sweet, Ensign (promoted Lieutenant). 

Jeremiah Neal, Sergeant (promoted Ensign) . 

Cavalry Company ( " Troop " ) : Thomas Prentice, Captain. 
John Wyman, Cornet (promoted Lieutenant). 

PLYMOUTH REGIMENT. 

William Bradford, of Marshfield, Major and Captain of First Company. 

Regimental Staff. 
Mathew Fuller, of Barnstable, Surgeon. 
Thomas Huckins, of Barnstable, Commissary. 

Officers of the Line. 
First Company : Robert Barker, of Duxbury, Lieutenant. 

Second Company : John Gorham, of Barnstable, Captain. 

Jonathan Sparrow, of Eastham, Lieutenant 
William Wetherell, Sergeant. 

CONNECTICUT REGIMENT. 

Robert Treat, of Milford, Major. 

Regimental Staff. 
Gershom Bulkely, Surgeon. 
Rev. Nicholas Noyes, Chaplain. 
Stephen Barrett, Commissary. 

Officers of the Line , 
First Company : John Gallop, of Stonington, Captain. 
Second Company : Samuel Marshall, of Windsor, Captain. 
Third Company : Nathaniel Seely, of Stratford, Captain. 
Fourth Company: Thomas Watts, of Hartford, Captain. 
Fifth Company : John Mason, of Norwich, Captain. 
To the First and Fifth Connecticut Companies were attached Indian 
Scouting Companies, numbering seventy-five to each. 

AFTER THE BATTLE. 

The following officers were sent out from Massachusetts, with 
recruits, to reorganize their Regiment, and fill the vacancies caused by 



184 KING Philip's war. 



the losses at the " Fort Fight." I do not attempt to assign the special 
commands. 

Surgeons : Dr. Jacob Willard, of Newton. 

Dr. John Cutler, of Hingham. 

Dr. John Clark, of Boston. 

Captains : 
Samuel Wadsworth. Joseph Sill. 

Samuel Brocklebank. Thomas Brattle. 

Jonathan Remington (promoted) . John Jacob. 
Nicholas Manning. 

Lieutenants : Stephen Greenleaf (promoted) . 
Daniel Ring (promoted) . 

Several of the above officers were in the "Fort Fight" as subor- 
dinate officers, and afterwards promoted. 

FROM COXNECTICUT. 

There were several new companies and the following officers sent : 

Rev. James Fitch, of Saybrook. 

Rev. John Wise, of Branford. 
Capt. John Standley, ^ 

Lieut. Joseph Wadsworth, „ ** a m ^ o u- 

Lieut. Samuel Martin, Senr., [Hartford County Soldiers. 

Zachary Sanford, Serg'., J 

Li'e'ut.Mos''efMltfleld, } New Hayen Company. 

S; stpheSrett, } ^^^^^^<^ Company. 

Of the forces of Massachusetts, the quota was 527 ; the number 
actually impressed was 540, including troopers, 75. The returns 
made at Dedham Plain give 465 foot, troopers, 73. The Connecti- 
cut quota was 315, and there were also two companies of Indians, 
150. Plymouth's quota was 158. 

The scene of the battle is well identified. It is situated in 
West Kingston, R.I., and belongs to the estate of the late Hon. 
J. G. Clark, whose residence was about one mile north-easterly 
from the old battlefield. Many relics of the battle are in posses- 
sion of Mr. Clarke's family. Saving the changes incident upon the 
clearing and cultivation of contiguous land, the place could be 
easily identified as the battlefield, even if its location were not put 
beyond question by traditions and also by relics found from time 
to time upon the place. It is now, as then, an " island of four or 
five acres," surrounded by swampy land, overflowed except in 
the dry est part of the year. The island was cleared and plowed 
about 1775, and at that time many bullets were found deeply 



THE SWAMP FORT BATTLE. 185 

bedded in the large trees ; quantities of charred corn were plowed 
up in different places, and it is said that Dutch spoons and Indian 
arrow-heads, etc., have been found here at different times. 

The accompanying map is a section — slightly reduced — of the 
large map of Rhode Island, made from surveys under the direction 
of H. F. Walling, Esq., and published by him in 1862. It takes 
in the line of march from Pettisquamscot (Tower-Hill) to the 
Fort. There is no " scale of miles " upon the large map, but by a 
careful comparison of known distances it appears that it is about 
seven miles in a bee line, nearly west, from Tower-Hill to the 
battlefield ; by way of McSparran Hill in direct courses, about 
ten miles. The army, following the higher land, with frequent 
halts and probably much uncertain wandering and careful scout- 
ing, consumed the time from five o'clock in the morning to about 
one o'clock P.M. ; and it is likely that in this roundabout march 
they made about fifteen or sixteen miles, the distance reported. 

In the retreat, the army probably followed back upon their 
morning track as far as McSparran Hill, and thence to Wickford 
to their quarters at Mr. Richard Smith's garrison-house, arriving 
there about two o'clock in the morning, after a march of about 
eighteen miles, as was reported at the time. Mr. Smith, called 
Captain and Major by contemporary writers, was a person of wide 
influence in this part of the country, and held in high esteem in 
all the colonies. He was the son of Richard Smith, Senior, who 
came from " Gloster Shire," in England, and in 1641 bought a 
large tract of land, including the present town of Wickford, and 
there built the first English house in Narraganset, and set up a 
trading station and offered free entertainment to all travellers. 

THE BATTLE AT THE GREAT SWAMP FOET. 

About one o'clock, P.M., the army came upon the enemy at the 
edge of the swamp, in the midst of which the Indian fortress was 
built, the Massachusetts regiment leading in the march, Plymouth 
next, and Connecticut bringing up the rear. Of the Massachusetts 
troops Capts. Mosely and Davenport led the van and came first 
upon the Indians, and immediately opened fire upon them, — thus 
at the beginning gaining the important advantage of the first fire, 
which the Indians had almost always gained and made so deadly 
by deliberate volleys from ambush, as they doubtless purposed now. 
The Indians returned the fire with an ineffectual volley, and then 
fled into the swamp closely pursued by the foremost companies, 
who did not wait for the word of command, or stand much upon 
the " order of their going," until they reached the fortifications 
within which the Indians hastily betook themselves. This fort 
was situated upon an island of some five or six acres in the midst 
of a cedar swamp, which was impassable except to the Indians by 
their accustomed paths, and now made passable only by the severe 
cold of the previous day and night. It is probable that the Indians 



186 KING Philip's war. 

depended chiefly upon the swamp to protect them, though their 
defences are described as having been of considerable strength. 
A portion of the high ground had been enclosed, and from a careful 
comparison of the most reliable accounts, it seems that the forti- 
fications were well planned, probably by the Englishman Joshua 
Teffe, or Tift, as Mr. Dudley calls him. Mr. Hubbard says : " The 
Fort was raised upon a Kind of Island of five or six acres of 
rising Land in the midst of a swamp ; the sides of it were made 
of Palisadoes set upright, the which was compassed about with a 
Hedg of almost a rod Thickness." A contemporary writer (whose 
account was published at the time in London, and is reprinted in 
Mr. Drake's publication called the " Old Indian Chronicle " ) says : 
" In the midst of the Swamp was a Piece of firm Land, of about 
three or four Acres, whereon the Indians had built a kind of Fort, 
being palisadoed round, and within that a clay Wall, as also felled 
down abundance of Trees to lay quite round the said Fort, but they 
had not quite finished the said Work." It is evident from these, 
the only detailed accounts, and from some casual references, that 
the works were rude and incomplete, but would have been almost 
impregnable to our troops had not the swamp been frozen. 
At the corners and exposed portions, rude block-houses and 
flankers had been built, from which a raking fire could be poured 
upon any attacking force. Either by chance, or the skill of Peter, 
their Indian guide, the English seem to have come upon a point 
of the fort where the Indians did not expect them. Mr. Church, 
in relating the circumstances of Capt. Gardiner's death, says that 
he was shot from that side " next the upland where the English 
entered the swamp." The place where he fell was at the " east 
end of the fort." The tradition that the English approached the 
swamp by the rising land in front of the " Judge Marchant " 
house, thus seems confirmed. This " upland " lies about north 
of the battlefield. 

Our van pursued those of the enemy who first met them so 
closely that they were led straight to the entrance used by the 
Indians themselves, perhaps by their design then to attract atten- 
tion from an exposed part of their works a short distance away. 
The passage left by the Indians for their own use, as before men- 
tioned, was by a long tree over a " place of water," across which 
but one might pass at a time, " and which was so waylaid that they 
would have been cut off that had ventured." Mr. Hubbard counts 
among the fortunate circumstances of that day that the troops 
did not attempt to carry this point, and that they discovered the 
only assailable point a little farther on. This was at a corner of 
the fort where was a large unfinished gap, where neither palisades 
nor the abattis, or " hedge," had been placed, but only a long 
tree had been laid across about five feet from the ground, to fill 
the gap, and might be easily passed ; only that the block-house 
right opposite this gap and the flankers at the sides were finished, 



I 



186 KING Philip's war. 

depended chiefly upon the swamp to protect them, though their 
defences are described as having been of considerable strength. 
A portion of the high ground had been enclosed, and from a careful 
comparison of the most reliable accounts, it seems that the forti- 
fications were well planned, probably by the Englishman Joshua 
Teffe, or Tift, as Mr. Dudley calls him. Mr. Hubbard says : " The 
Fort was raised upon a Kind of Island of five or six acres of 
rising Land in the midst of a swamp ; the sides of it were made 
of Palisadoes set upright, the which was compassed about with a 
Hedg of almost a rod Thickness." A contemporary writer (whose 
account was published at the time in London, and is reprinted in 
Mr. Drake's publication called the " Old Indian Chronicle " ) says : 
" In the midst of the Swamp was a Piece of firm Land, of about 
three or four Acres, whereon the Indians had built a kind of Fort, 
being palisadoed round, and within that a clay Wall, as also felled 
down abundance of Trees to lay quite round the said Fort, but they 
had not quite finished the said Work." It is evident from these, 
the only detailed accounts, and from some casual references, that 
the works were rude and incomplete, but would have been almost 
impregnable to our troops had not the swamp been frozen. 
At the corners and exposed portions, rude block-houses and 
flankers had been built, from which a raking fire could be poured 
upon any attacking force. Either by chance, or the skill of Peter, 
their Indian guide, the English seem to have come upon a point 
of the fort where the Indians did not expect them. Mr. Church, 
in relating the circumstances of Capt. Gardiner's death, says that 
he was shot from that side " next the upland where the English 
entered the swamp." The place where he fell was at the "east 
end of the fort." The tradition that the English approached the 
swamp by the rising land in front of the " Judge Marchant " 
house, thus seems confirmed. This " upland " lies about north 
of the battlefield. 

Our van pursued those of the enemy who first met them so 
closely that they were led straight to the entrance used by the 
Indians themselves, perhaps by their design then to attract atten- 
tion from an exposed part of their works a short distance away. 
The passage left by the Indians for their own use, as before men- 
tioned, was by a long tree over a " place of water," across which 
but one might pass at a time, " and which was so waylaid that they 
would have been cut off that had ventured." Mr. Hubbard counts 
among the fortunate circumstances of that day that the troops 
did not attempt to carry this point, and that they discovered the 
only assailable point a little farther on. This was at a corner of 
the fort where was a large unfinished gap, where neither palisades 
nor the abattis, or " hedge," had been placed, but only a long 
tree had been laid across about five feet from the ground, to fill 
the gap, and might be easily passed ; only that the block-house 
right opposite this gap and the flankers at the sides were finished, 



i 



\ 



J-^ 



FORT TAKEN AND BURNED. 187 

from which a galling fire might sweep and enfilade the passage. 
Mr. Hubbard's account is very clear about this, yet several writers 
have sadly confused matters and described the first as the point 
of assault. 

The companies of Capts. Davenport and Johnson came first ^ to 
this place, and those officers at once charged through the gap and 
over the log at the head of their companies, but Johnson fell 
dead at the log, and Davenport a little within the fort, and their 
men were met with so fierce a fire that they were forced to retire 
again and fall upon their faces to avoid the fury of the musketry 
till it should somewhat abate. Mosely and Gardiner, pressing to 
their assistance, met a similar reception, losing heavily, till they 
too fell back with the others, until Major Appleton coming up 
with his own and Capt. Oliver's men, massed his entire force as a 
storming column, and it is said that the shout of one of the com- 
manders that the Indians were running, so inspired the soldiers 
that they made an impetuous assault, carried the entrance amain, 
beat the enemy from one of his flankers at the left, which afforded 
them a temporary shelter from the Indians still holding the block- 
house opposite the entrance. In the mean time, the General, 
holding the Plymouth forces in reserve, pushed forward the Con- 
necticut troops, who not being aware of the extent of the danger 
from the block-house, suffered fearfully at their first entrance, but 
charged forward gallantly, though some of their brave officers and 
many of their comrades lay dead behind them, and unknown 
numbers and dangers before. The forces now joining, beat the 
enemy step by step, and with the fierce fighting, out of their 
block-houses and various fortifications. Many of the Indians, 
driven from their works, fled outside, some doubtless to the wig- 
wams inside, of which there were said to be upward of five hun- 
dred, many of them large and rendered bullet>proof by large 
quantities of grain in tubs and bags, placed along the sides. In 
these many of their old people and their women and children had 
gathered for safety, and behind and within these as defences the 
Indians still kept up a skulking fight, picking off our men. 
After three hours hard fighting, with many of the officers and 
men wounded or dead, a treacherous enemy of unknown numbers 
and resources lurking in the surrounding forests, and the night 
coming on, word comes to fire the wigwams, and the battle be- 
comes a fearful holocaust, great numbers of those who had taken 
refuge therein being burned. 

The fight had now raged for nearly three hours, with dreadful 
carnage in proportion to the numbers engaged. It is not certain 
at just what point the Plymouth forces were pushed forward, but 
most likely after the works were carried, and the foremost, ex- 
hausted, retired for a time, bearing their dead and wounded to the 
rear ; but we are assured that all took part in the engagement, 

1 John Raymond (Rayment) claimed to have been the first Boldier to enter the fort. 



188 KING Philip's wae. 

coming on in turn as needed. It is doubtful if the cavalry 
crossed the swamp, but were rather held in reserve and as scouts 
to cover the rear and prevent surprises from any outside parties. 

When now the fortress and all its contents were burning, and 
destruction assured, our soldiers hastily gathered their wounded 
and as many as possible of their dead, and formed their shattered 
column for the long and weary march back to Wickford. 

Reliable details of this battle are few, and only gleaned from 
casual references here and there, and thus many, who have sought 
to write upon the matter, have quoted in full the story of Ben- 
jamin Church, who relates his own experience, and draws out his 
personal reminiscences with all an old man's fondness for his 
deeds of "long ago." The very small part he took in this battle 
is evident even from his own story, and from the utter silence of 
other writers, especially Mr. Hubbard, who knew Church and 
commends him highly for his exploits in the Mount Hope cam- 
paign. No one can doubt the ability or courage of Mr. Church, 
but his part in this battle was simply that when the fort was 
carried and the fighting nearl}'- over, he went, with some thirty 
others, into and through the fort and out into the swamp upon 
the trail of the retreating foe, discovered, ambushed and scattered 
a skulking party of them returning to the attack, chased a few of 
them into the fort amongst the huts, and was himself severely 
wounded by them thus brought to bay. 

I wish here to record my protest against the unjust, often 
weak, and always inconsiderate, criticism bestowed upon our 
leaders in this campaign, and especially in this battle, for their 
lack of foresight in abandoning the shelter and provisions of the 
fort, their sacrifice of the lives of our wounded men through their 
removal and the dangers and fatigues of the long march, and 
their inhumanity in burning the helpless and innocent in their 
huts and wigwams. 

It is well to remember at the start that many of the wisest, 
ablest and bravest men of the three colonies were the leaders in 
this affair. A noble commander, wise and brave ; reverend 
ministers, by no means backward with their opinions ; the most 
prominent and skilful surgeons the country afforded; veteran 
majors and captains of Massachusetts and Connecticut, with 
their veteran soldiers fresh from the severe experiences in the 
western campaign, inured to danger and experienced in Indian 
wiles and deceits : against all these we have recorded only the 
remonstrance of Mr. Church, who up to that time, at least, had 
experience in Indian warfare only as a scout, and the only record 
we have of any protest by him was made many years after the 
affair. And again, from the standpoint of their conditions as 
nearly as we can now judge, it seems that their hasty retreat 
was wise. They were some sixteen miles from their base of 
supplies (it is doubtful if they had noted the Indian supplies 
until the burning began). There was no way of reaching their 



MAECH BACK TO WICKFORD. 189 

pro^'isions and ammunition at Wickford except by detaching a 
portion of their force now reduced greatly by death, wounds and 
exposure. The numbers of Indians that had escaped, and were 
still in the woods close at hand, were unknown, but supposed to 
be several thousand, with report of a thousand in reserve about 
a mile distant. These were now scattered and demoralized, but 
in a few hours might rally and fall upon the fort, put our troops, 
in their weakened condition, upon the defensive, and make their 
retreat from the swamp extremely difficult if not utterly impos- 
sible, encumbered as they would be by the wounded, whose 
swollen and stiffened wounds in a few hours would render 
removal doubly painful and dangerous. Added to this was the 
chance of an attack upon the garrison at Wickford, and the 
dread of the midnight ambuscade, which every hour's delay made 
more likely and would render more dangerous. Thus it seems 
to me that from the standpoint of military strategy, the immediate 
retreat to Wickford was best. As to humanity, we must remem- 
ber the harsh times in which they were living, the contempt in 
which the Indians were held — first, as heathen, against whom 
war was righteous ; second, as idle and treacherous vagabonds, 
with no rights which honest industry was bound to respect; 
third, as deadly enemies lying in wait to plunder, burn and 
destroy. Moreover, the very life of the colonies was threatened 
by this war ; many thriving hamlets were already in ashes ; 
hundreds of families were broken up and scattered up and down, 
with loss of all ; fathers, husbands and brothers slain or in cap- 
tivity, farms and homes laid waste, whole communities huddled 
in wretched block-houses, while the "reign of terror" swept 
about them. Brookfield, "Beers's Plain," and "Bloody-Brook," 
with their outrage and carnage, were fresh in mind, and, a few 
days before, the destruction and massacre at Pettisquamscot ; 
while even here at their feet were their dead and dying comrades 
and beloved officers. Is it strange that they were cruel, when 
now for the first time they came face to face with the authors of 
all their troubles in a fair fight? By any candid student of 
history I believe this must be classed as one of the most glorious 
victories ever achieved in our history, and considering conditions, 
as displaying heroism, both in stubborn patience and dashing 
intrepidity, never excelled in American warfare. 

Of the details of the march to Wickford very little is known ; 
through a bitter cold winter's night, in a blinding snow-storm, 
carrying two hundred and ten of their wounded and dead, these 
soldiers, who had marched from dawn till high noon, had engaged 
in a desperate life-and-death struggle from noon till sunset, now 
plodded sturdily back to their quarters of the day before, through 
deepening snows and over unbroken roads.^ By the letters below, 
it will be seen that the General and staff, with their escort, got 

I There is a tradition (mentioned in a note in Hon. Elisha R. Potter, Jr.'s "Early History of 
Narragansett ") that the English feared an ambuscade in force on the line of march by which they 
had come, and bo marched by way of MeSparran Hill on their return. 



190 KING Philip's war. 

separated from the main column, lost their way and wandered 
about till 7 o'clock next morning, while the main body reached 
their quarters at 2 o'clock. 

DEAD AND WOUNDED. 

The names of those officers and soldiers of Massachusetts killed 
and wounded in this battle have been given heretofore in the 
sketches of the companies to which they belonged. 

By Capt. Oliver's letter, written a little more than a month 
afterwards from the seat of war, and considered official, we learn 
that up to that time the dead numbered about sixty-eight, and 
the wounded one hundred and fifty, in the whole army. Eight of 
the dead were left in the fort, and twelve more were dead when 
they started back to Wickford. Twenty-two died on the march, 
and before the next day, Monday, Dec. 20th, when they buried 
thirty-four in one grave, and six more within two days, eight 
died at Rhode Island, and three others, making in all but fifty- 
nine, if we reckon the twelve carried from the fort as a part of 
the thirty-four buried Dec. 20th; otherwise, seventy-one. But 
the first estimate of sixty-eight is satisfied if we add the twenty 
killed at the fort to those buried at Wickford and Rhode Island, 
and conclude that the twelve taken from the fort were buried 
somewhere on the march. 

Ninigret, sachem of the Nianticks, sent to General Winslow 
word that his people had buried the dead of the English left at 
the Fort, and that the number was twenty-four, and he asked for 
a charge of powder for each. This information was given in a 
letter from Major Bradford to Rev. Mr. Cotton of Plymouth. 

Of the losses of Massachusetts we are not left in doubt, since 
there is still preserved in our archives a full and official return, 
which Mr. Hubbard gives substantiallj'-, adding to the wounded 
probably those whose wounds were slight and not reported at the 
time, and with some modifications of the list of dead, though with 
the same total. 

The official list of those killed and wounded in the battle, 
including three of Capt. Gardiner's men killed previous to the 
battle, is dated January 6, 1675, and entitled, 

A list of Major Sam' Apleton souldjers y' were slayne & wounded 
the IB'*' Decemb. '75, at the Indians fort at Narraganset. 





Killed. 


Wounded. 


/ Major Appleton, 


4 


18 


Capt. Mosely, 


6 


9 


Capt. Oliver, 


5 


8 


In the Company of ( Capt. Davenport, 


4 


11 


Capt. Johnson, 


4 


8 


Capt. Gardiner, 


7 


10 


\ Capt. Prentice, 


1 


3 


[Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 104.] 


oi 


an 



31 




5 "S '3 

■^ "3 

CC 



SO 
m g S O 
LU ^ js a> 

'"—So 



C/) 



I— o <l''ft 



o c ^ 

> <D !^ 



o -S O 



H^ 



Capt. Gallop, 


10 


Capt. Marshall, 


14 


Capt. Seely, 


20 


Capt. Mason, 


9 


Capt. Watts, 


17- 



LOSSES IN THE BATTLE. 191 

Of the officers, Capts. Davenport, Johnson and Gardiner were 
killed, and Lieutenants Upham, Savage, Swain, and Ting were 
wounded. 

Of the Connecticut troops, seventy-one were killed and 
wounded according to Hubbard ; and according to the eminent 
historian of Connecticut, Dr. Benjamin Trumbull, seventy. 

Mr. Hubbard's Account. 
Of New Haven Company, 20 

Of Capt. Siely his Company, 20 
Of Capt. Watt his Company, 17 
-70 Of Capt. MarshaU his Company, 14—71 

Major Treat, by tradition, is said to have been the last man to 
have left the fort, commanding the rear guard of the army ; and 
of his captains. Gallop, Marshall and Seely were killed, and Capt. 
Mason mortally wounded. 

Of the Plymouth forces, Major Bradford, commander, and 
Benjamin Church of the General's staff were severely wounded, 
and of the soldiers the killed and wounded in both companies 
were twenty, by best accounts. 

The grave of the forty buried at Wickford was marked by a 
tree called the " grave appletree," which was blown down in the 
gale of September, 1815. The wounded were sent in vessels to 
Rhode Island, and well cared for. 

Of the losses of the enemy there can be no reliable account. 
Capt. Oliver says, " By the best intelligence we killed 300 fight- 
ing men, and took say 350 and above 300 women and children," 
Mr. Dudley, two days after the fight, reckons about two hundred ; 
Capt. Mosely counted sixty-four in one corner of the fort ; and 
Capt. Gorham made an estimate of at least one hundred and fifty. 
The desperate strait of the Indians is shown by their leaving the 
dead in their flight. Indian prisoners afterward reported seven 
hundred killed. 

The conduct of the Mohegan and Pequod allies is represented 
by Capt. Oliver as false, they firing in the air, but securing much 
plunder. I have found no other notice of their part in the battle. 

COREESPONDENCE. 

The following letters, written by Joseph Dudley, who was with 
Gen. Winslow as one of his staff or " Guard," and also served as 
chaplain to the army, are perhaps the most reliable official reports 
of the campaign that remain. The letter of the fifteenth is still 
preserved, as noted below. That of the twenty-first was pub- 
lished by Governor Hutchinson in his " History of the Colony of 
Massachusetts Bay," London edition (1765), page 302. I have 
not been able to find the original of this last. The letter of the 
Council to Gen. Winslow, in answer to Dudley's first, is pre- 



192 KING Philip's war. 

served, as below noted, and in two copies — the first a rough 
draft, the second a carefully written copy in Secretary Rawson's 
own hand. 

Letter of Joseph Dudley. 

May it please your Honn' Mr Smiths 15, 10, 75 

I am commanded by the Generall to give your Honn'' account of our 
proceeding since our last fr" Pautuxet in the Sabath evening we 
advanced the whole body from Mr Carpenters with Intent to surprise 
Pomham & his Party at about 10 or 12 Miles Distance having infor- 
mation by our Warwick Scouts of his seat but the darkness of y*^ Night 
Difficulty of our passage & unskilf ulness of Pilots we passed the whole 
Night & found ourselves at such Distance yet from y™ y' we Diverted 
& Marched to Mr. Smiths, found our Sloops from Seaconk arrived 
since which by y^ help of Indian Peter by whom your Honnor had the 
Information formerly of y^ Number & resolution of y^ Naragansets, we 
have burned two of their Towns viz : Ahmus who is this summer come 
down amongst them & y* old Queens quarters consisting of about 150 
Many of them large wigwams & seized & slayn 50 Persons in all our 
prisoners being about 40 Concerning whom the generall prayes your 
advice concerning their transportation or Disposall all which was per- 
formed without any loss save a slight wound by an Arrow in Lieut. 
"Wayman's face, the whole body of them we find removed into their 
great swamp at Canonicus his quarters where we hope with the addition 
of Connecticut, when arrived we hope to Coop them up, this day we 
Intend the removal! or spoyle of y' Corn & hope to Morrow a March 
toward them, our soldiers being very chearful are forward notwithstand- 
ing great Difficulty by weather & otherwise, abovs** Peter whom we 
have found very faithfuU will Make us believe y* y"" are 3000 fighting 
Men though Many unarmed Many well fitted with lances we hope by 
cutting off their forage to force them to a fayr battle In y'^ Mean 
time I have only to present the Generalls humble service to your \^sic\ 
& to beg your Intense prayers for this so great Concern and remayn 
your 

Honnors Humble Servant Jos: Dudley. 

Goodale nor Moor arrived we fear want of shot. 
My humble service to Madam Leveret Brother and Sister Hubbard & 
Dudley. 

Amongst our Prison'' «fe Slayn we find 10 or 12 Wampanoags. 
[Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 101.] 



Answer of the Council to Gen. Winslow. 

S" y' Intelligences and Advices subjected by Mr. Dudley the 15 & 16 
Ins' wee received this Morning being the IS"" at eight of the clock. Wee 
desire to blesse God y' hee hath smiled upon you in y' first Attempts & 
hath delivered some of o' enemys into yo'' hands & also to Acknowledge 
Gods favou' in the supporting y* hearts of yo"" souldiers in such a severe 
season & keeping up their spirits w"* courage and that you have received 
no more losse of men : But yet also according to God's wonted manner 



CORRESPONDENCE AFTER THE BATTLE. 193 

of dealing hee hath mixed the Cup w"" some bitternes ; in the losse 
susteyned in yo"" soldiers especially Mr Bulls house & y® people y'^ also 
y' the forces of Conecticut are not joyned w"" you nor the vessell w* 
supplys of Ammunition & provision then arrived ; "Wee hope by this 
time both the vessell may be arrived & the Conecticut men conjoined 
w*'' you but least that should f aile wee have sent a cart w''' Ammunition ; 
and an order from Gou°'' Winthrop for their forces to March speedily ; 
Concerning the disposall of y^ Indian prisoners ; Our Advice is if any 
present to buy them, they may be sould there & delivered by your Orders 
or if that cannot bee then to secure them at the Island or els-where at 
yo'' best discretion ; Wee have no more to add at present but our hearty 
prayers unto the Lord of Hoasts to appear w"' & for you & all w"" you, 
in all yo'' enterprises, for the Lord & his people and cover all yo"" heads 
in the day of Battle, So w'^ our particular respects & love to y^'self & 
all y* Command" & Ministers ; wee remajne 

Yo'' respective friends & servants 
Boston 18: December 1675 Edward Rawson Secret^ in the name 

at one of the clock. & by y^ order of the Council. 

[Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 102.] 

Second Letter of Joseph Dudley.^ 

Mr Smith's, 21, 10, 1675 (Dec. 21, 1675). 
May it please your honour. 

The coming in of Connecticut force to Petaquamscot, and surprisal 
of six and slaughter of 5 on Friday night, Saturday we marched towards 
Petaquamscot, though in the snow, and in conjunction about midnight 
or later, we advanced ; Capt. Mosely led the van, after him Massachu- 
sets, and Plimouth and Connecticut in the rear; a tedious march in the 
snow, without intermission, brought us about two of the clock after- 
noon, to the entrance of the swamp, by the help of Indian Peter, who 
dealt faithfully with us ; our men, with great courage, entered the swamp 
about twenty rods ; within the cedar swamp we found some hundreds of 
wigwams, forted in with a breastwork and Hankered, and many small 
blockhouses up and down, round about; they entei'tained us with a 
fierce fight, and many thousand shot, for about an hour, when our men 
valiantly scaled the fort, beat them thence, and from the blockhouses. 
In which action we lost Capt. Johnson, Capt Danforth, and Capt Gar- 
diner, and their lieutenants disabled, Capt. Marshall also slain ; Capt. 
Seely, Capt. Mason, disabled, and many other of our officers, insomuch 
that, by a fresh assault and recruit of powder from their store, the 
Indians fell on again, recarried and beat us out of, the fort, but by the 
great resolution and courage of the General and Major, we reinforced, 
and very hardly entered the fort again, and fired the wigwams, with 
many living and dead persons in them, great piles of meat and heaps 
of corn, the ground not admitting burial of their store, were consumed ; 
the number of their dead, we generally suppose the enemy lost at least 
two hundred men ; Capt. Mosely counted in one corner of the fort sixty 
four men ; Capt. Goram reckoned 150 at least ; But, O ! Sir, mine heart 
bleeds to give your honor an account of our lost men, but especially 
our resolute Captains, as by account inclosed, and yet not so many, 

1 This letter is copied from the note in Hutchinson's History of Massachusetts, vol. i. page 273. 



194 KING Philip's war. 

but we admire there remained any to return, a captive woman, well 
known to Mr Smith, informing that there were three thousand five hun- 
dred men engaging us and about a mile distant a thousand in reserve, 
to whom if God had so pleased, we had been but a morsel, after so 
much disablement : she informeth, that one of their sagamores was slain 
and their powder spent, causing their retreat, and that they are in a 
distressed condition for food and houses, that one Joshua Tift, an 
Englishman, is their encourager and conductor. Philip was seen by 
one, credibly informing us, under a strong guard. 

After our wounds were dressed, we drew up for a march, not able to 
abide the field in the storm, and weary, about two of the clock, obtained 
our quarters, with our dead and wounded, only the General, Ministers, 
and some other persons of the guard, going to head a small swamp, 
lost our way, and returned again to the evening's quarters, a wonder 
we were not a prey to them, and, after at least thirty miles marching 
up and down, in the morning recovered our quarters, and had it not 
been for the arrival of Goodale next morning, the whole camp had 
perished ; The whole army, especially Connecticut, is much disabled 
and unwilling to march, with tedious storms, and no lodgings, and 
frozen and swollen limbs. Major Treat importunate to return at least 
to Stonington ; Our dead and wounded are about two hundred, disabled 
as many ; the want of officers, the consideration whereof the General 
commends to your honor, forbids any action at present, and we fear 
whether Connecticut will comply, at last, to any action. "We are en- 
deavoring, by good keeping and billetting our men at several quarters, 
and, if possible removal of our wounded to Rhode-Island, to recover 
the spirit of our soldiers, and shall be diligent to find and understand 
the removals on other action of the enemy, if God please to give us 
advantage against them. 

As we compleat the account of our dead, now in doing, the Council 
is of the mind, without recruit of men we shall not be able to engage 
the main body. 

I give your honour hearty thanks I am Sir, your honor's 

for your kind lines, of which humble servant, 

I am not worthy Joseph Dudley. 

Since the writing of these lines, the General and Council have jointly 
concluded to abide on the place, notwithstanding the desire of Con- 
necticut, only entreat that a supply of 200 may be sent us, with supply 
of commanders ; and, whereas we are forced to garrison our quarters 
with at least one hundred, three hundred men, upon joint account of 
the colonies, will serve, and no less, to effect the design. This is by 
order of the council. 

Blunderbusses, and hand grenadoes, and armour, if it may, and at 
least two armourers to mend arms. 

COMMISSARY DEPARTMENT. 

The following accounts are inserted in this place as showing 
somewliat the method and material of the commissary de- 
partment at that time. The accounts, as will be noticed, relate 
largely to the early part of the war, and the Mount Hope 
campaign under General Cudworth. The preliminary accounts 



SUPPLIES TO PLYMOUTH. 



195 



having been squared by Mr. Southward (Southworth), all the rest 

were gathered in the general settlement in January, 1675-6. — 

In Hull's Journal. 

27 August 1675 

Plymouth Colony Dr. to Cash for severalls as followeth. 
To Phillip Curtis for five men to guard 

powder and shott 00, 17, 00 

To the Guard for expence at Roxbury 00, 08, 06 > 02, 05, 09 

for ^ bb' of biskett 00, 05, 09 

for l^'' of powder besides what they brought 00, 01, 90 
Expense of s'^ Guard at Dedham 00, 13, 00 

September 14'*' 1675 
Richard Smith for guarding Ammunition 00, 03, 00 
John Lawrence ditto. 00, 03, 00 

James Hosly ditto. 00, 03, 00 I 00, 15, 00 

James Montt ditto. 00, 03, 00 

Ebenezer Hill ditto. 00, 03, 00 

November 23*^. Cr. By Received of Mr. Southward 

for disbursements 03, 00, 09 

January 25"^ 1675 
Plimouth Colony Dr. to Sundry ace'' as hear stated in p'per 
p'cells, for severlls dd'. by sundry persons for the use of s Colony at 
divers times from the 29* June last to this moneth inclusive as per 
the acc'% receipts, & orders relating thereunto filed as p No. 1269 
& 1270 £285, 14, 10 



Armes for a muskett to Gen' Cudworth , 
Liqors for Rum to viz. 

Mr. James Brown 9^ Gall 
Their forces at Naragansett 12 J gall 
Apparel for severalls viz. 

To Nathaniel Gunny 1 pr shoes 
Ditto Benjamin Peirce 

To CaptCornelius,"Vyastcoat, Shoes & Stokins 0, 14 
To Josiah Joslin, shoes and stockins . 0, 7 

To Gen' Cudworth 6 pr. shoes and 13 p.stockins3, 
Delivered by the Commissioners to their forces at 
Narragansett viz. 
26 — shirts at 
6^Wastcoats 
9 — pr drawers 
1 — pr breeches 
2 — lined coats 
10 — pr shoes \ 
5 — pr stockins j 
6 y*^' of canvas for neckcloaths 

shott pouch and calicoe 
180 y"^' sale cloth at y« 



, 




. 00, 


18,00 


2, 

3, 

0,' 
0, 


5, 
0, 

4, 
4, 


2} 05. 

. 32, 






05,00 
11,00 



7, 
2, 
1, 
0, 
3, 


16, 0^ 
14, 

4, 
18, 

0, 


4, 


15, 


1, 


0,0 


6, 


15,0 



y 28, 2, 



(32, 11, 0) 



196 KING Philip's war. 

Ammunition Id' viz 103, 08, 10 

To the officers a bagg with 35'"= powder 2, 14, 

Ditto to Benjamin Church with 18'"' and 50 bullets 2,13, 6 
To the Gen" 1 cask bullets qr 1'" or better 2, 16, 

To Mr. James Brown 5^ bbl powder at 7'" pr bbl. 38, 10, 
Ditto 9 cask & 1 chest bullets qr. 11'" 25, 13, 4 

More dd'. by the Commissaries 480 flints 0, 10, 

124 bullets 2, 12, 

8 half barrells of powder of the Mattachusetts ") 

detained by the Governor of Rhoad Island [-28, 0, 

for 4 barrells lent to Plimouth J 

(103,08,10) 
Tobacco, for 15'" to Nathaniel Gunny . . . . 0, 07, 06 
Tooles, dd' to the officers viz 3 spades 0, 10, 

2 Mattucks 1, 14, \- 02, 08, 00 

4 Axes 1, 04, 

Biskett dd' viz. To the Officers 150 cakes 0, 14, 

To Mr. James Brown 9 hhds. 31, 10, y 44, 04, 00 

To Gen"^" Cudworth 3^ hhds. 12, 00, 

Grocery for 26'" Raisons solis to ditto Brown . . . 01, 06, 00 

Fish for 1 hhd. ditto 04, 00, 00 

Porke ditto for 5 bb' at 4'" pr bb' . . 20, 00, 00 ) ^^ ^^ ^p, 

2bb'ditt ... 8, 00, 00 P^' ^^' ^^ 

Miscellanies, for severalls viz 24, 19, 06 

To Benjamin Church 1 hh'' biscake 
2 bb' porke 
2 bsh. pease & 1 sack | ^^ n.^ ^^ 

20'"tobacoe jUi, u/, uu 

To Capt. Goram 1'^''"^ biskett & pease ^ 

wanting 200 cakes lo3, 17, 06 

1'" raisons sons 

4 large peeces of porke J 

To Gen''" Cudworth 1 kittle . . . 01, 10, 00 

To ditto Church 1 jarr oyle 

2 galls wine |-01,03, 00 

10'" raisons solis 
To L* Tanner 1""' pease 

(4?)""' biscake ^04,00,00 

§""' porke 

To John Cobleigh for ditt. Ch(urch) ? 1 i i a on 

1""' salt } ^' ^^' ^" 

At Narragansett 2 qire p(aper) 0, 01, 00 



11, 10, 00 



(24, 19, 06) 
Billetings, for quartering 12 souldiers at M' Miles hous "^ 
Alsoe Gen^" Cudworth's and Capt Bradf ords Companies [ i n 00 00 
the 17"^ 18"^ & 19* dayes of July with bread, pease, | ' ' 

pork tobaco and liq°" J 

Pease viz 

To dit. Browne 3^^^ with Cask 9, 00, 00 ) .(. .. on 

To dit. Cudworth |"'^<^ 1, 15, 00 j ^''' -"''' ^^ 

Cask for 9^"^ to ditto Browne 2, 01, 00 



DEPARTMENT OP THE NAVY. 



197 



}'• 



00, 00 



Maritim— disbursements viz . . . 

for the f rait of 4:^^ bisket and 2"''^ of tobaco 

at guess 
Ditto to ^ p* of the hire of VesseUs 10, 00, 00 

Salt dd'. viz 

To Ditto Browne 1'^'^ qr. 12"='^ & Cash 2, 00, 00 
By Ditto Commissaries IJ bsh 0, 06, 00 

Thomas Terry for 1^ firkins of sope | 



V^^ meale, 10 wooden boules and 1 cann 



(285, 14, 10) 



11, 00, 00 



02, 06, 00 
02, 05, 00 



June 24'*> 1676. 
Plymouth Colony Cr By Viz. 

Ammunission for powder & ball returned ) ^^ jg qq ^ 

as p No 3185 j ' ' I en lo nj 

Biskett dit. 22, 00, 00 \ ^^' 1^' ^^ 

Graine for pease dit. 03, 00, 00 J 
By Disbursements for Ballance as p bond 11535 fo'544 215, 16, 06 

The account is thus carried to a later Ledger, which is lost. 



MARITTTVTF. DEPARTMENT. 






The following may show somewhat of the " naval " power of 


that day, and the methods and means of transporting supplies. 


1675 Maritime Disbursements Dr. 


Nov 20 To Peter Treby for frait of the Sloope Primrose £09, 06, 00 


Dec 10 To Israel Nichols for wood for Goodall's Vessel 00, 05, 00 


" " To Stephen Hascott for dammage of the Sloope Swan 03, 10, 00 


Feby 29 To Anthony Low for frait . . . . 05, 00, 00 


1676 


June 24 " Richard Goodall for frait . . . . 22, 00. 00 


" " Nehemiah Goodall for Service 






05, 10' 00 


u u Pilgrim Simpkin ' 


(( 






02, 08' 00 


" " James Twisdell ' 








02, 08, 00 


" " Richard Earle 








02, 08, 00 


" " Ezekiel Gardner ' 








02, 02, 00 


" " WUliam Woodbery ' 








05, 10, 00 


" " Anthony Haywood ' 








04, 00, 00 


" " Thomas Moore " 








10, 00, 00 


" " John Baker ' 








02, 08, 00 



Andrew Belcher, of Cambridge, a prominent merchant, with 
vessels operating between Boston and Connecticut ports, was 
active in these affairs, but his accounts doubtless fall into a 
later Ledger. 

In the State Archives, in some Bills of Benjamin Gillam against 
the colony, I find the item, Jan'y 10, 1675 : 

To charges on men to cut out Andrew Belcher's Sloop to go to Nar- 
ragansett, 14s. 



198 KING Philip's war. 

Mr. Church speaks of the arrival of Andrew Belcher as oppor- 
tune in saving the army ; Mr. Dudley says Goodale. Mr. Hub- 
bard's reference to the vessels "frozen in at Cape Cod," causing 
distress, was, I think, to a later time. 

After the return of the army to Mr. Smith's Garrison, the 
burial of the dead and removal of their wounded to Rhode 
Island, they spent several weeks parleying with the enemy, watch- 
ing and recruiting. Major Treat withdrew with his Connecticut 
forces, against the wishes, it appears, of the General and the 
other officers, and was later called to account for insubordination. 
Additional troops were sent down from Boston, and Massachu- 
setts and Plymouth held the field for a month longer ; but their 
operations and the closing part of this winter campaign, and the 
new forces engaged, must fall into the next chapter. 

Massachusetts afterwards redeemed the promise made to the 
soldiers at Dedham Plain, and granted to eight hundred and 
forty claimants, including those of Plymouth, the seven Nar- 
raganset townships. Connecticut to her volunteers in the Narrar 
ganset wars granted the township of Voluntown. 



XIY. 



CLOSE OF THE NARRAGANSET CAMPAIGN; THE 
" HUNGRY MARCH." 



AFTER the battle at the Narraganset Fort, several weeks of 
partial inactivity ensued, while both the English and the 
Indians were seeking to recover somewhat from the severe 
blow each had received. The forces of Massachusetts and Ply- 
mouth remained at Smith's garrison at Narraganset, while Major 
Treat with the Connecticut regiment returned to Stonington about 
December 28th. In the treasurer's account with Connecticut 
colony there is a charge '•'• For billiting 40 wounded men 7 days," 
and as there is no other occasion on which so many were wounded, 
it is fair to assume that the Connecticut forces did not retire 
before the 28th. 

On January 14"" the Council of Connecticut issued orders to 
Mr. John Brackett of Walliugford, and Serg'. William Ward, 
" to go to New London, to care for the wounded there, wliile Mr. 
Buckley goeth forth with the army." So it would seem that 
many of their wounded had been carried as far as New London. 

From various sources, the accounts of the most reliable histo- 
rians of the time, from contemporary letters and notices, we are 
able to glean some few items indicating the situation of affairs 
at the seat of war. 

The Indians were greatly demoralized and evidently very solic- 
itous as to the immediate future action of our army, as they sent 
in a delegation to the General on Thursday, December 23d, four 
days after the fight, ostensibly to negotiate in regard to peace, but 
in reality, doubtless, to ascertain the strength and intentions of 
the English. Some of the Indians had returned to their fort 
upon the retreat of the troops, and it is likely were able to rescue 
a part of their provisions from the flames, but the main body was 
gathered into a swamp some three miles distant, while those who 
had joined the Narragansets from neighboring tribes returned 
home. Mr. Dudley wrote that Philip was seen by one of ours 
with a strong body guard during or after the battle. If so he 
must have made a rapid march between that and January 6th, 



200 KING Philip's war. 

upon which date Governor Andros, of the New York Colony, 
writes to the Connecticut Governor : 

This is to acquaint you that late last night I had intelligence that 
Philip & 4 or 500 North Indians fighting men, were come within 40 or 
50 miles of Albany northerly, where they talk of continuing this winter ; 
that Phi: is sick, and one Sahamoshuha the Comander in chief. Where- 
upon I have despatched orders theither. 

I have found no reliable proof that Philip or his Wampanoag 
warriors, as a body, had any part in the Narraganset fight, while 
there is some direct testimony that they did not. Indian captives 
refer the command of the Indians to other chiefs, and a contem- 
porary writer in the series of letters published in London under 
the title, " Present State of New England, with respect to the 
Indian War," says positively, " King Philip hath not yet been at 
Narraganset, as we feared, but is retired with his Men near 
Albany where he hath kept his Winter Quarters." This place is 
since known as Scattacook, and is situated in Rensselaer County, 
about twenty miles north of Albany. 

The great snow-storm that began at the time of the battle and 
lasted for several days rendered any movement of the infantry 
impossible, even if they had been in condition ; and then suddenly 
there came a great mid-winter thaw, which further prevented their 
motion. Capt. Prentice's troop kept scouting and watching to 
guard against surprise, and to gather in whatever was possible of 
their enemy's supplies of corn, of which they obtained quantities, 
but the provisioning of this large body of men had to be done 
chiefly by vessels sent from Boston, and by some, at this time, 
gathering corn along the port towns of Connecticut, as we learn 
from their archives and from other sources. 

On the 27th of December Capt. Prentice with his troop made a 
march into Pomham's country (now Warwick) and destroyed near 
a hundred wigwams. December 28th, a squaw captured at the 
fort was sent to the Indians with an offer of peace, if they would 
agree to the terms of the former treaty, and such other conditions 
as the English might impose, and give up all " Philip's Indians." 
The squaw did not return, but on December 30th a message came 
from the sachems proffering their thanks for the offer, but com- 
plained that the English made war upon them without notice. 
This Indian owned, as did the squaw, that the Indians lost three 
hundred of their best fighting men. January 4th, two prisoners 
were taken, of whom one, being a Wampanoag, was put to death. 
January 5th, the Indians sent in a captive child, three or four years 
of age, belonging at Warwick. On the 7th, messengers came 
from them laying the blame upon Canonchet, who when he had 
visited Boston and made his treaty with the English, had returned 
and deceived his people as to the terms ; but all these overtures 



RECRUITING AFTER THE BATTLE. 201 

were evidently practised to gain time and take the attention of the 
English from the real movements of the Indians while they were 
making ready for their flight to the north-west. On the 8th these 
were sent back with positive instructions as to terms of peace. 
On the same day Ninigret, sachem of the Niantics, sent in decla- 
ration and evidence of the reality of his friendship and of the 
dire straits to which the hostile Indians were reduced. In the 
meantime the Commissioners of the United Colonies were making 
every exertion to put a fresh army into the field. As early as 
December 25th it had been voted to raise one thousand men to 
recruit the army in the field, and the first of these were sent out 
about Jan. 6th ^ under Capt. Samuel Brocklebank of Rowley (I 
think). The weather was extremely cold, and they suffered 
severely on the march, part of the way through a fierce snow- 
storm " that bit some of them by the heels with the frost," accord- 
ing to Mr. Hubbard. The writer of " The Present State of New 
England," the letters above mentioned, says that eleven of the 
men were " frozen to death, and many others were sick and dis- 
heartened." January 10th, these recruits arrived at headquarters 
and were joyfully received. 

An order of the Council of Massachusetts, given January 14th, 
directs Major Gookin " to order the Eastern Souldiers with Horse 
and Foot, as soon as they come to Cambridge, to march to the 
army and to put them under such conduct as he sees right, until 
they get to Narraganset to Major Appleton, sending away with 
them the Armorer that is there already." On Jan. 17th the 
Council ordered the Committee of the Army to " forthwith fur- 
nish James Foord of Ipswich, a Souldjer under Capt. Brockle- 
bank, now going up under Lieut. Swett to Narraganset, with one 
pr. of good shoos and on good Coate and place it to his acco*." 
Ephraim Sawyer and Walter Davis, also, " now going forth to y* 
Narraganset," were furnished with apparel. These referred to in 
the above orders were a second body of recruits that were sent 
by the Massachusetts Council ; the Commissioners having voted, 
on January t)th, that the colonies should have recruits at head- 
quarters at Smith's Garrison on or before January 20th. 

January 12th, a proposition came from the sachems for a cessa- 
tion of hostilities for a month, which so stirred General Winslow's 
indignation and convinced him of their treachery, that he deter- 
mined on a forward move at once, but still he felt his force to be 
too weak in the absence of the promised troops of Connecticut. 
He fears the foe is escaping, and sends frequent messages to the 
Commissioners and to Major Treat and the Connecticut Council, 
to hurry up their preparations. 

The Connecticut Colony meanwhile was making every 

1 Capt. Brocklebank and the main part of his company probably entered the service January Ist, 
but did not march to the seat of war until other recruits were ready. January 18th, Capt. Daniel 
Fisher, of Dedham, has an order from the Council to send all " Horse and foote " that come into 
Dedham under Lieut. Benja. Swett, " away to y" Enemy; " and the order shows Dedham to be the 
common rendezvous of the four counties. 



202 KING PRILIP'S WAR. 

endeavor, the while however being somewhat impatient of the 
urgency of the General, feeling that their own borders were threat- 
ened by the Indians quite as much as the other colonies. Their 
archives afford ample proof of the thorough and energetic man- 
ner of their preparation. Major Treat's reorganized army ren- 
dezvoused at New London. From all the settlements recruits and 
arms and supplies were gathered as speedily as possible, and yet 
it was not until the 26th of January that their troops started for 
the field. The following extract relating to the occasion is from 
a " Letter of Major Palmer of New London to the Governor and 
Council of Connecticut." 

New London y* 26th Janua: 1675-6 
I having this opportunity by Mr. Plom, could not omitt acquainting 
you of Maj'' Treat's departure this day, with all his forces, who is 
accompanied with Mr Fitch, Mr Buckley & Mr. Wise. They expected 
to reach Badcock's this night and so get to Mr, Smith's tomorrow : 
For Major Treate hath had two late ord" from the Generall one rece** 
on Lord's day, the other this morning, to hasten his coming ; the 
Indyans being seated 8 or 10 miles northwest of Providence, and 
about 25 miles from Mr. Smith's. The information was gayned by 
two Indyans taken by a party of Capt Prentis' troope, which killed 
nyne more one escaped there being 12 in that party. 

The Barke with the Provitions went out last night and hath had a 
fayre wind to carry her in today. They have added tenu ban-els of 
meate to the twenty you ordered from Milford : weich doth afflict our 
people more than the trouble of quartering both well and wounded 
men, which have so impoverished them that sundry will much suffer, 
without y* speedy supply of corne for their releife. . . . 

In the margin of this letter is added the item, 

Unkas has gone forth in person. 

It will be seen by the letter that the march from headquarters 
was begun on the 26th of January. James Babcock's place was 
in what is now Westerly, R.I. By good marching they could 
have reached Smith's Garrison and joined the main army on the 
evenhig of the 27th ; and thus January 28th must be the earliest 
date at which we can place the general forward movement of the 
whole army. The Council orders and references and letters in 
the Connecticut Colonial Records serve to confirm the account of 
Mr. Hubbard, although derived from independent sources, and as 
they give very few items besides, it seems evident that we have 
all of importance that happened. On January 23d Major Treat 
wrote to the Connecticut Council, quoting a letter from General 
Winslow, which he says he has lost, but which contained nothing 
of importance except to hasten their coming and " grateing on 
our disorderly retreat," and the good news of the taking of 
Joshua Tift by Capt. Fenner, of Providence. From some Indian 



JOSHUA tift's testimony. 203 

prisoners which the Connecticut scouts had taken, it was found 
that the Narragansets were lying in small parties along the way 
leading into the Nipmuck country, and with scouting parties so 
posted that our army could not surprise their main body. 

From a letter of Roger Williams to Governor Leverett, dated 
Providence, 14 January, 1675, and publisluul in the " Winthrop 
Papers," vol. 36, p. 307, Coll. Mass. Hist. Society, we learn much 
about this Joshua Tift, different from the accounts of contempo- 
rary historians. Mr. Williams was called upon to take down the 
examination of Joshua Tift, and afterwards reports the answers 
to the Governor. 

Being questioned by Capt. Fenner, who had capttired him, 
Tift answered that he had been with tlie Narragansets about 
twenty-seven days ; that he was captured by (^anonchet and 
his property destroyed, but his life saved on condition that he 
would become the slave of Canonchet ; he acce})ted the con- 
ditions, and was taken to their fort and there compelled to 
work for the Indians. He testifies that the Mohcgans and 
J^ecpuits with our troojjs made terms with the Narragaiiststs at the 
beginning, and shot over their heads. After the lOnglish cntercid 
the fort, Canonchet and other sachems fled and halted beside a 
spruce swamp after crossing a plain. When niglit came the word 
was brought to the chiefs of the English retreat, and they sent 
back to the fort to ascertain their losses, and found ninety -seven 
dead and forty-eight wounded, and live or six bodies of the 
English. He said that the Narragansets' powder was mostly 
gone, but that Pliilip had sent word that he will furnish them 
enough from the Freiieh, who have sent l*liilip a present, "a 
brass gun and bandaliers sutable." The sachems are now about 
ten miles nortliwest from Mr. Smith's ; speaks of the s(|uaw tliat 
was sent by the English, but that the sachems believed that the 
proposals of the English were merely a trap to cateh them, (^a- 
nonicus was for peace, and would not consent to lie to the I^iglish ; 
but his nej)hew, the young saciiem Canonchet (or Nannnteno) 
was fierce for war, and the young warriors were with him, so tliat 
it was im[)0ssible to cuib them. He s[)eaks of (^uacpuickis as 
Canonchet's chief captain, " a midling thick-set man of ;i. w.ry stout 
fierce countenance." " He saith that Philip is abont Quawj)aug, 
amongst a great many i-ocks by a Swampeside ; that the Nahi- 
gonsiks have bene these 3 days on their march vS;. Iliglit to Philip, 
that he knows not what number Phili[) hath with him, *fc that 
this day the last and rear of the com[)any departed, that they 
heard that the Gen: was imrsueing after them, &- tlieroforc; several 
parties, to the number of 400 were ordered to lie in ambuscadoes, 
that several parties were left behind to get and drive eattell." 
He also testified that Ninigret's men fought the English in the 
fort, and that some of the Mohegans have joined the Narra- 
gansets. 



204 KING Philip's war. 

At last, the army, being in readiness, began the pursuit of the 
Indians towards the Nipmuck country, in the somewhat famous 
march known to the succeeding generations as the " Long 
March," or the " Hungry March," but of the details of which we 
have very meagre accounts. 

Mr. Hubbard relates that on January 21st Capt. Prentice sur- 
prised a party of the Indians, killed nine and captured two, and 
within two or three days, the weather changing, our forces were 
very anxious to take the field, hearing, as they did, that the 
Indians were in full flight. " But so many difficulties were cast 
in the way that they could not be ready in time to prevent the 
mischief the Indians did at Warwick. For, January 27, they 
despoiled Mr. Carpenter of two hundred sheep, fifty head of neat 
cattle and fifteen horses, drove them all away safely and escaped 
before our forces set out." They wounded two of Mr. Car- 
penter's people, and one of theirs was slain. 

They also drove away cattle from a Mr. Harris, and killed a 
negro servant of his. Mr. Church was at Rhode Island, wounded, 
and his son made the mistake, in publishing his story, of making 
his stay there three months instead of three weeks. When he 
was partly recovered from his wound, he went over to take leave 
of General Winslow, but was induced by him to go with the army, 
then about to march in pursuit of the enemy. He relates a battle 
at an " Indian town of many wigwams," which was surrounded 
by an " icy swamp," and when the English succeeded in passing 
over this, " after much firing," the enemy made good their retreat. 
It is evident that the Mohegans did most of the effective fighting 
here ; and very little execution was done besides in the pursuit, 
except that by Capt. Fenner's party from Providence. 

It seems to have been the popular idea that the army of the 
united colonies, after the junction of the Connecticut troops, 
numbered about sixteen hundred, horse and foot. I have not 
been able to find any definite official statement, but as nearly as 
can be determined from available data, Massachusetts sent out 
about three hundred fresh troops in January ; Connecticut, includ- 
ing her veterans and Indian allies, about five hundred ; and 
Plymouth probably about one hundred. With allowance for the 
dead, wounded and disabled of Massachusetts and Plymouth, 
about two hundred ; sixty left in garrison at Wickford, and there 
would be, at a rough estimate, fourteen hundred serviceable men 
at Narragaiiset on January 28. 

It will be noticed that Tift's evidence is that Philip is " about 
Quawpaug amongst a great many rocks by a Swampeside," and 
this may be taken as the supposed objective point or rendezvous 
of the Indians. The rear guard of the Indians were, at the date 
of his trial, or when he was captured, prowling about the settle- 
ments at Patuxit and Providence for an opportunity to drive off 
cattle, which purpose they succeeded in carrying out, some days 



" THE HUNGRY MARCH." 205 

later, when the witness, who in this matter at least had given 
true testimony, had been " hung and quartered." The route of 
the main body of the Indians was in a northwest direction towards 
Quaboag, probably though the Wabbequasset country (now Wood- 
stock) to the old Quaboag fort. Capt. Henchman, in the Mount 
Hope campaign, August, 1675, had marched into the Nipmuck 
country as far as the "second fort," at a place called" Waposo- 
shequish " (probably Wabbaquasset), and then turned aside and 
marched to Mendon. In a direct line Woodstock is about forty 
miles from Wickford; by the regular trail it was doubtless 
much farther. In midwinter, with their scant knowledge of the 
country, with swollen streams to cross, an alert foe forever van- 
ishing into the great wilderness, and eluding attack or luring to 
ambuscade, with provisions which the long waiting for Connecti- 
cut had served to reduce, their march was a hazardous undertak- 
ing, and probably was inspired by the hope of striking a final blow 
against their enemies, already reduced to great straits for pro- 
visions, arms and ammunition. They found " more than sixty 
horses' heads " at one place, probably at the late rendezvous of 
the Indians, " 25 miles north of Mr. Smith's and 10 miles north 
of Providence." 

Finding his provisions growing short, and his men worn with 
their long march and severe exposure, and seeing no prospect of 
bringing the enemy to a battle. General Winslow determined to 
abandon the pursuit, when the Indians betook themselves to the 
wilderness beyond Quaboag. I think the march commenced from 
Wickford on January 28, and it was probably on February 2d or 
3d that the skirmish took place. It seems that the Connecticut 
and Indian forces were dismissed as early as February 3d, as they 
arrived home on the 5th, while the cavalry of Massachusetts and 
Plymouth reached Boston on the same day, the infantry remaining 
over at Marlborough, but a part of them marching down to Bos- 
ton the next day. They were reduced to such straits that they 
killed and ate many of their horses, and the march was thence 
called by the people " the Hungry March." 



XY. 

CAPT. SAMUEL BROCKLEBANK'S COMPANY AND 
MARLBOROUGH GARRISON. 



SAMUEL BROCKLEBANK, of Rowley, is said to have been 
born in England about 1630, and to have come to this 
country with his mother Jane, a widow, and his brother 
John. Samuel Brocklebank and his wife Hannah had children — 
Samuel, born 1653 ; Francis, born 1655 ; Hannah, Mary, Elizabeth, 
Sarah, and Joseph who was born in 1674. He was appointed 
deacon of the first church in Rowley in 1665. Elected captain 
of the Foot Company of Rowley in 1673. Was active in recruit- 
ing for the Narraganset campaign, and after the fort fight, on 
the second call for recruits, went out with a company about Jan- 
uary 1st, as I judge from his credits, and those corresponding credits 
of his men, which according to my best estimates were for five 
weeks, up to February 5th, when they returned to Boston, and 
reckoned from the time they left Rowley. These are only infer- 
ences, however, drawn from the Journal and various casual ref- 
erences, and I have yet found no direct statement as to the officers 
and men who went out to Narraganset at the second call, and 
I have not found any mention of Capt. Brocklebank or other 
officers whom I shall credit with such service. After the return 
to Boston, Capt. Brocklebank, with his company, within one week 
was called to Marlborough, where he was placed in command of 
the garrisons and military operations, and remained until April 
21st, when he marched to Sudbury, with Capt. Wads worth and 
his company, where they were ambushed by the Indians, and 
both captains, with most of their men, were slain. The account 
of this battle is in the Capt. Wadsworth chapter, as he was in 
command. 

After the death of Capt. Brocklebank, his widow married 
Richard Dole, of Newbury. His descendants of the name are 
quite numerous by his son Samuel and Elizabeth Platts his wife ; 
by his daughters Mary and Sarah, who married William and 
Henry, sons of Richard Dole ; and by his daughter Hannah, who 
married John Stickney. 

Soldiers credited under Capt. Samuel Brocklebank : 
February 29'^ 1675-6 
Samuel Mower 01 08 04 

Joseph Parker 01 10 00 



Rowland Ravensbee 01 07 04 
John Abbott 01 10 00 



CAPT. BKOCKLEBANk's COMPANY. 



207 



March 24'^ 1675-6 






Simon Groe 


03 09 04 


Thomas Stamford 


01 


10 


00 


Nicholas Richardson 


03 09 04 


John Wilson 


01 


10 


00 


Robert Rand 


01 10 00 


Philip Butler 


02 


01 


00 


Richard Haven 


01 10 00 


John Linsy 


01 


10 


00 


James Day 


01 17 08 


John Humkins 


02 


02 


00 


Daniel Hutchins 


03 10 00 


SamuelBrocklebankCapt.07 


10 


00 


SamuelBrocklebankCapt.l4 11 00 


John Hobson 


01 


10 


00 


July 24'^ 1676 


John Woodin 


01 


16 


00 


John Brown 


02 08 00 


Benjamin Peirson 


01 


10 


08 


Nathaniel Stephens 


02 09 06 


Daniel Tenny 


01 


10 00 


Zechariah Ayres 


01 10 00 


John Jackson 


01 


10 


00 


Richard Bryan 


08 11 00 


John "Wood 


01 


10 


00 


Thomas Kemball 


02 08 00 


AprU 24«' 1676 






Philip Kertland 


01 12 06 


James Ford 


01 


15 


00 


John Stanwood 


01 02 00 


John Giddings 


03 


00 


00 


Philip Stanwood 


03 08 06 


Peter Jennings 


01 


15 


00 


Robert Pease 


03 12 00 


John Pollard 


01 


10 


10 


Thomas Baker 


05 09 06 


June 24, 


1676 






Benjamin Jones 


01 16 00 


Richard Potter 


02 


02 


00 


Joseph Fellows 


01 17 00 


Peter Jennings 


04 


16 


00 


John Lynd 


05 09 06 


John Lovejoy 


01 


10 


00 


Joshuah Boynton 


05 10 04 


Jonathan Emery 


03 


12 


00 


August 24«' 1676. 


Josiah Clark 


06 


06 


00 


Jonathan Fantom 


05 10 12 


Henry Cooke 


00 


10 


00 


Peter Chever 


03 04 00 


Samuel Ireson 


04 04 


00 


Samuel Perkins 


03 18 00 


Simon Adams 


04 


11 


08 


Richard Jacob 


14 15 10 


Moses Bennett 


03 


18 


10 


Sept 23'J 1676 


John Burrell 


03 


06 


00 


Richard Prince 


02 11 04 


Thomas Brown 


04 


03 


00 


Samuel Peirce 


00 18 00 


John Wood 


03 


19 


08 


James Chafe 


01 12 06 


Francis Gefford 


03 


18 


00 


Edward Sewery 


02 02 00 


Nath. Pease 


05 


08 


00 


Michael Derick 


10 00 00 


Samuel Hills 


02 


16 


00 







Capt. Brocklebank wrote from Marlborough to Gen. Denison, 
March 27, 1676, asking that he and his company may be relieved 
to go home, giving his reason that they had been in the country's 
service " since the first of January at Narraganset, and within one 
week after their returne were sent out again, having neither time 
nor money (save a fortnight's pay upon the march) to recruite 
themselves." 



THE GARRISON AT MARLBOROUGH. 

Okkokonimesit was what Major Daniel Gookin called, and 
Ognonikongquamesit was the name by which Mr. Eliot knew, 
the " Praying Indian Village," situated within the limits of what 
became the town of Marlborough. The first English settlers 
went from the parent plantation of Sudbury. The Court's grant 
to the Indians through Mr. Eliot, in 1654, being prior to that 



208 KING Philip's war. 

made to the English, the latter found to their disappointment 
that this Indian reserve, right in the midst of their own grant, 
must be respected by them if they wished to retain their own rights ; 
for it is to the credit of the Massachusetts Council, that its Inem- 
bers were, almost without exception, in favor of upright and 
humane dealing with the friendly Indians. These Indians above, 
were a branch of the Wamesit tribe, it is said, and had submitted 
to the Massachusetts Colony as early as 1643, and had received 
assurance of its protection of their rights. In 1674 this Indian 
town contained ten families, and about fifty souls. They were 
self-supporting, peaceable, and were becoming industrious and 
thrifty, but were evidently regarded with contempt and distrust 
by many of the neighboring English, who grudged them the posses- 
sion of their grant of six thousand acres, including some of the 
best land in the township. 

The Indian name of the locality was something like Whipsup- 
penick, but this became corrupted with the English settlers to 
" Whipsufferage." 

The town was incorporated as Marlborough in 1660. The 
first actual English settler was John Howe, who settled in 1657- 
8 ; and at the division of land, in 1660, there were thirty-eight 
who were then, or soon after, residents. 

Rev. Wm. Brimsmead was settled as their minister, and the 
new plantation flourished fairly until the breaking out of Philip's 
War. At this time, being a frontier town, it was exposed to 
attacks from all directions, and being situated upon the road 
to Connecticut, it had been regarded by the General Court as a 
point of military advantage, and a fort had been built, and a small 
garrison was kept there. Upon the outbreak of Philip's War, 
the retreat of Philip and his followers to the Nipmucks, and the 
consequent disturbance of the neighboring tribes, the people of 
Marlborough, under the lead of their minister, met early in Octo- 
ber, and adopted measures of defence in addition to that afforded 
by the garrison which was under the command of Lieut. John 
Ruddock, of whose conduct of their military affairs, his towns- 
men, it seems, were jealous ; and the people, as was the case gener- 
ally, were averse to the presence of the soldiers in their houses. 
After hostilities began, the Praying Indians, who had lived so 
long beside the settlers, became objects of suspicion and, in many 
instances, of unreasoning persecutions, in spite of the constant 
remonstrances of their friends. Rev. John Eliot, Major Gookin and 
the magistrates and leading men generally. Philip used all his 
powers of persuasion and intimidation to draw these Praying or 
Christian Indians to his side ; but in spite of his arts, and the 
bitter popular prejudices of the English, and although forced 
to suffer great injustice and hardships, they were nearly all 
faithful to their engagements with the Colonists. The " new 
praying villages," which under Mr. Eliot's efforts were established. 



FRIENDLY INDIANS PERSECUTED. 209 

in the way of missionary stations, in the vicinity of several neigh- 
boring tribes, were broken up by the "rumors of war," and the 
real converts came with their families into the older villages 
under the protection of the Colony. The Indian village at 
Marlborough was increased to about forty men, besides women 
and children, and under the direction of the English, they built a 
fort of considerable strength for themselves, and were furnished 
with ammunition and some with arms by the government, and 
others had suitable arms of their own. There is no doubt that 
these Indians were well disposed and faithful with very few excep- 
tions, and might have been of very great help in all the subsequent 
movements of the war, if the headstrong prejudices of the people 
had not frightened and antagonized them in manifold ways. 
The hostile Indians sought to fix the stigma of their own depre- 
dations, often committed for that very purpose, upon the Christian 
Indians ; and the attack upon Lancaster, Aug. 22, 1675, in which 
seven persons were killed, was attributed to them by " Indian 
David," who was tied up to a tree and forced to implicate somebody, 
himself having fallen under suspicion of shooting the Irish shep- 
herd boy at Marlborough just before this. Those whom David 
particularly accused were the Hassanemesit Indians, now gathered 
into the Indian fort at Marlborough ; and the popular clamor was 
so loud against them that Lieut. John Ruddock, in command of the 
garrison at Marlborough, demanded the arms and ammunition of 
the whole body of Indians to be given up. This demand was 
quietly acceded to, although there was no evidence against the 
Indians, and the act was entirely without the sanction of the 
Court ; but the prejudices of the people were so strong, and their 
clamors so persistent, that Capt. Mosely, then in the vicinity with 
his company of sixty men, was appealed to, and nothing loth, 
under cover of his authority, gave the Indian fort up to the 
plunder and abuse of his soldiery. Fifteen of the Indians were 
arrested and sent down to Boston, tied neck to neck like galley- 
slaves, and the integrity of the Council was sorely taxed to keep 
the rage of the populace from executing these poor creatures 
without trial ; but the law did prevail, and after a long trial and 
imprisonment at Boston of the eleven(out of the fifteen) who were 
accused, all were fully acquitted except their first accuser, David, 
who was condemned for the suspicion as to the shepherd boy, and 
also for his false accusations, and also the Indian Joseph Spoonant, 
tried by another jury ; these two were condemned to be sold 
out of the country as slaves. This persecution seems to have 
broken up the Indian settlement at Marlborough. 

In the meantime the garrison at Marlborough became a ren- 
dezvous for the troops going and coming to and from the 
western towns, and while it was occupied by soldiers the people 
felt some degree of security in their homes ; but when the com- 
panies were drawn off they felt the danger of their exposed con- 



210 KING Philip's war. 

dition, and after the disasters of Captains Beers and Lothrop, 
and the experiences of Springfield, Deerfield, etc., they resolved 
upon measures for better security. Upon October 1st they were 
called together, and took action as shown in the following paper 
preserved in the Massachusetts Archives, vol. 67, p. 277. 

Marlborough the : 1 : of October : 1675. 
At a meeting of the inhabetants in order to take care for the safty 
of our town these following proposals were Agreed upon And volen- 
taryly chosen unto that in case of asalt these places heare After men- 
tioned should be defended by the persons that are expressed by name 
that is in 

William Kerly's hous. of the town soulders : 2 : or soulders allowed 
to the town 

John How senior John ffay Thomas Marten 

Thomas How Joseph Wait Thomas King 

John Wetherbe John Mainard John Brigham 

In Serjant Woods his hous of the town Souldeers-2 — 6 of the New- 
tons, or solders AUowed to the town 

John Woods Junior Isack How 

James Woods John Bellows 

Isack Woods Samuel Bellows 

At Joseph Rices 

Samuel Stow John Barret Samuel Rice 

In John Johnson's hous : 9 : and of the town Souldears 3 : 
In Deacon Wards hous of the town 80ulders-3 — or soulders allowed 
the towne his own family 3 

Abraham How Gershom Yearns 

William Taylor Samuel Ward 

In Abraham Williams his house of the town soulders-3 — or soulders 
allowed the towne 

Richard Barnes John Rediat Junior 

John Rideat Senior Samuel Brigham 

John Rooks 
In Thomas Rices hous of the town soulders — 2 — or soulders allowed 
to the town 

John Brown John Bowser Peter Rice 

Increas Ward Thomas Rice Junior And three men of Peter Bents 
To the Lef tenant him self and the magazeen : 13 : of the soulders 
that weare allowed to the town 

to John Johnson : 3 : to Deacon Ward 3 

to Serjant Woods ) . to Abraham WiUiams 3 

And William Kerly j to Thomas Rice 3 

All these men to be maintained in their respective percels by the fam- 
Uyes In the several fortifications where they are placed. 

Also that the ammunition of the town hould be proportioned to the 
soulders of the town in these fortifications ; this Above written is that 
which Acted and Assented unto by the persons whos names are sub- 
scribed. 

Mr Brensmead Thomas Rice Josias How 

Deacon Ward John Johnson John Mainard 



LIEUT. RUDDUCK's LETTERS. 211 

Thomas King Samuel Rice John Rediat 

Solomon Johnson John Bellows John ffay 

Abraham How Nathaniel Johnson Moses Newton 

John How senior John Woods Junior Richard Barnes 

John Woods senior Joseph Newton James Taylor 

Richard Newton Thomas Barnes William Kerly 

Abraham Williams 
This Above writen was the Act of the town Agreeing with the Act 
of the Comettee of melecti as Attest WiUiam Kerly — clarke 

That this action was somewhat in opposition to the wishes of 
the military officer of the garrison, Lieut. John Rudduck, is 
proved by his letter below, from the Archives, vol. 68, p. 4 : 

Letter of Lieut. John Rudduck to the Council. 
For the honored Councell 

Honored Sirs. After my humble Duty presented these are to in- 
forme the honored Councill that Capt. Pool have sent to me four times 
for things spesefied in the note inclosed which I had none of but bread 
and liquors w'''' he have had but the other things I have none of and 
now the Rum is all gon he have had several gallons of Rum all Redy 
and the souldirs and posts passinge to and agen and the army have 
had the Rest alsoe our men at the garison want shoos and stockins and 
shurts very much they complaine to me dayly to goe home and suply 
themselves but I dare not let them goe becaus sum have gon on that 
acount and Com not againe namly John Bondage of Roxbury and 
John Orres a smeth of Boston and on Samuell Castin is Run away I 
sent to M'' Davison to aquaint athority with it but I heare noe more 
of it heare is but littell of anythinge Left in the Magaseen and if it 
please the hono'^d Councell to give me order to remove what is left to 
my hous it would be less trouble to me and if anything be sent I may 
have it heare at my own hous I have set the garison soulders to fortify 
about my hous now they have fortified the Magaseen all Ready by my 
order and soe I intend to imply them for the defense of the Town I 
humbly pray this honored Councell to send a suply for the soulders 
heare and at quoboag or derection how they shall be suplyed. Capt. 
Wayt commanded me to returne James Cheavers for absenting himself 
after he had prest him whom I have sent to make his own defence. 

Your humble servant, 

Marlborough Octob : y® 1^', 1675. John Rudduck 

Sum of the gareson souldirs Informed me when I was geting to scale 
my letter that the Constable had been this morning and warned the soul- 
ders to com to me for theire vectls for the Town would diet them no 
longer I desire derection in this case and allsoe that he had warned them 
that did quarter them to quarter them no more John Rudduck. 

I am of Nesessity constrained to provid victles for them till I heare 
from the Councell how they will order it. 

Capt. Poolers requisition^ enclosed in the above letter. 
To the Comisary at Malbery Sur we want drawers and wastcots and 
I am forsed to let men goe home to fetch clothing becas they want and 



212 KING Philip's war. 

have no supply Sur T pray send sum soft tobacow and bred by thos 
persons I pray send me the runlit of lickours for the army will drene us 
doutles not els but rest yours 

date 30 : 7"' : '75 Jonathan Poole Capt. 

Another letter from him is in Mass. Archives, vol. 67, p. 279 : 

Second Letter of Lieut. John Rudduck to the Council. 
For the honoured Governor & Council. 

Honored Sir After my humble Duty p''sented these are to signify to 
this honored Councel that upon hearinge the Councell was Informed the 
Constable had forbed the men that were quarteered in the town and sent 
them to me for quarter sum cam to me this morninge and threatened me 
if the men were taken away I should Answer it and many threateninge 
words and many were gathered together about it I understand great 
Complaints are like to be made against me to the Councell but I hope 
the honoured Councell will have Charity for me till I can com to Answer 
for myself : in Regard to the charge of the town and of the Country. 
I cannot with convenience come down the charge of the mageseen 
beinge committed to me troubles me very much they are offended that I 
bringe the souldiers to meetinge with me and say 1 must have soe many 
men to gard me it well known to many that it have bene my practise 
ever since I have had a family I use to have them to meetinge with me 
I thinke it my duty having a garison of Souldiers to have them to meet- 
ing with mee allsoe I seet sum of them the on half to gard the Town 
in the forenoon and the other in the Afternoon and them that do not 
ward I have to meeting with me : when we met together to apoynt 
houses to be ffortified I would have had houses apoynted and men 
apoynted to these houses but the Insign would not yeald to that but 
would have the town caled together to see what houses they were will- 
inge to goe to and to fortify soe the designe was that my house should 
not be ffortified nor have any gard if danger be they themselves will 
have the Inhabitants to gard theire houses but if I have any I must 
have of the soulders and be at Charges to maintaine them myself I have 
propounded to them that the Inhabitants be equally devided to the 
houses that are to be garded and the garison soulders divided like- 
wise but they would not yeld to that soe unless the honoured Councell 
be plesed to determiu this thinge it will not be determined sum have 
manedged theire maters soe that I have Leetle or uoe comand of the 
Inhabitants of the town the sum of all is there are that cannot swolow 
that pill that I should have so much trust and pour commeted to me soe 
I desire to leve myself with God and this honored Councell The pore 
leve themselves with God Your humble Seruant 

Marlborough this 4 Octo 1675 John Rudduck. 

When the army returned from the Narraganset campaign, and 
most of the troops were discharged at Boston, Feb. 5, 1675-6, we 
learn from Gen. Gookin's " History of the Cliristian Indians " that 
Capt. Wadsworth with his company was left at Marlborough " to 
strengthen that frontier." He remained there until early in 
March, when the newly levied army was gathered there under the 



GEN. DENISON AND CAPT. BROCKLEBANK. 213 

command of Major Thomas Savage, and was organized under the 
immediate personal inspection of Maj. Gen. Daniel Denison, It 
was at this time that Capt. Mosely's haughty and un rebuked 
insubordination, backed up by the lawless, Indian-hating element 
of the army, occurred, and gave the commanders so much diffi- 
culty ; for when Job Kattenanit, a friendly Indian, whose fidelity 
had been proved by successful and faithful report of the condition 
of the hostile Indians, to whom he with James Quannapohit had 
been sent as a spy, and, in order to keep faith with the English, 
had left his wife and children in the hands of the hostiles and 
returned to our army, bringing information which, if it had been 
heeded, would have saved great destruction and suffering, — when 
this man had been given a permit to go and bring in his family, 
who were to meet him on a certain day, Capt. Mosely raised such 
a hue and cry that the commanders were obliged to submit, and 
sent after him at once. 

The course of events in the town, including the attack, is shown 
in the following letters : * 

Capt. Brocklebank's Letter to the Council. 
Much Honnored sirs. Malborough 28 of : 1 : 1676 

After the duty I owe unto your Honnor this may let you understand 
that the assault the enemy made upon the towne of Malborough upon 
sabbath day did much dammage as the inhabbitants say, to the burning 
of 16 dwelling houses besides about 13 barnes and seemingly did 
indeaver to draw out the men out of the garisons but we not knowing 
ther numbers and our charge of the Countries ammunition and provis- 
sion durst not goe out then on Sabbath day night there came about 20 
men from Sudbury and we out of the severall garrison drew out about 
twenty more and in the night they went out to see if they could discover 
the enemy and give theme some checke in ther proceeding who found 
them laid by ther fires and fired on them and they run away at present 
but the number being few and not knowing the number of the enemie 
but aprehending by ther noyse and fireing at them they indeavored to 
compass them in the returne home without any losse of any man or 
wound from the enemie only one of my men by the breaking of his gun 
his hand is sorely shattered which for want of helpe here I have sent to 
Charlestowne or elsewhere in the bay where your honnors may thinke 
best for his helpe : we have great cause to acknowledge the goodnesse 
of God toward us for his gracious preservation of us the enemye is gone 
at the p''sent as we aprehend by the scouts that went out yesterday the 
which we may expect eare long will fall on us with greater strength and 
rage by reason of the breakfast that they had on Monday morning the 
scouts found only one Indian dead thus in briefe your honnors will under- 
stand how it is with us : from him who is your honnors servant 

Samuell Brocklebanke Capt 

Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 180. 



214 KING Philip's war. 

General Daniel Denison's Letter, 
S'. 

Yesterday I received a letter from Capt. Brocklebanck at Marl- 
borough signifying his desu'e of being dismissed with his company the 
reasons he alleadges are 1. their necessities & wants having beene in 
the countryes service ever since the first of January at Narriganset & 
within one weeke after their return were sent out againe having neither 
time nor money (save a fortnights paye upon their march) to recruite 
themselves 2. he saith they doe little where they are : & he under- 
stands they are called off by the Council. I shall make bould to request 
the like favor in the behalf e of those (at least) some of those troopers 
& dragoons of Essex that went out last, intended for Hadley but by 
reason of the disaster at Groton diverted to Concord &c. to beate of 
& prosecute the enemy in those parts and I directed orders to Major 
Willard, that with those he first tooke up w'*" him & then sent, together 
with the garrisons at Marlborough Lancaster & Chelmsford (if need 
more) in all above 200 men he might not only defend the townes but 
might prosecute the enemy there, being within 2 dayes march, but I 
heare of no such attempt nor indeed of any considerable improvement of 
them that hath beene, or is like to be. I am therefore sollicitous for 
many of them that out of a respect to myself went willingly, hoping of 
a speedy returne to their families and occasions some of them more 
than ordinary great and urgent I intreate therefore they may be 
p''sently considered & eased to attend the seed time &c. and if there be 
necessity that others may be sent in their roomes, who may with far less 
detriment be spared. The stockade from Watertowne to Wamesit, 
might better be from Watertowne to Sudbury river 9 miles taking in 
more country, & that river being as good a stop as the stockade the 
greatest objection is Merrimack river though broad yet I understand is 
fordable in 20 places betweene Wamesit & Haveril, & cannot be safe 
without guards w'^'' must be kept upon it, for hast I Jumble many 
things, w"'' be pleased to pardon The Lord Look in mercy upon his 
poore distressed people upon your selves in particular so prayes 

your humble Servant 

Ips March 27: 1676 Daniel Denison. 

The inclosed are certificates of delinquents on the last press in 
Norfolk & of the troopers that should have gone with Capt. Whipple 
to Hadley 

Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 179. 

First Letter of the Council to Lieut. Jacob. 
Left Jacob. The Council having lately receaved Information of 
Gods further frowne upon us in taking and depriving the Country both 
of y' Captaine and Capt Wadsworth w"' severall others by permitting 
the enemy to destroy them yesterday so y' y"" Capt. Brocklebanke's 
chardge is devolved on y'^self The Councel judge meet to leave the 
souldiers under his charge to yo"" care and chardge, and doe order you 
to take the care and chardge of the sayd Company that you be vigilant 
& diligent in that place & as seasonably and speedily as you cann to 
give Information to y* Councel of the state, numbers & condition of 



LIEUT. JACOB AT MARLBOROUGH. 215 

y' souldiers in that Garrison under y' command desiring God's Grace 
& blessing to be w"" you. Remayne 

yo"^ loving freinds 

Edw. Rawson, Secretary. 
Boston 22 Aprill 1676 by Order of the Council 

Postscript, you are alike ordered to take care & command of the 
place (ie) Marlborrow to preserve it what in you lyes. 

Edw. Rawson, Secretary 
Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 222. like order 

Lieut. Richard Jacob's First Letter. 

from Malbary y« 22 April 1676. 

Hono'd Sirs This morning aboute Sun two hours high y'' Enimie 
Alarmed us by firing & Shooting towards y* Lowermost Garason Next 
Sudbury, which made us feare y' Garason to be in Danger which shoot- 
ing we afterward understood was y'^ Enimie killing off Cattle. Some 
after they gave a shout & Came in sight upon y'^ Indian hill great 
Numbers of them & one as their accustomed maner is after a fight, 
began to signifie to us how many were slaine. They Cohoop'd seventy- 
four times, which we hoped was only to affright us seing we have had 
no intelegence of any such thing, yet we have Reason to feare the 
worst Considering Theire Numbers which we aprehended to be five 
hundred at y^ least others Thinke a thousand y*^ most of y^" hasted 
toward y^ Northwest side of y* towne firing y^ Remainder of y^ Garason 
houses & others y' were deserted as they went: they have been hunt- 
ing in al quarters of y^ towne to kill & take what Cattle were without 
Comand of y^ four Garasons That yet Remain. Severall of y*" further- 
most houses of this town next Sudbury have bin fired now toward 
Night which gives Reason to Thinke that y* Enimie is not yet De- 
parted from us : Thus I thought it my Duty to give a briefe account 
of y^ present proceedings of y^ Enimie : to your Honuours Leaving itt 
with your wisdoms Consideration. 

Beging pardon for This my Bouldness I Remaine your Honoures 
Humble Servant Richard Jacob. 

Attached to the above letter is Secretary Rawson's Copy of 
an Order of the Council, as follows : 

Lef tenant Jacob, yesterday upon the Councils having the sad intel- 
egence of y""" Capt. & Capt. Wadsworth death ordered your taking 
the charge of the souldgers at Malborough since w''^ I received your 
of 22 Apr. giving intelegence of the euemyes infesting y""" quarters & 
apearance in a boddy of at least 500 & these wasting by fyers what 
they can come at so driving cattle, yesterday was ordered eighty 
troopers to advance to observe the motions of the enemy y""' twoe 
souldgers returne w"' a p'^ of horse to Sudbery & so with these to you 
I desyer yom- vigilance & care for tlie preserving your men & what is 
under your charge & you shal have ffurther orders so soone as the 
Couucell meete, desyring Gods presence with and assistance of you, 

23, 2, 76. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 223. 



216 KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



Lieutenant Richard Jacob's Second Letter. 

Marlborough 24. Aprill 1676. 

Honoured Sirs, Having now Received Information of God's ffurther 
frowns on y* Country In Suffering two Such worthy Captaines to fall 
before y^ Enimie whome we might have hop' to have bin Instruments 
of more good in these troublous times : But In this God's will is Done. 

Receiving an Order from your Honours wherein your Honours are 
pleased to Devolve y*' charge and betrustment of our late Capt. Brockle- 
iDanke upon me, for which I am sensible of my Inefficiency & Incapacity, 
yet Since tis your Honours pleasure, to Require me to Certifie your 
Honours of y^ state of y'' soldeirs & of y^ place. That I shall Readyly, 
here is Remaining of our Company about fourty-six. Several whereofe 
are young soldiers left here by Capt Wadsworth being unable to march. 
The Towne is wholy consumed Excepting four Garasons that were 
man'd when the Enimie was last with us, all y*^ cattle without Reach of 
The garasons are Lost : one of y^ Garason Houses which was Judg'd 
to be most fitt by our Captaine : who your Honours did apoynt to order 
according to his Discretion for a stated garason now burnt by Reason 
off y'' Inhabitants not attending thereunto Every one being Carful to 
Secure his private Interest, here is only Remaining These two houses 
where the Magazine Lyes That are in a Capacity to assist each other. 
y^ other two Lying att a greater Distance with other Inconveniences. 
May it please your Honours further to Order of y^ state of our Com- 
pany being Generally such as live upon Husbandry & seed time being 
now far spent which may be prejudiciall to ourselves & others if y^ 
season so slipt. But I shall leave that to your Honours Consideration 
only begging pardon for my bouldnes I Rest your Honours Servant 
to my utmost ability Richard Jacob 

Postscript : Some of y® principle of y* Towns men In the behalf e of 
y^ Rest y' are yet Remaining which are but few Would Desire your Hon- 
ours to Consider their present Condition being altogether incapable for 
Remaining without assistance both with Carts & a Guard They are 
destitute of Carts Theu' Teames being at Sudburie & not Daring to 
Returne. Removing of theire goods if your Honours see meete to 
Grant it or otherwise willing to refer then- loss to your Honours further 
Consideration. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 227. 

Most of the inhabitants deserted their farms after the destruc- 
tion of the town on March 26, 1676, and with the exception of 
a few families who remained for a time in the garrisoned houses, 
the families came to the towns nearer Boston, and returned only 
after the war was over. The garrison was maintained until the 
close of the war, and was an important rendezvous for the forces. 

Soldiers Credited with Military Service at the Garrison at Marlborough 



September 2P' 1675 


William Turner 


01 19 04 


Darby Morris 01 13 04 


Thomas Owen 


04 13 04 


John Dunster 02 00 00 


Joseph Barber 


02 14 00 



LIEUT. JACOB AT MAKLBOROUGH. 



217 



October W 


1675 


Daniel Davison, 


James Cheevers 


02 14 00 


Commissary, 05 14 00 


Thomas Turner 


02 12 00 


Jonathan Orris 03 12 00 


William Blaekwell 


03 02 06 


Richard Roberts 02 16 06 


Henry Gibbs 


03 07 00 


William Turner 04 16 00 


Richard Roberts 


04 04 00 


February 29, 1675-6 


November 20 1675 


Robert Rownden 07 04 00 


Timothy Laskin 


04 13 04 


Thomas Owen 02 18 02 


William Ferman 


02 08 00 


William Farman 03 17 00 


Samuel French 


03 00 00 


Gustin John 01 19 04 


Richard Young 


03 12 00 


March 24'^ 1675-6 


Daniel Roff 


03 02 00 


Richard Young 00 13 00 


Jacob Adams 


04 13 04 


AprU 24'*^ 1676 


Jonathan Jackson 


04 13 04 


Thomas Hopkins 00 09 00 


Daniel Weight 


04 13 04 


Benjamin Parmater 02 03 08 


John Figg 


01 10 00 


June 24'^^ 1676 


John Broughton 


02 12 02 


Daniel Weight 02 09 08 


January 25'^ 1675-6 


Thomas Dennis 01 05 06 


John Baker 


03 08 06 


July 24«' 1676 


Richard Young 


03 06 00 


Timothy Laskin 02 09 08 


Henry Gibbs 


02 19 00 


John Burges 03 00 10 


John Nash 


00 18 00 


September 23<^ 1676 


Jonathan Jackson 


01 05 08 


Morgan Jones 08 02 00 


Obadiah Searle 


06 08 00 


Joseph Davis 06 00 00 



XVI. 

CAPT. SAMUEL WADSWORTH AND THE SUDBURY 
FIGHTo 



THE last chapter closed the account of affairs at the garrison 
at Marlborough during and immediately after the fight at 
Sudbury, with the letters of Lieut. Richard Jacob, upon 
whom the command of the garrison devolved after Captain 
Brocklebank's death. And it is well to bear in mind that, be- 
tween the time of the requests of Gen. Denison and Capt. Brockle- 
bank, that the garrison might be relieved to go home, etc., and 
these letters of Lieut. Jacob, the new army under Major Savage 
had marched out from Marlborough to the Connecticut River, 
driving the main body of the hostile Indians beyond that river, 
as was supposed, but, as was found afterwards, leaving a great 
number gathered near Mount Wachuset. After operating till 
about March 28th in defence of the western towns, he was 
ordered to leave one hundred and fifty men under command of 
Capt. Turner, and return home as far as Marlborough, and await 
further orders. By an order of the Council, passed April 10, 
1676, Major-Gen. Denison was to meet and dispose the returning 
troops at Marlborough. 

In the meantime the Indians, closely watching the movements 
of our forces, and alert to strike at every exposed point, on Sun- 
day, March 26th, attacked Marlborough, as we see by Capt. 
Brocklebank's letter, and burned a large part of the town. The 
garrisons were unable, or feared, to attack them in force ; but 
that night, Lieut. Jacob of Captain Brocklebank's company, with 
twenty of his men and twenty volunteers, coming up from 
Sudbury, followed and surprised the Indians sleeping by their 
fires, and killed some of them, though it is not known how many. 
Mr. Hubbard says they wounded thirty, fourteen of whom died 
the same day or soon after, and popular rumor, as usual, exag- 
gerated the number, and in this case made it seventy. It is nec- 
essary now to go back and bring the personal account of Capt. 
Wadsworth up even with the general matters related above. 

Capt. Samuel Wadsworth was the son of Christopher, who 
came from England in the ship Lion, it is said ; was settled in 
Duxbury in 1632 with wife Grace (Cole), and had four children, 



CAPT. WADSWORTH's FAMILY. 219 

who, in their mother's will, 1688, are named in order, viz., Joseph, 
Samuel, Mary and John, and the last was born 1638. 

Capt. Samuel moved to Milton about 1656 and selected a large 
tract of land in the centre of that town, and settled there with 
his wife Abigail, daughter of James Lindall, of Duxbury. Their 
children, born between 1659 and 1674, were Ebenezer, Chris- 
topher, Timothy, Joseph, Benjamin, Abigail, and John, whose 
descendants have honored the name in their generations. 

Of these, Ebenezer and Christopher settled in Milton, where 
the latter died in 1687, aged about 24 years. Benjamin, born 1670, 
graduated, Harvard College, 1690; ordained minister of First 
Church in Boston, September 8, 1696 ; elected president of 
Harvard College in 1725, and died 1737. 

John Wadsworth, youngest son of Capt. Samuel, was born in 
1674 ; became a prominent citizen of Milton ; had a family of 
twelve children, of whom his second son, Benjamin, built a house 
now standing in Milton. Capt. E. D. Wadsworth, a lineal de- 
scendant, now lives on a part of the original estate of Capt. 
Samuel. 

Agreeably to the order of the Commissioners of the United 
Colonies to raise one thousand men to continue the war against 
the Indians, passed at Boston, December 25th, Massachusetts, on 
the 28th, issued orders for impressing three hundred men forth- 
with; Essex 105, Middlesex 83, Suffolk 112; the time and 
place of rendezvous being January 5th, at Dedham. 

Of the recruits that were sent out at this time, Capt. Samuel 
Wadsworth, the subject of the present chapter, commanded one 
company. There is no pubhshed reference to such service, and 
only the casual mention in Gen. Gookin's account of the " Pray- 
ing Indians," and by the writer of the pamphlet " News from New 
England," to the effect that, when the army returned to Marl- 
borough, and the rest of the forces were dismissed, " Capt. 
Wadsworth with his company was left at Marlborough." 
The garrisons from all the frontier towns, save such as the 
inhabitants furnished, had been withdrawn by an order of the 
Council, January 14th. There is no mention of Capt. Wads- 
worth until the return to Marlborough, and therefore our 
account of him and his company must begin there ; they, having 
taken part in the " Hungry March " from Narraganset, were now 
left to bear the brunt of any attack the Indians might make upon 
the frontiers. 

On February 6th the Council issued an order to Major Appleton, 
then at Marlborough with the returned army, to dismiss the 
soldiers to their several homes, "as soone as the Sabbath is past." 
But it will be remembered that Gen. Winslow, now in command 
of the army, and under the pressure of the lack of provisions, 
would scarcely wait for this order, and probably marched to Bos- 
ton on February 5th, with at least a large proportion of his army. 



220 KING Philip's war. 

Rev. Increase Mather, living in Boston at the time, and deeply 
interested in all these affairs, writes in his history : " Feb. 5th, 
the Army returned to Boston not having obtained the end of 
their going forth ; " while the anonymous contemporary writer of 
the pamplilet above mentioned, states that " Major Gen. Wins- 
low only with his Troops (marched) to Boston, leaving the Foot 
at Malbury and South-bury, who came home on Munday follow- 
ing and were all dismist to their several Habitations except Capt. 
Wads worth, who was left at Malbury in pursuit of the Enemy of 
whom he destroyed about 70 Old Men Women and Children, who 
wanted strength to follow the fugitive Army." ^ Hull's treasury 
accounts agree with this date of the disbanding of the army, so 
that Capt. Wadsworth's operations on the frontiers, with his head- 
quarters at Marlborough, began doubtless on the same day. 

On February 10th a large body of Indians fell upon Lancaster 
and burned near half the town, consisting of about fifty families, 
but succeeded in capturing only one of the garrison houses, of 
which there were several. The one captured was that of Rev. 
Joseph Rowlandson, who was himself absent at the time in 
Boston, seeking assistance from the Council for the threatened 
town. The house was sufficiently garrisoned, but the enemy 
succeeded in setting fire to the rear portion, and forced all within 
to surrender or die, as the house was quickly burned to the 
ground. Forty-two persons were thus made prisoners, most of 
whom were women and children. As soon as the news of this 
attack upon Lancaster reached Marlborough, Capt. Wads worth 
mustered a company of about forty men of his garrison and 
hastened to the rescue of the remaining part of the town. On 
one side the Indians had cut off the approach of assistance, as 
they supposed, by tearing off the planks from the bridge ; but the 
English readily repaired this and passed over, and by a secret 
way were led into the town, where they succeeded in driving off 
the enemy. 

During the rest of this month Capt. Wadsworth and his men 
were employed scouting along the frontier, with headquarters 
chiefly at Marlborough, I think, where Capt. Brocklebank was in 
command, whose company, dismissed on February 5th., had been 
called again into service upon the news of the assault upon Lan- 
caster. An order of the Council, dated February 11th, appoints 
Capt. Samuel Wadsworth ; Robert Badcocke, Sergeant ; and 
" those that are at present selectmen " a council of militia for 

1 This writer is unreliable in his account of the war, and in attributing this last exploit to Capt. 
Wadsworth undoubtedly confuses things in mixing the rescue of Lancaster by him with the mid- 
night surprise of Indians March 27th, by Lieut. Jacob. But while his direct statements are to be 
received with caution, his casual references are valuable as hints of existing facts which others do 
not mention, and many of which, confirmed by evidence gleaned from the Archives, throw light 
upon things which have hitherto been entirely unknown in history ; for instance, this reference to 
Capt. Wadsworth, together with Major Gookin's mention, is the only hint, in published accounts, 
that connects him with the Narraganset campaign, and in these references there is only inferential 
evidence, and in regard to Capt. Brocklebank there is absolutely no reference until the present 
investigations based upon Treasurer Hull's accounts ; but following up the clues, there is plenty 
of evidence in the Archives of these officers and others having had part in this campaign, that have 
never been mentioned in connection with it. 



CAPT. WADSWORTH AND SOLDIERS. 



221 



Milton ; and this would seem to indicate the design of the Coun- 
cil to keep Capt. Wadsworth upon the home frontiers, as will 
further appear. 

When, on the first of March, the newly levied army was being 
organized at Marlborough for operations in the west, Capt. Wads- 
worth was there with his company, and was sent out by the Gen- 
eral to recall Job Kattenanit upon the occasion detailed in the 
last chapter. 

In making up the army the General made a selection of the best 
soldiers out of all at his disposal, and among other changes, trans- 
ferred a part of Capt. Wadsworth's company to Capt. William 
Turner, who led out a company in this expedition to the west. 

A letter from William Torrey to the Council, dated March 7th, 
expresses gratitude for the assistance rendered by the Council in 
defence of the towns of Milton, Braintree, Weymouth and Hing- 
ham, and says that the Major General has " ordered the remaynder 
of Capt. Wadsworth and Capt. Jacobs forces to be a guard to our 
townes," etc. ; and that Capt. Wadsworth and his men shall be a 
guard to Milton, Braintree, etc. 

The credits in Hull's account indicate the discharge of the 
remainder of the company about the 7th or 8th of March, and 
thereafter they were employed as home-guards, and supported by 
their respective towns, and there is no further mention of service 
by Capt. Wadsworth during the next month, the operations in the 
western towns engrossing all the energies of the colonies and all 
the attention of the people. The soldiers are credited with service 
up to this time, and thus properly the names and credits are 
given in this place. 



Credited under Capt. Samuel Wadsworth. 



February 29, 


1675-6. 






James Stuart 


03 15 09 


Henry Pellington 


00 


12 


00 


Thomas Woods 


02 10 06 


Robert Miller 


01 


01 


04 


April 24'*^ 


1676. 


John Rowlston 


01 


01 


04 


James Dalvine 


02 07 02 


Stephen Fielder 


01 


01 


04 


Jacob Leonard 


02 09 08 


March 24*'' 


1675-6. 






Robert Braine 


02 14 00 


John Starr 


02 


08 


00 


Samuel Wadsworth, Cap' 15 00 00 


Nathaniel Jewett 


02 


02 


02 


James Ford 


02 15 08 


John Hunt 


04 


02 


03 


Peter Roberts 


01 18 06 


James Hadlock 


03 


04 


00 


Robert Corbett 


02 06 02 


Thomas Vos, Lieut 


07 


10 


00 


Henry Ledebetter 


02 11 00 


Ebenezer Wilhams 


02 


11 


00 


Robert Parker 


02 14 10 


Richard Evans 


02 


14 


10 


Timothy Tilston 


02 05 00 


William Scant 


02 


14 


10 


John Sharp 


03 15 00 


John Horsington 


02 


14 


10 


June 24'^^ 1676. 


John Trescott 


00 


18 


10 


George Ripley 


02 06 02 


Timothy Wales 


02 


04 


06 


Robert Munson 


03 06 00 


William Deane 


03 


12 


00 


Robert Judd 


01 11 06 


Mortho Hurley 


02 07 02 


John Hands 


02 07 00 



222 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



John Adis 


02 08 00 


James Badcock 


00 09 00 


Ephraim Pond 


02 08 00 


John Thare 


02 14 10 


Jonathan Gray 


02 08 00 


July 24«» 1676 




Abraham Hathaway 


02 08 00 


Paul Gilford 


02 09 06 


Richard Evans 


01 14 02 


Joshuah Lane 


05 14 00 


John Redman 


02 14 10 


John Alger 


02 08 00 


James Badcock 


03 03 00 


Jeremiah Hood 


02 08 00 


Thomas Beetle 


02 04 10 


Robert Mutson 


02 08 00 


Thomas Mory 


02 08 00 


Samuel Gill 


02 09 06 


Thomas Laurence 


03 13 08 


August 24* 1676 


. 


John Baker 


03 18 08 


John Angell 


03 12 00 


Thomas Williams 


02 08 10 


Jonathan Dunning 


08 19 00 


John Poole 


02 09 08 


Edward Mortmore 


02 08 00 


Joseph Bosworth 


02 15 08 


Samuel Nicholson 


01 07 04 


Robert Milton 


02 15 08 


Edward Samson 


02 08 00 


Isaac Lobdell 


02 15 08 


Sept. 23"^ 1676. 


William Hooper 


03 13 08 


John Tuckerman 


00 12 00 


William Lyon 


01 10 00 







THE SUDBURY FIGHT. 

Upon the disbanding of the army under Gen. Winslow, as noted 
in the first of this chapter, the Indians began to gather in towards 
the frontier towns in large numbers, evidently elated at the 
apparent inability and supposed discouragement of the English. 
Upon April 18th they came upon Marlborough again, and burned 
the houses they had left in the former attack. They hovered 
about the town for two days, evidently seeking to draw out the 
soldiers from the garrisons and away into an ambush, according 
to their usual mode of warfare. They did not dare to engage the 
garrisons, however, or to come within range of the guns, but 
having invested the town with small parties set in ambush to 
guard the roads and prevent messengers or relief passing to and 
fro, they began to creep slowly in about Sudbury upon Thursday, 
April 20th. In the meantime, according to the best evidence of 
the best accounts from contemporary sources, Capt. Wadsworth, 
with a company of some fifty or more men, marched out of Boston 
towards Marlborough upon the same day, expecting to make up 
the company to one hundred with the quotas of the Middlesex 
towns, but did not have over seventy probably on his arrival at 
Marlborough, which it was the design that he should relieve with 
the company of one hundred men impressed ^ for the purpose, of 
whom not more than seventy appeared, and these, many of them, 
mere boys. They marched through Sudbury in the evening of 
the 20th, and without any sign of attack from the great body of 
Indians lying about the town and its approaches, arrived in Marl- 

1 All kinds of pretexts were used to avoid the drafts at this time. For Instance, an impressment 
of men in the militia company of Capt. Clarke of Boston, on the 18th and 19th, for this service, 
resulted as follows : 

Aaron Stephens, Philip Cain, James Surges, Thomas Wats, John Pittara and Robert Miller, hid 
away and could not be found except the two last, who declared they would rather" be hanged, 
drawne and quartered than goe;" and only one, Thomas Smith, obeyed. Attest the Officers, 
Francis Hudson, Jacob Ferniside. 



THE FIGHT AT SUDBURY. 223 

borough near midnight, where, learning that the enemy had gone 
towards Sudbury, Capt. Wadsworth, after a brief stop and slight 
reorganization of his company, leaving some of the boys that were 
unable to march, at the garrison, and doubtless taking some fitter 
men in their places, and being joined by Capt. Brocklebank, who 
apparently started for Boston, being relieved of his charge at the 
garrison by the coming of Capt. Wadsworth, with this company 
he marched hastily back towards Sudbury. 

While this company were thus marching to and from Marlbor- 
ough, the enemy were gathering more closely about Sudbury, as 
the following account, contained in the petition of the inhabitants 
who suffered loss in the attack, shows. The paper has been 
buried in the old court files for more than two hundred years, and 
was discovered by the writer opportunely for insertion in this 
chapter. This paper gives much new material in regard to the 
fight, and incontrovertible contemporary testimony that the fight 
occurred on the 21st of April. 

To y^ Hon''''' Governou'' Dept Govern^ Magistrates and Deputies of y* 
Gen" Court assembled at Boston y^ ll"' October 1676 

The hum'''^ Petition of y^ poore distressed Inhabitants of Sudbury 
Humbly Sheweth. That Whereas yo"" impoverished Petition" of Sud- 
bury have received intelligence of a large contribution sent out of 
Ireland by some pious & well affected p'sons for y* releife of their 
brethren in New England distressed by y^ hostile intrusion of y^ Indian 
Enemy, and that upon this divers distressed townes have presented a 
list of theire losses sustained by fireing and plundering of their Estates. 
Let it not seeme presumption in yo'' poore petitioners to p'sent a list of 
what damages we sustained by y"" Enemyes attempts hopeing that o'' 
lott will be "to be considered among our brethren of the tribe of Joseph 
being encouraged by an act of our Hon"^ Gen" Court that those who 
have sustained considerable damage should make address to this p''sent 
Session. And is there not a reason for our releife ? Not only by reason 
of Our great losses but alsoe for Our Ser\uce p''formed in repelling y* 
Enemy ! Let y^ Most High have y* high praise due unto him ; but let 
not y^ unworthy Instruments be forgotten. Was there with us any 
towne so beset since y* warre began, with twelve or fourteen hundred 
fighting men various Sagamores from all Parts with their men of Armes 
&. they resolved by our ruin to revenge y^ releife which Our Sudbury 
volunteers afforded to distressed Marlborough in slaying many of y* 
Enemy and repelling y^ rest. The strength of our towne upon y^ Ene- 
my's Approaching it consisted of Eighty fighting men. True many 
houses were fortified & Garrison'd, & tymously after y* Enemy's inva- 
sion, and fireing some Volunteers from Watertowne, & Concord & 
deserving Capt : Wadsworth with his force came to Our releife, which 
speedy & noble service is not to be forgotten. The Enemy well know- 
ing our Grounds, passes, avenues, and Scituations had neare sur- 
rounded Our towne in y^ Morning early (wee not knowing of it) till 
discovered by fireing severall disserted houses : the Enemy with greate 
force & fury assaulted Deacon Haines House well fortified yet badly 



224 KING Philip's war. 

scituated, as advantageous to y* Enemys approach & dangerous to y* 
Repellant, yet (by y*" help of God) y" garrison not onely defended y® 
place from betweene five or six of y^ clock in y** Morning till about One 
in y^ Afternoon but forced y^ Enemy with Considerable slaughter to 
draw-ofif. 

Many Observables worthy of Record hapned in this assault, Viz' 
That noe man or woman seemed to be possessed with feare ; Our Gar- 
rison men kept not within their garrisons, but issued forth to fight y* 
Enemy in theire sculking approaches : Wee had but two of our townes- 
men slaine, & y* by indiscretion, none wounded ; The Enemy was by 
few beaten out of houses which they had entered and were plun- 
dering ; And by a few hands were forced to a running flight which way 
they would ; The spoyle taken by them on y^ East side of y^ river was 
in greate p'* recovered. 

Furthermore p'mitte yo"" humble Petition" to present a second Motion, 
And let it be acceptable in y" eyes of this our Grand Court Vizt. 

That whereas by an Act of Our late Gen" Court Tax rates are leavied 
upon Our towne amounting to £200 (as appeareth p'' Warrant from Our 
Treasurer, which said suih was leavied by Our Invoice taken in y* 
yeare before Our greate damage susteyned. It is y^ humble & earnest 
request of yo'' Petition"'' to commiserate Our Condition in granting to us 
some abatement of y*" said suin, for y** ensueing considerations, Viz' 
fflrst Our towne to pay full for their Rates then taken, which in greate 
p"' they have now lost by the Enemys invasion may seeme not to 
savour of pitty no not of equity. Secondly if y^ Service p'formed at 
Sudbury (by y^ help of y*" Almighty) whereby y*" Enemy lost some say 
100, some 105, some 120, and by that service much damage prevented 
from hap'ning to other places whereby y*" Country in generall was 
advantaged, reason requires some favorable consideration to yo' Ser- 
vants of Sudbury. For if it be considered what it hath cost Our 
Country in sending out some forces some of which p"*"' have not 
returned with y^ certaine newes of such a number slaine as with us, is 
it not reasonable that this service soe beneficiall should not be con- 
sidered with some reward which may most easily be effected by issue- 
ing forth an Act of your grace in a sutable abatem' of y*^ said Sum 
leavied, with y^ conferring of a Barril of Powder & sutable shott in 
regaurd that yo"' Petitioners have spent not onely theire owne stock of 
either, but much of y*^ Towne stock. To which humble and Equitable 
Motions if Our hon'''*^ Court shall benignely condescend. You will 
deeply oblidge yo"" humble petitioners not onely to pray for y*^ p'"sence 
of y^ Lord to be with yo" in all yo'^ arduous affaires with the blessing of 
The Almighty upon all yo' Undertakings but shall for Ever remaine 

Yo'' humble servants 
Edm: Browne Benjamin Crane John Blanford 

Edm: Goodnow Zacriah Maynord John Allen 

John Groutt Joseph Moore Henry Curtis 

John Haines John Parminter John Brewer 

Josiah Haynes Joseph Parmenter James Ross 

Thomas Veal Peter Noyes Richard Burk 

Peter King Jonathan Stanhope John Smith 

John Loker Sen' Edward Wright Thomas Brewes? 



ACCOUNT OF Sudbury's losses. 



225 



Joseph Noyes 
John Goodenow 
Mathew Gibs 
Thomas "Wedge 



Jabez Browne 
John Grout jun' 
Joseph Graves 
Tho: Walker 



Samuell How 
Henry Loker 



In Ans' to the Petion" for Abatement in their last Ten Country 
Rates by reason of their losses in Estates by the Common Enemy ; 
Wee uppon examination finde y' in their last Assm* their estates falls 
short 4'. 9'. in their single County Rate, doe therefore judge meet, 
a^ Towne of Sudbury be Allowed 44, 10, out of their whole sum to 
them pr Rates & Referring to their request for a Barrell of Powder 
&c wee refer it to y^ Courts determination. William Parker? 

Hugh Mason 
John Wayte 



The deputyes approve of the ret. of this Committee in answer to this p'^ 
O'' Houo'^'^ Magis"^ Consenting thereto William Torret, Cleric 

25 October 1676 Consented to by y^ Magis'' Edw** Rawson, Sect'y. 

An Accompt of Losse sustained by several Inhabitants of y* towne of 
Sudbury by y' Indian Enemy y« 21'* Aprill 1676. 



Mary Bacon formerly y^ Relict 

of Ensigne Noyes £140 00 00 
Thomas Plympton 130 00 00 

Deacon John Haines 130 00 00 
Serj: Josiah Haines 190 00 00 
Capt: James Pendleton 060 00 00 



John Goodenow 
William Moores 
Edward Wright 
Elias Keyes 
John Smith 
Samuell How 
Mr Pelham 
Mr Thomas Steevens 
Corporall Henry Rice 
John Allen 
James Rosse 
John Grout Jun'' 



150 00 00 
180 00 00 
100 00 00 
060 00 00 
080 00 00 
140 00 00 
050 00 00 
015 00 00 
180 00 00 
060 00 00 
070 00 00 
060 00 00 



Thomas Rice 
Widd. Whale 
Henry Curtice 
John Brewer 
Jacob Moores 
Henry Loker 
Joseph ffreeman 
Joseph Graves 
Peter King 
Widd. Habgood 
Benjamin Crane 
Thomas Wedge 
John Blanford 
Thomas Brewes 
Richard Burt 
Thomas Reade 



100 00 00 
024 00 00 
200 00 00 
120 00 00 
050 00 00 
100 00 00 
080 00 00 
060 00 00 
040 00 00 
020 00 00 
020 00 00 
015 00 00 
010 00 00 
010 00 00 
010 00 00 
003 00 00 



Totall Sum 2707 00 00 



Besides y* uncovering of many houses & Barnes & some hundreds of 
Acres of land which lay unimproved for feare of y^ Enemy to om' 
greate loss and Damage. 

(Endorsed) 
Sudbury's Accompt of Losses (and also) Sudbury's Losses — 76 

This paper, never before published, gives a new phase of the 
fight. (Mass. Arch., vol. 30, p. 205.) 

The deposittion of Edward Cowell Aged About years — 

This deponautt upon oath testifieth that I being upon the Counteries 



226 KING PHILIP'S WAR. 

Searvis in Aprill last and haveing under my Conduct Eighteen men ; 
Upon our Returning from Mallberough to Boston ; and About three 
i\lilles From Sudbeury Wee ware surprised with divers Hundred of In- 
dians; VVheere of this Indian Tom was one ( — ) by a grombling signe 
or Noyse thatt hee Mayde ; as in My Judgement was the Cause of our 
being ffiored upon ; at which tyme fower of my Compauy was killed and 
one Wounded ; beside ffive horses ware disenabled they Being Shott 
upon Capt. Wadsworths Ingadgine with the Indian I wentt Backe and 
Beuryed the fower men which were killed whereof (Lt, ?) Thomas Haw- 
[le]y, and Hopkinsies son both of Roxbeury ; [Edmund Rice'] Good- 
man [Baker's?] son and Robert Wayle[s] of Dorchister. 
Sworn to before the Council 19 June 1676. 

Edward Rawson, Secretary. 

OTHER CORRESPONDENCE, ETC., ABOUT THE SUDBURY FIGHT. 

Letter of the Mnssachusetts Council to the Governor of Plymouth. 

Hon'' S'' Since o"^ last to you It pleaseth the holy God to give still 
further successe to the Enemye in this Colony by killing two men the 
one in Hiugham, & the other in Weymouth aboute the same tyme At 
Marlborough also upon Tuesday and Wednesday last they burned the 
remainder of the Houses, so that now but three are standing that we 
know of but two or three garrisons ; This day we have intelligence in 
the general that Sudbury was this morning assaulted and many houses 
burut down, particulars and the more full certainty of things is not yet 
come to hand whilest we are consulting what to doe, earnestly we are 
moved to settle some of o' faithful Indians at Meadfield or Punqua- 
poag, & others at Woodcocks & we desire that yo'' Colony would send 
such a number of yo"" Indians as may be convenient to be joyned 
in the same service whose work shall be constantly to scout abroad 
between Seaconck and Meadfield & Dedham w*^"^ is thought to be a 
very probable way Either to prevent the enemies coming in upon yo"" 
Colony and ours that way, or at least to give speedy notice of their 
motions and dissapoynt theire mischievous designes. This motion pro- 
ceeds from some of the cheef of our Indians William Ahaton & Capt. 
John who are very willing to be imployed and much persuaded, that 
there may be good therein, o' present thoughts are to indeavor and 
incourage this matter with all speed and in order hereto we have sent 
our Corporall Swift the bearer hereof to yo'^selfe from whome you may 
understand things more fully & by him acquaint us with yo'' view of 
t'ie matter and further advise for the better perfecting of the designe 
& that we may also know whether you can furnish out any sufficient 
number of Indians from yo'' parts & how soone. 

C" General Court of Elections is to sit upon Wednesday come seven- 
night, & then full order may be taken. 

Commending you to the God of Councell & Protection 

we remain E. R. S : 
past & signed 21 Ap"" 76 

Directed to the Hon''''' Josia Winslow Gov"" 

of his maj^'y Colony at New Plymouth. (Mass. Arch., Vol. 68, p. 
220 ) 

1 The name Edmund Rice is in the margin. He was probably one of those of Sudbury killed, and 
his name was inserted by some one in the margin of Cowell's note. Only the letter a in Baker ia 
present. The paper is badly torn. 



CONCERNING SUDBURY FIGHT. 227 



Petition of Daniel Warren and Joseph Pnrce. 

To Inform the Hououred Counsel of the Service don at Sudbury by 
spverall of the Inhabatauce of Watertown as our honoured Captain 
Mason hath Allready informed a part thereof in the petion : but we 
who wear thear can moer largely inform this honoured Councel : that 
as it is said in the petion that we drove two hundred Indians. over the 
River ; wee followed the enimie over the river and joyned with som 
others and went to see if wee could relieve Captain Wadsworth upon 
the hill and thear we had a fight with the Indians but they beinge soe 
many of them and we stayed soe long that we wear allmost incompassed 
by them which cased us to retreat to Captain Goodanous Garrison ; 
and their we stayed it being ner night till it was dark and then we went 
to Mr Noices Mill to see if we could find any that were escaped to that 
place all though they wear noe persons dwelling there ; but thear we 
found : 13: or: 14: of Captain Wadsworths men who wear escaped some 
of them wounded and brought them to Sudbury towne ; 

On the next day in the morning soe soon as it was light we went to 
looke for — Concord men who wear slain in the River middow and thear 
we went in the colld water up to the knees where we found five and we 
brought them in Conus to the Bridge fut and buried them thear ; and 
then we joyned ourselves to Captain Hunton with as many others as 
we could procuer and went over the River to look for Captain Wads- 
worth and Captain Brattlebank and the soldiers that wear slain ; and 
we gathered them up and Buried them ; and then it was agreed that we 
should goe up to Nobscot to bring the Carts from thence into Sudliury- 
Towne and soe returned Hom againe ; to what is above written we whos 
nams are subscribed can testifi: 

dated the :6: of march :78: Daniel Warrin 

:79: Josep Peirce 

Our request is to the much Honoured Counsel that they would be 
pleased to consider us in reference to our Request; their being 2 
troops of hors appointed to bury the dead as we wear informed whos 
charg was spared and we as yet not allowed for what we did ; 

Your most Humb''' Servants to Command to the utmost of our poor 
S for our selves and in the behalf of the rest Daniel Warrin 

Mass. Arch., vol. 68, p. 224. Josep Peirce 

Of other contemporary accounts of the fight and its conse- 
quences there are several from eminently reliable authorities. 
Treasurer John Hull wrote a letter on April 29, 1676, concern- 
ing the sad state of affairs in the colony, giving details of suc- 
cessive casualties, and says : " On y*' 21" valiant Captains Wads- 
worth and Brocklebank w"* about 50 valiant souldiers were slain 
by y^ Indians." 

The letters of the " Anonymous writer," published in London, 
which have been several times referred to above, give a very con- 
cise account, as follows : " April 20"^ Capt. Wadsworth of Dor- 
chester, being designed with an 100 men to repair to Marlborough 
to strengthen the garrison, and remove the goods &c. there ; did 



228 KING PHILIP'S WAR. 

accordingly this evening march with about 70 men from Sudbury, 
the rest of his men not appearing. The Enemy who were about 
1000 strong lay near his Passage, but kept themselves undiscov- 
ered and permitted him to passe them in the night but in the 
morning assaulted and burned most of the Houses in Sudbury 
(save those that were ingarrisoned)." The writer goes on to tell 
that twelve volunteers from Concord came down to lend assist- 
ance, and eleven of the number were slain, and that Capt. Wads- 
worth, with his tired troops that had marched all the day and 
night before, marched promptly back from Marlborough, being 
joined by Capt. Brocklebank and a few of the garrison soldiers, 
making a company of not more than eighty men miserably tired 
for want of rest and sleep. This company was drawn into am- 
bush and encompassed by many hundred Indians, — our authori- 
ties say a thousand or more, — fought them from a hill for four 
hours with the loss of only five men, till the Indians set fire to 
the woods at the windward of them, and thus forced them from 
their strong position, and in their retreat waylaid and destroyed 
all but a few of the men, who escaped to a mill, where they 
defended themselves till night, when rescued by Capt. Prentice's 
troopers, who themselves had just been rescued by Capt. Cowell 
and his dragoons. 

Rev. Increase Mather, of Boston, who published a history of 
this Indian war at about the same time with Mr. Hubbard, writes 
— " April 20th, a day of humiliation was observed at Boston. 
The next day sad tidings came to us. For the enemy set upon 
Sudbury and burnt a great part of the town ; and whereas Capt. 
Wadsworth and his Lieutenant Sharp, also Capt. Brocklebank (a 
godly and choice spirited man) was killed at the time." 

Major Daniel Gookin, the commanding officer of Middlesex 
forces and superintendent of the " Praying Indians " in the 
colony, writes : 

Upon April 21, about midday tidings came by many messengers 
that a great body of the enemy not less as was judged than fifteen 
hundred . . . had assaulted a town called Sudbury that morn- 
ing. . . . Indeed (thro' God's favor) some small assistance had 
already been sent from Watertown by Capt. Hugh Mason, which was 
the next town to Sudbury. These with some of the inhabitants joined 
and with some others that came in to their help, there was vigorous 
resistance made and a check given to the enemy. . . . But these 
particulars were not known when the tidings came to Charlestown. 

Major Gookin gives a very full account in his history of the 
" Praying Indians," his object being to vindicate the Indians from 
the charges of treachery and inefficiency made against them by 
popular clamor. His account was necessarily accurate, and it 
agrees closely with the records. From him, and also from the 
Archives, we learn that a company of Indians was being organ- 



CONCERNING SUDBURY FIGHT. 229 

ized at this time, and the letters of the Council show that the 
design of this company was to fortify the fishing places upon the 
Merrimac, in conjunction with a company of English, and under 
command of Capt. Samuel Hunting, of Charlestown. This Indian 
company, it seems, was at Charlestown when the news of the 
attack upon Sudbury came, and without waiting for particulars, 
Major Gookin immediately despatched " a ply of horse " from 
Capt. Prentice's troop under Corporal Phipps, and forty Indians 
under Capt. Hunting, which force arrived at Sudbury that even- 
ing, the troopers in time to rescue the remnants of Capt. Wads- 
worth's company from the mill, where they had taken refuge and 
had defended themselves against the enemy. 

All the above accounts are of contemporaries, and aU agree in 
the main particulars and confirm each other in the matter of the 
date. Rev. Mr. Hubbard, of Ipswich, whose history of this war 
is most complete, and, in the main, the most reliable, agrees 
mostly with the others, but seems to have known less of this fight 
than usual, and less of the details than the others, and in the 
matter of the date was unquestionably wrong. 

From all the above authorities, the true account in brief, seems 
to be, that the English had no suspicion of the great numbers of 
the Indians that were gathering about Marlborough and Sudbury, 
or of the vicinity of any until early in the morning of the 21st, 
when several deserted houses were burnt with the evident pur- 
pose of drawing out the garrisons into an ambuscade. Then 
Deacon Haines's garrison-house was attacked with fury by large 
numbers, but was successfully defended from six o'clock in the 
morning until one o'clock, P.M., when the assault was abandoned. 
Twelve volunteers coming from Concord upon the alarm, to aid 
the garrison, were lured into the river meadow, and all slain save 
one. Mr. Edward Cowell, with a body of eighteen mounted 
men, coming from Brookfield by way of Marlborough, and by a 
different way from that taken by Capt. Wadsworth, became 
sharply engaged with an outlying party of the enemy, and lost 
four men killed, one wounded, and had five of his horses 
disabled. 

While the attack upon Cowell's party was still going on, Cap- 
tain Wadsworth and his company came upon the scene, and 
seeing a small party of Indians, rushed forward with the usual 
impetuous haste, and were caught in the usual ambuscade, for 
when within about a mile of Sudbury they were induced to pur- 
sue a body of not more than one hundred, and soon found them- 
selves drawn away about one mile into the woods, where on a 
sudden they were encompassed by more than five hundred, and 
forced to a retreating fight towards a hill where they made a 
brave stand for a while (one authority says four hours), and did 
heavy execution upon the enemy, until (Mr. Hubbard says) the 
night coming on and some of the company beginning to scatter 



230 KING Philip's war. 

from the rest, their fellows were forced to follow them, and thus 
being encompassed in the chase by numbers, the Captains and 
most of the company were slain. The anonymous writer above 
referred to, says the Indians set fire to the woods and thus 
forced the disastrous retreat. Thirteen only out of the company 
escaped to "• Noyes's mill," and there held the enemy in check. 
In the meantime Cowell withdrew his party from their danger- 
ous situation, went back and buried their dead comrades, and 
then rode around into the town by another way in time to rescue 
Capt. Prentice's troopers, and afterwards, with others in com- 
pany, the men at the mill. It was probably about noon when 
Capt. Wadsworth became actively engaged with the Indians, and 
thus withdrew their attention from both Cowell and Haines's 
garrison. The Watertown company arrived at about the same 
time, followed the Indians over the river, and made a brave fight 
to get to the hiU, where Capt. Wadsworth was engaged in his des- 
perate struggle, but such fearful odds were against them that 
they were forced to fall back to Goodnow's garrison, " it being 
ner night." After dark they went to the " mill," probably with 
the troopers and Co well's men, and brought off the soldiers there. 
The troopers sent from Charlestown, with the Indian company 
under Capt. Hunting, must have arrived quite late in the after- 
noon. These are the main facts, in brief, of the Sudbury fight. 
The next day the Watertown company, with Capt. Hunting's 
Indians, buried the dead. The site of the battle-field, where Capt. 
Wadsworth so long held the Indians at bay, is upon what is now 
called " Green Hill." Here, in 1730, fifty-four years after the 
battle. Rev. Benjamin Wadsworth, fifth son of Capt. Samuel, and 
at that time president of Harvard College, erected a monument 
to the memory of his father, and those that fell with him. It is 
to be regretted that President Wadsworth accepted the erroneous 
date given by Mr. Hubbard, which has been perpetuated upon 
the new monument erected in 1852. 

It is a regret that we are unable to know positively the numbers 
of English engaged. The number with Capt. Wadsworth upon 
the " Hill " was probably near fifty. The most definite statement 

1 The investigations of Mr. Drake first exposed the error which Mr. Hubbard made in his Mb- 
tory (see New Eng. Hist, and Genealogical Register, vol. vii. p. 221). Gov. George 8. 
Boutwell, who delivered the historical discourse at the dedication of the new monument, Nov. 23, 
1852, and at that time assigned the date April 18, replied in 1866 (see Register, vol. xx. p. 135) to 
Mr. Drake's article, and contended that the date given in his discourse was the true one. The 
Historic Genealogical Society then took the matter in hand, and appointed a committee, Gen. A. 
B. Underwood and Frederic Kidder, who made a thorough and exhaustive report at the society's 
meeting, October, 1866, which was published in the Register, vol. xx. p. 341, proving beyond ques- 
tion that the date April 2l8t is the true date of the fight. Contemporary Official Records, the 
highest evidence of all, testify in every case to this date, while the evidence for the 18th is only 
found in Mr. Hubbard's history and in several books of remarkable events, kept by some promi- 
nent men of the colony, who, it is evident, not unfrequently made their entries some time after 
the occurrence of the events, and who, in this case, probably adopted the date from Hubbard. 
John Hull, for instance, whose letter-extract above, written within a few days, gives the date the 
21st, in his diary of notable events puts it down as on the 18th. Major Daniel Gookin, Rev. 
Increase Mather, the writer of the "Present State of New England," and other authorities, 
agree with the Official Records in giving the 21st. Subsequent historians, until Mr. Drake, simply 
quote Hubbard's date. 

It is a great satisfaction to the present writer to add the new testimony of the petition of the 
inhabitants of Sudbury. 



SOME OF THOSE SLAIN AT SUDBURY. 231 

is that of Major Gookin, who puts the number of those slain, 
besides the two Captains, as " about thirty-two private soldiers." 
Cowell had eighteen, and the Concord men were twelve. The 
Watertown company was not probably over forty, while the 
garrisons of Sudbury amounted to but eighty. Thus about two 
hundred men were actively engaged with, and holding in play, 
probably more than a thousand Indians one whole day, and 
finally defeated their intention of capturing the town, sending 
them away with fearful loss. 

Unfortunately we are not as yet able to find any list of the 
names of those killed on that day, and Mr. Hull's accounts do 
not show any credits referable to that service ; only here and 
there are we able to glean from probate and town and church 
records, a few names of those killed. 

From the Roxbury Records we find that 



Samuel Gardner, son of Peter 
Thomas Baker 
John Roberts 
Nathaniel Sever 
Thomas Hawley S" 



William Cleaves 
Joseph Pepper 
John Sharpe 
Thomas Hopkins 
Lieut Samuel Gardner 



were all slain att Sudbury under command of Capt. Sam^ Wads- 
worth upon 21 Aprill 1676. 

Of the Concord men killed in the meadow near " Haynes's 
Garrison," but five bodies were recovered, and but seven names 
of the killed are preserved in the records : 

James Hosmer Samuel Potter John Barnes 

Daniel Corny Joseph Buttrick Josiah Wheeler 

William Heywood 

Three of Cowell's men, that were killed, are in the Roxbury 
list above. The fourth was Robert Wayles, of Dorchester. The 
Suffolk Probate Records give an additional name, Eliazer Hawes, 
of Dorchester. These, with Capts. Wads worth and Brocklebank, 
make in all but twenty-one. 



XVII. 

CAPT. WILLIAM TURNER AND HIS MEN, AND THE 
"FALLS FIGHT." 



WILLIAM TURNER came from Dartmouth in South Devon- 
shire to Dorchester, Massachusetts ; admitted to the 
church in 1642 ; freeman May 10th, 1643. Is in list of 
owners of certain pasture lands there in 1646. Was chosen bailiff 
of the town in 1661 ; signed a petition of the inhabitants of Dor- 
chester in 1664. He probably moved to Boston in the latter 
part of 1664, as he was one of the original members of the First 
Baptist Church gathered in Boston May 28th, 1665. 

The earlier members of this church, with Capt. Turner, were, 
Thomas Gould, elder and preacher, Thomas Osborne and his wife 
Mary, Edward Drinker, John George, Robert Lambert, Richard 
Goodall and Mary his wife, Mary Newell, John Farnham, Isaac 
Hull, Jacob Barney, John Russell, Jr., John Johnson, George 
Farlow, Seth Sweetsir, Benjamin Sweetsir and his wife. 

During the next few years the pressure of religious intolerance 
began to be exercised against the Baptists, and the General 
Court took action against the leaders, as " turbulent Anabaptists," 
disfranchised such as were freemen, and expelled Gould, Turner 
and Farnham from the colony, on pain of imprisonment, charging 
that they had " combined themselves with others in a pretended 
church estate, without the knowledge or approbation of the 
authority here established, to the great grief and offence of the 
godly orthodox," etc. The men, failing to leave the colony, 
were duly imprisoned. A petition for release, from these three, 
to the Court, dated Oct. 14, 1668, states that it is the twelfth 
week of their imprisonment. Popular feeling, the majority of 
the deputies, and influential friends of the colonies in England, 
favored the Baptists, but the magistrates were inflexible, and 
when a great number of influential citizens signed a popular 
petition in their behalf, the Council summoned many to appear 
and answer for " contempt of authority," in signing the petition. 
I think the prisoners were liberated during the winter, probably 
on condition of " good behavior." Capt. Turner was imprisoned 
again, evidently under the old sentence, and it is likely for 
breaking the conditions of his release. Several complaints were 



ANABAPTIST PERSECUTION. 233 

brought up against him, the chief of which seems to have been, 
in this last case, that he would not present his child at church 
for baptism. The following letter gives some idea of the man 
and his condition : 

Letter of William Turner to the General Court. 

To the honored General Court now sitting at boston the humble 
address of Will: Turner now prisoner at boston humbly sheweth 

That whereas it hath pleased some of the honored maistrates to 
issue out A warrant for the apprehending of my body and Committing 
mee to prison, and there to remayne according to A sentence of A 
general Court the 29'^ of April 1668 your poore prisoner doth therefore 
humbly beseech you to consider that by vertue of 'that sentence I have 
already suffered Above thirty weekes imprisonment and that A whole 
winter season which was a greate prejudice to my health and distraction 
to my poore family & which I hope this honored [Court] will consider 
with the weaknes of my body and the extremity of lying in prison in 
A cold winter whitch may be to the utter ruine of my headles family : 
And withal to consider my readines to serve this Country to the utter- 
most of my abihty in all civil things : The maine difiference being only 
in faith and order of which God only can satisfie A poore soul : Thus 
hoping this honored Court will take it unto their serious Consideration 
and extend their mercy as becomes the servants of Christ I shal leave 
both my state and condition and honored Court to the wise disposing 
of the Almighty, remaining yours to serve you in all faithfulness to my 
power. Will : Turner. 

boston prison this 27 of 8'^ mo: 1670 
Mass. Archives, vol. x. p. 228. 

The deputies submitted this to the magistrates, who were 
unyielding. 

It is not known whether any action resulted from this letter, 
but at a Court held at Boston, March 2d, 1669, a petition was 
presented from Gould and Turner, then in prison, for release, and 
they were allowed " three days " to visit their families, and then 
to be returned to prison. Soon after this many and very earnest 
letters were received from prominent orthodox ministers in Eng- 
land, deprecating these rigorous measures of the magistrates, as 
against the scriptures and directly prejudicial to the interests of 
the church in America, and to dissenting churches everywhere. 
The prisoners were probably released some time in the summer 
of 1669, and soon after Mr. Gould took up his residence perma- 
nently at " Noddle's Island," and there the Baptists thereafter 
held their meetings. On November 30th, 1670, Mr. Edward 
Drinker, in a letter to Mr. Clarke and his church at Newport, 
says : " At this present our dear brother William Turner, 
prisoner for the Lord's cause in Boston has some good experience ; 
both he and brother Gould were to be taken up but only brother 
Turner, is yet taken and has been about a month in prison." 



234 KING Philip's war. 

Gould was not yet taken because the magistrates waited to take 
him in Boston, "and he came not over." He speaks bitterly 
of Gov. Bellingham and the magistrates, but in terms of grati- 
tude of Messrs. Oxenbridge and Allen of the First Church in 
Boston, for their earnest endeavors to help the Baptists in their 
troubles, and says that all the deputies voted to release the pris- 
oners, but that the magistrates " carry all before them." He says 
in the closing part of his letter, " Brother Turner's family is very 
weakly and himself too. I fear he will not trouble them long ; 
only this is our comfort, we hear if he dies in prison, they say they 
will bury liim," etc. The reply to this letter was addressed 
" Unto the Church of Jesus Christ, meeting on Noddle's Island 
in New England." In December, 1671, Benjamin Sweetser, of 
Charlestown, writes to Newport that " brother Turner has been 
near to death but through mercy is revived, and so is our pastor 
Gould." The letter indicates that they are now at liberty, but 
that the persecution is being stirred up again, etc. 

Upon the death of Gov. Bellingham, December 7, 1672, active 
hostilities ceased, and the election of John Leverett as governor 
in May, 1673, secured them from public persecution so long as 
he remained in office. 

This digression may be justified by Capt. Turner's connection 
with it, and by its evidence of the relations of magistrates, 
deputies and people in the times just preceding the Indian war. 
Capt. Turner was a tailor by trade, and he plied that vocation 
in Boston during these years, 1664-75. 

Mr. Backus, in the first volume of his history of the Baptists, 
page 335, has a note, of which he says : " The copy of Mr. Rus- 
sell's Narrative that I am favored with came out of his (i.e. Mr. 
Callender's) family, and in it is a manuscript note in the margin, 
against Mr. Russell's account of Mr. Turner, which says : " 

In the beginning of the war, William Turner gathered a company of 
volunteers, but was denied a commission and discouraged, because the 
chief of the company were Anabaptists. Afterwards, when the war 
grew more general and destructive, and the country in very great dis- 
tress, having divers towns burnt, and many men slain, then he was 
desired to accept a commission. He complained it was too late, his 
men on whom he could confide being scattered ; however, was moved 
to accept. 

I have found no official record or notice of the organization of 
Capt. Turner's company, but below are his own official lists, the 
first taken at Medfield on February 22d (the next day after the 
partial destruction of that town), and he reports this list of the 
company, " as they came out of Boston," showing February 21st 
as the most probable date of his marching. It is evident that his 
men were not all volunteers, as many were "cleared" upon their 



CAPT. TURNER AT NORTHAMPTON. 235 

arrival at Marlborough, and some were on the list of " impressed " 
men. 

From Medfield his company marched to Marlborough, whither 
all the English troops were now ordered for the organization of 
the army about to take the field. The lists of the company are 
below and explain themselves, and also show that the army 
marched from Marlborough, February 29th, to Quabaog (Brook- 
field), and thence, on March 4th. The movements of the army 
under Major Savage are related above. Capt. Turner received 
at Marlborough, from the companies of Capts. Wadsworth and 
Reynolds, thirty-five men, giving him about eighty in his com- 
pany. March 4th, Capt. Turner marched from Quabaog with a 
company of seventy men, as he left ten men at that garrison on 
that day. 

It will be remembered that on the retreat of the Narragansets 
in January, many of them were scattered among the Nipmucks 
in various places, and two large bodies of these, mingled with 
local tribes, were gathered, one at Meminimisset (the chief town 
and stronghold of the Nipmucks) and another near "Wachuset 
Hill." At Quabaog the army was reinforced by the Connecticut 
companies under Major Treat, and, after several days spent in 
vain search for the Indians, at last struck the trail of a large body 
of the enemy, but too late to prevent their escape beyond the 
Paquayag River, to which our cavalry pursued them. Thus the 
army was led to pass by undisturbed, and leave behind it a great 
body of the enemy at Wachuset. This was contrary to their 
purpose and against the urgent advice of their friendly Indian 
scouts, but it seemed best to their commanders (after they had 
been led so far from Quabaog, and with such large numbers of 
the Indians driven before them, who might form a junction with 
the western Indians and fall upon the valley plantations at once) 
to march forward to the towns upon the River, where they arrived 
on March 8th. Major Savage found that there were indications 
of large numbers of Indians in the vicinity, and immediately dis- 
posed his forces for the defence of the several towns. Capt. 
Turner was sent across the river to Northampton for the defence 
of that town. The inhabitants had placed " palisadoes " about 
their village " for their better security," and two companies of 
Connecticut men under Major Treat joined Capt. Turner's com- 
pany probably on the 13th, as the Indians were amazed to find 
the town full of English soldiers, when, early in the morning 
of March 14th, they made a vigorous and combined assault. 
Gathering about the town in the darkness undiscovered, and 
breaking through the palisades in three places, they crept in and 
close about the houses ; and there seem to have been no guards or 
night-watch, and the first intimation of the enemies' presence was 
their furious attack upon several houses. They succeeded in 
setting fire to ten before the sleeping garrison could be roused ; 



236 KING Philip's war. 

but when the Indians realized their situation, and found them- 
selves confronted with three strong companies instead of a 
defenceless hamlet, they turned and rushed headlong to the 
breaches they had made in the palisades, panic-stricken to find 
themselves in a trap, and in their frantic crowding to get out 
were confronted with the troops, and many were shot down by 
ours, at the gaps, inside. Eleven of their dead were left. Five 
of the English known to have been killed were Robert Bartlett, 
Thomas Holton, and Mary Earle of Northampton, James 
McRenell (or Macranell) and Increas Whetstone of Capt. 
Turner's company. The following extract from a letter of Rev. 
John Russell, of Hadley, is of interest here. It is dated at 
Hadley, March 16th, 1675-6: 

Although the Lord hath granted us an interval! of quiet this winter 
yet since y^ coming on of y* Spring the warr here is renewed with more 
strength and violence here than in any other part while we remaine for 
as we had intellegence by the captain who is returned (commonly called 
" Speckled Tom "), Philip intended with his whole power to come upon 
these Towns and taking them to make his planting place a fort this 
year at Deerfield so on y^ 14* instant the enemy to the number of a 
1000** as judged made a sudden and violent iruption upon Northampton 
brake through their works in three places & had in reason taken the 
whole Town had not Providence so ordered it y' Maj' Treate was come 
in with his men within y^ night y' same evening yet they burned five 
houses and five barns, one within the fortification, slew five persons 
wounded five. There are s** to be found about a dozen of the enemy 
slain. Here allso above Deerfield a few miles is the great place of 
their fishing w'^ must be expected to afford them their provisions for 
the yere. So that the swarme of them being here and like to continue 
here we must look to f eele their utmost rage except the Lord be pleased 
to breake their power. My desire is we may be willing to do or suffer 
live or dy ; remaine in or be driven out from o'' habitations as the Lord 
o"" God would have us and as may be Couducible to y* glory of his 
name and y* publike weale of his people, etc. etc. 

The Indians, meeting this unexpected repulse at Northampton, 
hastened away for an assault upon Hatfield, but finding it also 
defended by Capt. Mosely and his men, they hastily withdrew 
and again attempted to surprise Northampton, hoping, it is 
likely, that the vigilance of the English was relaxed, or a part of 
the troops were drawn off, but finding a ready reception awaiting, 
they retired completely foiled of what was expected to be an easy 
prey. With the exception of an attack upon Westfield a short 
time after, the killing of Moses Cook and Clement Bates, and the 
assault of a small party upon the people of Longmeadow going to 
Springfield to attend church, there was no further demonstration 
in force while the army remained. In the mean time these dis- 
asters and their extreme want of food began to cause disaffection 



MART turner's PETITION. 237 

among the local tribes who had no immediate quarrel against the 
English, and to this was added the discouraging fact of the capt- 
ure and death of Canonchet, chief of the Narragansets, and the 
real leader, now, of the confederated tribes. The English took 
advantage of this discouragement and opened negotiations look- 
ing to a peace, while a price was offered for the head of Philip, 
who promptly retired out of harm's way. 

Capt. Turner and his company were engaged at Northampton 
and the neighboring towns in guarding and fortifying against the 
expected attack of the great body of Indians gathered in the 
vicinity, our troops as well as those of Connecticut being under 
the general command of Majoi* Savage, for an account of whose 
operations and the condition of affairs at this time, see Chap. IV. 
of this volume, a very interesting letter of the Council to Mr. 
Savage, dated April 1st. In accordance with these instructions 
Major Savage marched home with most of the soldiers that came 
with him, leaving Capt. Turner in charge of the defence of these 
towns in Captain Poole's place, and leaving him one hundred 
and fifty-one men in regular service. These were mostly single 
men, and very largely boys and servants, or apprentices. 

These troops were designed for the defence of the towns, and 
were for garrison duty only. Hadley was made headquarters, 
and a garrison of fifty-one men was detailed there. Forty-five 
were stationed at Hatfield, nine were sent to Springfield, and 
forty-six at Northampton. The following petition and letter 
explain themselves : 

Petition of Mrs. Mary Turner. 

To the Honoured Gouvernour and Councill Now Assembled in Boston. 

The Humble petition of Mary Turner wife to W" Turner now in the 
Service of the Country Under Comand of your Honours, Humbly 
Sheweth, ' 

That whereas your poor petitioners husband Voluntarily & frely 
offered him selfe unto & now Is In your Service far from home 
together with his sou & servants leaving onely one servant with me 
which God by his Provideuce hath bereaved me off soe that I Am at 
present wholy Almost left destitute of maintenance for myselfe which 
calls uppon me to crave of your honours Consideration of my present 
Condition And order the payment to me of the whole or whatt part 
your honours think fitt of wages due for the time my husband son & 
sers^ants have bene In the Service of the Country which shall further 
Ingage your poor petitioner to pray for As In duty Am Bound : the 
future peace & prosperity of your honours & All the people of God In 
this poor Country. Mary Turner. 

In Ans'' to the petion, It is ordered that the Committee of the Army 
forthwith order the petitioner be payd Seven pounds on y" Account 
exprest therein. 

Dated at Boston the 24"^ of ApriU 1676 

By y^ Council EdV* Rawson, See*^. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 225. 



238 KING Philip's war. 

Letter of Capt. William Turner. 
Honored Sirs. 

Since the army marcht hence under the Command of major general 
Savage and left mee here by order from your honours : I have not had 
any thing worth sending downe A post : And now having an opportu- 
nity I thought meete to acquaint your honours that the souldiers here 
are in greate distresse for want of clothing both Linen and Woollen : 
So I desired the Commissaries here to send down to quabouge to see if 
there any supplies : So they brought from thence A few Shirts Stock- 
ings Shoes and drawers : but not an eighth of what wee want : So that 
I shall beseech your honours to take some speedy Course for a supply 
to be sent to the Commissaries here for thei [r] [rele] eaf e : here will 

want much as the enclosed note will show you : , forasmuch as 

it hath pleased your honours to commit the care of [these] townes to 
my charge : So 1 shall beseech your honours that my [m]fe may have 
my wages due to mee for to supply the wants of my family : for 
whome I am bound by the lawes of god and nature to make provision : 
And I should be glad if there might be some fitter person found for 
this imployment : for I much doubt my weaknes of body and my often 
infirmities will hardly Sufer mee to doe my duty as I ought in this 
imployment : And it would grieve me to be negligent in anything that 
might be for the good of this yeare country in this day of their dis- 
tress : Therefore shal leave it to your honours Consideration : whether 
some other man may not be fitter to be imployed in this place by 
reason of my weaknes of body : 1 have here sent you those Lists of 
my Company as they came from boston and afterwards from marlbo- 
rough as they Continued to the seventh instant : also an account from 
the Commissary of northamton to that day : I have also sent A List of 
those Left the 7* instant under my Command in these 3 townes : most 
of them having beene here long before my time : Thus hoping your 
honours will Consider so as to send some speedy supply for the soul- 
diers here and also order something for the supply of my family in my 
absence : I shall beg the Lord to be your Counsellour and guide in this 
time of distracktion and sore trouble : And remaine yours to serve 
your honours to the uttmost of my power wherein I may. 

Will: Turner. 

I beseech your honours deliver these lists to whome they may con- 
cerne : And command the souldiers to make hast backe to their quar- 
ters : 

Your honours since y*^ close of this there is come in a young man 
taken from Springfield at the beginning of last month who informes 
that the enemy is drawing up all their forces towards these townes : 
and their head quarters to be at (Deere) field alias pegunkugg. 

Dated 25 April, 1676. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 228. 

Following are the lists referred to in the letter. The first 
shows the organization of his company until April 7th; the 
second list shows the disposal of his force for the defence of the 

towns up to April 25th. 



CAPT. TURNER'S LISTS. 



239 



A List of Capt. "William Turner's men as they came from Boston and 
taken at Medfield 1675-6. 

William Turner, Capt. 
Edward Drinker, Lieut. 
William Parsons, ) ., 
Ezekiel Gilman, | ^^m^^^^^' 
Phellip Squire, "^ 
Thomas Elliot, ^ „ 

Thomas Barnard, f^°^^^«^^^- 
James Knott, J 



Jonathan Orris 
W" Turner jr. 
Ephraim Roper 
Jo" Sawdy 
Richard Cheevers 
Josiah Man 
Elias Tyffe 
Robert Scares 
Sam" Rawlins 
Samuel Brisantine 
Isaiah Toy 
Roger Jones 



James Verin 
Thomas Chard 
Henry Dawson 
Samuel Davies 
Mark Wood 
Robert Miller 
Jo" Cunneball 
Richard Staines 
Joseph Gallop 
Jo" Roberts 
Hoo: Steward 
James Burges 



Matthias Smith 
Samuel Gallop 
Barthol. Whittwell 
Samuel Judkins 
Richard Knight 
Joseph Preist 
Peaceful Clarke 
Henery Kerby 
Edward Wright 
Phellip Jessop 
Thomas Skinner, Clerk 



John Newton, cleared by the Councill at Medfield. 
Nathan Addams, sick at Medfield. 
Robert Briant, wounded at Dedham. 

A List of them Cleared at Marlborough. 



Henry Timberleggs, 

Ensigne 
William Wade 
Clement Hamblinge 
Jacob Hanson 
Jo" Brackenbery 
Nathaniel Badcock 



Jo" Carthew 
Thomas Bendy 
Jo" Smith 
Joseph Dindy 
Amos .... 
Henerie Wright 



Samuell Holmes 
James Parker 
ffearnott Shaw 
Will™ Robbins 
James Travis 
Jo" Jay 



This is a true List of such as came out of Boston w**" me as witnesse 
my hand ffeb. the 22^ 1675-6. Will: Turner. 

Another list follows upon the same paper and is headed, " A 
List of men as they came from Marlborough ffeb; 29, '75-6." 
This list is identical with the one above except that Edward 
Crick (Creek) is Ensign in place of Henry Timberleggs (Tim- 
berlake) cleared as above. 



In the same paper also the following : 

Rec** these men whose names follow, from Captaine Wadsworth & fro'. 
Capt. Reynolds. 

Phillip Mattoone, for whome I tooke in exchange John Thropp at 
Hampton. 

Jo" Newman made Corporall 17 March 75-6. 



240 



KING PHILIP'S WAB. 



John Sympole 
Jo° Chappie 
Henery Beresford 
James Burnell 
Jo" Walker 
Joseph Lamson 
Joseph Bickner 
William Clow 
William Twing 
Joseph Lyon 
Richard Francis 
William Hartford 



Solomon Lowd 
William Bosway 
John Glide 
Josiah Lane 
James Hewes 
Jonath: Dunninge 
William Jaques 
William Manley 
George Ripley 
Phill: Sandy 
Diggory Sargent 



Jo'* Broughton 
Jo° Rolestone 
William Jemmison 
Edward Samson 
John Avis 
Joseph Griffin 
Henery Smith 
Sam" Phesy (Vesey) 
Joseph Bateman 
James Machrenell kild 
at Hampton March 14*'' 



These were left at Quabaug the 4"* of March 1675-6. 
Henery Pellington Tho: Brisanton Thomas Chapman 

David Crouter Thomas Stacy Augustine John 

John Gromwell Charles Duckworth James Callen 

Richard Sutton 

The Rest continued under my Command till y^ 7^^ of Aprill att 
which time 4 were left in Hadly by order of y* Councell and part of 
the Companie marched under the conduct ofif Lieut. Drinker with Maj. 
Savage, some by order staying with me. Will: Turner. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 158. 



A Liste off Souldjers uud'' the Command off Capt. WilP 
the 7* of ApriU 1676 



Turner ffro. 



Hadley Souldjers : Jo° Chamberlin 
Capt. William Turner Jo° Luddon 
Serg' John Throppe John Presson 
Serg* John Newman Jo° Bill 
Corp' Joseph HartshorneWill'" Chubb 
Corp' Robert Sympson Moses Morgan 



W™ Armes 
John Strowbridge 
Sam'' Sybly 
Thomas Jones 
Robert Coates 
David Hartshorne 
Benj. Poole 
John Uppum 
Simon Grover 
Stephen Grover 
John Pratt 
Thomas Briant 
Triall Newbury 
Josuah Phillips 
Benjamin Chamb'"lin 
John Rolestone 
John Longbury 
John ffoster 
John Wattson 



Roger Jones 

Jo"* Wiseman 

Phillip Jessop 

Joseph Griffin 

Josiah Man 

Thomas Chard 

John Sheapheard 

Ephraim Roper 

Nicholas Duerell 

Phellep Cattlin 

Joseph Chamb'lin 

Richard Snodin 

Joseph Smith 

Joseph Bodman 

JohnChapple, i)rwmmer John Ashdowne 

William Hunt John Cooke 

Samu" Tyly John Hix 

James Barrell John Salter 

William Hartforde Jeremiah Cloather 



William Torner 

Souldjers sent to the 
Mill. 
Robert Scares 
Sam" Rawlins 
John Sawdy 
Jonathan Dunninge 
Samuell Davies 
John fflsher 
Thomas Cobbett 
Thomas Sympkms 
Richard Lever 

Hampton Souldjers 
Serg' Esaiah Toy 
Corp" John WUde 
John Smith 
John Babson 
John Whiterage 



FIGHT AT " turner's FALLS. 



241 



John Chaplin 
John Belcher 
John Stukely 
John Boyde 
John Walker 
John Roberts 
Martin Smith 
Abraham Shaw- 
Thomas Roberts 
Richard Hudson 
Samuel Ransford 
Joseph ffowler 
Solomon Lowde 
William Jaques 
Jacob Burton 
William Smith 
Nicholas Mason 
Phellip Mattoon 
Samuel Soutch 
Thomas Lyon 
Robert Price 
Thomas Poore 
Peter Bushrodd 
Samuel Phesy 
William Willis 
Thomas Harris 
George Bewly 
William Howard 
Phellip Lewes 
Will'" Hopkins 
Mass. Archives, 



Ephraim Beeres John Arnold 

Richard Bever Simon Williams 

John ffiske,left wounded Daniel Clow 
by Capt. Lathroppe Edward Bishoppe 



Hattfielde Souldjers 
Serg' Robert Bardwell 
Corp" Samuell Laine 
Benjamin Barrett 
Hugh Goliko 
Anthony Baker 
Jo° Largin 
Richard Staines 
Nicholas Gray 
Jo° Allen 
Richard Smith 
William Elhott 
Jo° Wilkins 
John Jones 
Thomas Staines 
Gilbert fforsith 
Benjamin Lathroppe 
Robert Dawes 
Hugh Pike 
Daniel Stearlin 
John Verin 
Jonathan Nichols 
James Verin 
John Downinge 
Joseph Moring 
Vol. 68, p. 212. 



Henry Raynor 
Samuell Neale 
Jeffery Jeffers 
Hugh Price 
Archebold fforest 
Jabesh Duncan 
John Hughes 
William Batt 
Wallter Hixon 
Jabesh Musgrove 
Matthew Groves 
Anthony Ravenscraft 
James Molt 

Sent to Springfield 
Serg' Roger Prosser 
Ely Crow 
Will'" Briggs 
Jeremiah Norcrosse 
Will™ Mitchell 
Timothy ffroglie 
Onesephorus Stanly 
WUliam Crane 
Henery Willis 

Richard ffrancis. Clerk. 



The last list shows the organization of Capt. Turner's force 
until 

THE "FALLS FIGHT," MAY 19, 1676. 

The disposal of Capt. Turner's forces, from April 7th up to the 
25th, is indicated in the above letter. In the closing clause it 
will be noticed that he speaks of the news which a young man 
brings in just before he sends the letter away. This was prob- 
ably John Gilbert, who with Edward Stebbins had been taken 
captive at Springfield about a month before and carried up the 
river by the Indians, where Mrs. Rowlandson, in her narrative, 
speaks of meeting him. Capt. Turner makes note of his infor- 
mation to the effect that the Indians are gathering in great 
numbers about these towns. Mr. Hubbard, on the other hand, 
speaks of two "English lads," who give information of the 
unguarded state of the Indians, referring doubtless to Gilbert 
and Stebbins above mentioned, but confusing with theirs the 
testimony of another captive named Thomas Reed, who escaped 
and came in some weeks later. Some idea of the state of feeling 



242 KING Philip's wab. 

among the English inhabitants and soldiers may be gained from 
this letter of some of the chief actors at the front. 

Letter of Rev. John Russell, Capt. Turner and others to the 
General Court: 

Hadly Ap' 29, 1676 
Right Worp'f" 

This morning we received from Hartford these inclosed w'='^ we 
were desired to post away; and have accordingly effected with all 
speed. Its matter of thankfulnesse and incouragement to hear that 
the Lord is in any place going forth w* o"' armies ; and delivering o' 
enemies into o"" hands. 

We hope if o'' sins hinder not it is a pledge of future & greater m'^''^. 
It is strange to see how much spirit (more than formerly) appears in 
our men to be out against the enemy. A great part of the inhabitants 
here would our committees of militia but permitt ; would be going 
forth : They are daily moving for it and would fain have liberty to be 
going forth this night. The enemy is now come so near us, that we 
count we might go forth in the evening, and come upon them in the 
darkness of the same night. We understand from Hartford some 
inclination to allow some volunteers to come from them up hither, 
should that be I doubt not but many of o" would joyne w"^ them. It 
is the generall voyce of the people here y' now is the time to distresse 
the enemy ; and that could we drive them from their fishing and keep 
out though but lesser parties against them famine would subdue them. 
All intelligence give us cause to hope that the Mohawks do still retain 
their old friendship for us and enmity against our enemies. Some 
proofe of it they have of late in those they slew higher up this River. 
Two of whom as the Indian messengers relate were of o' known 
Indians ; and one a Quabaog Indian. And further proof its thought 
they would soon give ; were the obstructions (y' some English have or 
may putt in their way) removed and the remembrance of the ancient 
amity and good terms between them and these colonies renewed by 
some letters & if it might be by some English messengers. We would 
not tho. out so good an end as love and zeale for the weal publique, 
that we should be transported beyond o'' line. We ci'ave pardon for 
©"■ reaching so farr, and with many prayers do desire to beseech the 
father of mercies and God of all counsell to direct you in the right 
way ; & so praying we remaine 

S"' Your Worships most Humble & devoted Serv'" 

John Russell John Lyman 

Will: Turner Isack Graves 

David Wilton John King 

Samuel Smith Daniel Warner 

From a diligent study of all available authorities, from all 
accessible sources, supplemented by many new hints and evi- 
dences afforded by documents preserved in the State Archives 
and elsewhere, I think the following is a fairly accurate account 



CONDITION OF THE INDIANS, MAY, 1676. 243 

of the campaign of Capt. Turner in May, 1676, closing with the 
Falls Fight on the 18th. 

After the withdrawal of the army under Major Savage, the 
Indians seem to have relaxed much of their vigilance, watching 
mainly for opportunities for plunder wherever the English became 
careless and exposed themselves or cattle to the chance of capt- 
ure. In the mean time the situation of the Indians was becom- 
ing desperate. The Narragansets with their allies and many of 
the Wampanoags had been forced in an almost destitute condi- 
tion upon the Nipmuck and Pocomtuck tribes for support. 
These unwonted numbers soon exhausted the never abundant 
resources of the local tribes, and when Philip's promises of a 
speedy victory over all the river towns with plunder of their 
goods were not realized, when the great chieftain Canonchet was 
taken and slain, and having met the repulses at Northampton and 
Hatfield, they were reduced almost to starvation, these river and 
northern Indians began to realize the folly of their too ready 
alliance with Philip, and put themselves into communication 
with the authorities at Connecticut, either with a view to real 
peace, or for the purpose of gaining time by a pretence of peace- 
ful negotiations ; at any rate the English entered into the nego- 
tiations with great zeal, and sought to turn the home tribes 
against Philip and the Narragansets. A price was set upon 
Philip's head, whereupon that chieftain betook himself with his 
faithful followers to safer solitudes up the river ; and now, pend- 
ing these negotiations, the Indians gathered to the fishing places 
upon the river in large numbers, hoping here to supply their 
wants and secure a stock of provisions till they could accomplish 
the destruction of the towns and secure the corn and cattle of 
the English. Knowing that the garrisons were small, and feeling 
secure from attack both by numbers and distance, they grew 
careless in sending scouts or placing guards. They had no sus- 
picion of the growing resolution of the English to take the offen- 
sive, nor any information of their preparations. A large body of 
the Indians were gathered near the " Upper Falls " of the Con- 
necticut, divided into several parties, one of which was located 
on the high ground on the right bank at the head of the Fall, 
another on the opposite bank, and a third at what is known now 
as " Smead's Island," about a mile below, and all were intent 
upon their fishing. Hearing, however, that the English had 
turned some of their cattle out into Hatfield meadows, a detach- 
ment was sent out upon May 12th, and succeeded in " stamped- 
ing " about seventy head of these cattle, and driving them safely 
into the woods. This fresh outrage was carried out with impu- 
nity, and so enraged the English that they urged to be led out 
against their enemies at once, and when Reed, above mentioned, 
came in on May 15th, and disclosed the carelessness of the 
Indians, it was resolved to wait no longer, but to gather the 



244 KING Philip's war. 

forces and strike a blow, and on that day Rev. John Russell 
writes a letter to the Council at Connecticut, informing them of 
their situation and giving general news. He speaks of their 
" visitation " by the epidemic distemper or malignant cold which 
had prevailed at Connecticut (and of which Mr. Mather wrote 
that he could not hear of a family in New England that wholly 
escaped) ; of the peaceful election at Boston on May 3d, and the 
return of Mrs. Rowlandson from captivity on that day, and letters 
from Philip, the " Old Queen " and other sachems, proposing 
terms of peace. He gives the news from Europe, the sufferings 
of non-conformists, and of a great naval battle between the 
French and Dutch. Only an extract is here given, being the 
closing part which relates to the Indian war. The letter is dated 
Hadley, May 15th. The postscript is by the military officers. 

. . . This morning about sunrise came into Hatfield one 
Thomas Reede a soldier who was taken captive when Deacon Good- 
man was slain. He relates that they are now planting atDeerfield and 
have been so these three or four days or more, saith further that they 
dwell at the Falls on both sides the river, are a considerable number, 
yet most of them old men and women. He cannot judge that there 
are on both sides of the river above 60 or 70 fighting-men. They are 
secure and scornful, boasting of great things they have done and will 
do. There is Thomas Fames his daughter and child hardly used ; one 
or two belonging to Medfield and I think two children belonging to 
Lancaster. The night before last they came down to Hatfield upper 
meadow, and have driven away many horses and cattle to the number 
of fourscore and upwards as they judge. Many of these this man saw 
in Deerfield meadow, and found the bars put up to keep them in. This 
being the state of things, we think the Lord calls us to make some 
trial what may be done against them suddenly without further delay ; 
and therefore the concurring resolution of men here seems to be to go 
out against them tomorrow night, so as to be with them, the Lord 
assisting, before break of day. We need guidance and help from 
heaven. We humbly beg your prayers, advice and help if it may be. 
And therewith committing you to the guidance and blessing of the 
most High, Remain Your Worship's in all humble service. 

John Russell. 

Although this man speaks of their number as he judgeth yet they 
may be many more, for we perceive their number varies, and they are 
going and coming, so that there is no trust to his guess. 

William Turner, 
John Lyman, 
Isaac Graves. 

Preparations had been completed for several days, and the men, 
gathered from the inhabitants and soldiers of the several towns 
and garrisons, were appointed to meet at Hatfield at the summons 
of the commander. Day after day passed, while they waited 
impatiently the company which Connecticut authorities had 



THE MARCH AGAINST THE INDIANS. 245 

ordered to march to their assistance. These, delayed in turn hy 
the failure of the Sachems to appear at a promised meeting, and 
fearing to make any hostile movement while English captives 
were held by the Indians, did not move, and so on May 18th Capt. 
Turner gathered all his available force at Hatfield, numbering up- 
wards of one hundred and fifty rank and file. Of the garrison 
soldiers I think only volunteers were taken in this expedition, as 
it would not be safe to weaken the garrison by withdrawing a 
large number of the men away from the defence of the towns, 
which was their proper service. A comparison of the lists below 
will show that a very small number of eastern soldiers are among 
the claimants, though the list of killed has many names not rep- 
resented there. A very large part of Capt. Turner's original com- 
pany had marched home to Boston on April 7th, leaving him with 
a company of single men, boys and servants, selected from Major 
Savage's forces, for garrison duty. Of this expedition the offi- 
cers were William Turner, Captain ; Samuel Holyoke, Lieut. ; 
Isaiah Toy (or Tay) and John Lyman, Ensigns ; Rev. Hope Ath- 
erton, Chaplain ; John Dickinson and Joseph Kellogg, Sergeants ; 
Experience Hinsdell and Benjamin Wait were guides. 

This company of volunteers, thus officered, and more than one 
half inhabitants of the several river towns, mounted upon their 
own horses, and armed as each might be able, or from the gar- 
risons, took up the line of march in the evening of May 18th, 
from Hatfield towards the Falls, twenty miles away, through the 
woods. Taking their way northward through Hatfield meadows 
and on by the road where both Lathrop and Beers had met dis- 
aster and death, past the ruins of Deerfield, they crossed the river 
at the northerly part of the meadow (a late high authority says 
"at the mouth of Sheldon's brook"), and thus eluded the 
Indian outpost stationed at a place "now called Cheapside," to 
guard the usual place of crossing. These Indians, it is said, over- 
heard the crossing of the troops and turned out with torches, and 
examined the usual ford, but finding no traces there and hearing 
no further disturbance, concluded that the noise was made by 
moose, crossing, and so went back to their sleep. A heavy- 
thunder shower during the night greatly aided the secrecy of the 
march, while it drove the Indians to their wigwams and pre- 
vented any suspicion of an attack. This danger safely passed, 
the troops rode forward through Greenfield meadow, and, crossing 
Green river " at the mouth of Ash-swamp brook to the eastward, 
skirting the great swamp " (says Mr. Sheldon), they at length, 
about daybreak, reached the high land just south of Mount 
Adams, where the men dismounted, and leaving the horses under 
a small guard, pushed on through Fall river and up a steep hill, 
and halted and silently awaited daylight upon the slope (now on 
the farm of Mr. Stoughton, it is said), above the sleeping Indian 
camp. Here all was wrapped in profound sleep. It is said a 



246 KING Philip's war. 

great feast had been celebrated the night before by the Indians, 
at which they had gorged themselves with fresh salmon from the 
river, and beef and new milk from the Hatfield cattle. Not a 
guard had been set, and no precaution had been made, so secure 
were they and unsuspicious of an English raid. And now with 
advancing daylight the sturdy settlers gather silently down and 
about their unconscious foes, to whom the first warning of danger 
was the crashing of a hundred muskets, dealing death in at their 
wigwam doors. Many were killed at the first fire, and scarcely a 
show of resistance was made. The savages who escaped the first 
fire were terrified at the thought that their old enemy was upon 
them, and fled towards the river, yelling " Mohawks ! Mohawks ! " 
and wildly threw themselves into the canoes along the banks, 
but many of these, overcrowding the canoes, were thrown into 
the river and carried over the falls to certain death ; others were 
shot in attempting to reach the other side ; others were chased to 
the shelving rocks along the banks and there shot down. It is 
said that Capt. Holyoke there despatched five with his own hand. 
Very few of the Indians escaped, and their loss was computed by 
contemporary writers at three hundred. One only of the English 
was killed, and he by mistake, by one of his comrades, and an- 
other was wounded in this attack. The soldiers burned all the 
wigwams and their contents, captured the tools of the Indian 
blacksmiths who had set up two forges for mending arms, and 
threw " two great Piggs of lead (intended for making bullets) 
into the river." But while this was being accomplished, the 
several larger bodies of Indians upon the river above and below 
rallied, and from various quarters gathered in and about the 
English. A small party as decoys showed themselves crossing 
the river above, and succeeded in drawing a portion of our force 
away from the main body only to meet a large force and to re- 
gain the command with difiiculty. Capt. Turner, enfeebled as he 
was by his disease, collected and drew off his troops towards the 
horses, where the guards were about this time attacked by the 
enemy, who hastily withdrew at the coming of the main body. 
Mounting their horses, the English began the march for Hatfield. 
The Indians in increasing numbers gathered upon flank and rear. 
Capt. Turner led the van, though so weak from long sickness as 
scarcely able to manage his horse. The intrepid Capt. Holyoke 
commanded the rear guard, but in effect conducted the retreat. 
The Indians advanced upon the left and rear, and several sharp 
skirmishes ensued while they tried to separate the rear guard 
from the main. Once Capt. Holyoke's horse was shot down, and 
he narrowly escaped capture by the Indians, who rushed forward 
to seize him, by shooting down the foremost with his pistols, till 
his men came to his aid. On the left of the line of march, nearly 
all the way to Green river, was a swamp in which the Indians 
found safe cover. A rumor was started (by an escaped captive, 



SLAIN AT THE " FALLS FIGHT.' 



247 



it is said) that Philip with a thousand warriors was at hand, and 
a panic ensued. The guides differed as to the course, and some 
following one and some another, disorder prevailed, and the com- 
mand was broken up. Two parties leaving the main body were 
cut off and lost. Capt. Turner pushed forward with the advance 
as far as Green river, and was shot by the Indians while crossing 
the stream, near the mouth of the brook upon which afterwards 
stood " Nash's " Mill. His body was found near the place by a 
scouting party a short time afterwards. 

The whole command now devolved upon Capt. Holyoke, who 
led his shattered force, fighting every rod of the way, to the south 
side of Deerfield meadow to the place known as the " Bars." 
That the retreat did not end in a general massacre is doubtless 
due to the skill and bravery of Capt. Holyoke in keeping the 
main body together, and in protecting flank and rear while push- 
ing forward to avoid the chance of ambuscades. As it was, they 
found, on arriving at Hatfield, that some forty-five or more of 
their men were missing. Rev. Mr. Russell's letter of May 22d 
gives some account of the losses, and says that six of the missing 
have come in, reducing the number of the lost to thirty-eight or 
thirty-nine. Of the Indian losses he gives the report of Sergt. 
Bardwell that he counted upwards of one hundred in and about 
the wigwams and along the river banks, and the testimony of 
William Drew and others that they counted some " six-score and 
ten." " Hence we cannot but judge that there were above 200 
of them slain." 

Of the slain of our soldiers the following list is taken from the 
best available authorities. The battle and the leader are perpetu- 
ated in the name " Turner's Falls," applied to the scene of the 
fight. 



Capt. WiUiam Turner, Boston. 
Serg' John Dickinson, Hatfield. 
William Allis, " 

John Colfax, " 

Samuel Gillet, " 

Experience Hinsdell, Hadley. 
John Church, " 

Samuel Crow, " 

Thomas Elgar, " 

Isaac Harrison, " 

John Taylor, Hadley. 
Edward Hodgman, Springfield. 
George Hewes, " 

Joseph Pike, " 

James Bennet, Northampton. 
John Miller, " 

John Walker, " 

Jabez Duncan, Worcester. 
John Ashdowne, Weymouth. 

The residence of the last thirteen 



Nathaniel Sutliff, Deerfield. 
John Hadlock, Roxbury. 
Samuel Veze, Braintree. 
Josiah Mann, Boston. 
John Whitteridge, Salem. 
George Buckley. 
Jacob Burton. 
John Foster. 
Joseph Fowler. 
Peter Gerin. 
John Langbury. 
Thomas Lyon. 
Samuel Rainsford. 
Thomas Roberts. 
George Ruggles. 
John Symms. 
John Watson. 
William Howard. 

not known. 



248 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



The two servants mentioned in the following petition were 
doubtless apprentices whose service was needed by widow Turner 
about the Captain's business, now left to her management. 
Buckman (or Bucknam) may have been of Charlestown, son of 
William. His name appears in a later ledger of John Hull, and 
John Sawdy was probably son of John of Boston. 

To the Honourable Gouvener And Councill Now Assembled In Boston. 
The Humble petition of Mary Turnor 

Humbly showeth that whereas your poor petitioner hath lost her 
husband in the Services of the Country Ingaging Against the Barbarious 
& Cruell Heathen the Enemy thereof And having now still two servants 
named John Sawdy And Samuell Buckman who went out with him in 
the Country's service att hadley my widowhood estate & Condition for 
want of Convenient supply of maintenances makes me Bold to supli- 
cate your honours for An order for theire Releas & discharge from the 
place to which att present they do belong & that your honours will so 
far Consider my Condition as to order me pay for whatt Is la your 
honours Judgment my Just : & Consider me In Respect of the Loss of 
my Husband as your honours shall see mette which shall further 
Ingage your poor petitioner to pray for your hon°" & this Countries 
peace & prosperity. 

[Endorsed] — Mrs. Turners petition, 26 June 1676. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 21. 



Soldiers credited under Capt. William Turner : 
April 24'^ 1676. 
John Cunneball ' 

June 24'^ 1676. 



John Coniball 
John Broughton 
Samuel Judkins 
Isaiah Toy 
William Parsons 
Joseph Gallop 
William Jameson 
James Knott 
Matthias Smith 
William Clough 
Edward Wright 
Joseph Lamson 
Joseph Bicknell 
William Turner 
Joseph Priest 
Henry Dason 
Thomas Barnard 
Philip Squire 
Ephraim Roper 
Joseph Bateman 



01 


04 00 


02 04 06 


02 


10 


06 


02 


04 


06 


02 


04 


06 


05 


11 


00 


02 


10 


06 


02 


12 


00 


02 


02 


10 


02 


08 


10 


02 


14 00 1 


01 


16 


00 


01 


16 


00 


03 


18 


00 


02 


04 


06 


02 


04 


06 


02 


12 


00 


01 


08 


00 


04 


10 


10 


01 


16 


10 



Edward Drinker 05 11 06 

Samuel Holmes 00 08 06 

Samuel Davis 01 17 08 

Richard Cheever 03 12 10 

Robert Seares 03 06 00 
WUliam Turner, Capt. 07 00 00 

Ezekiel Gilman 03 08 00 

Hoo Steward 02 04 06 

Robert Bryan 02 04 06 

Elias Stiff 02 04 06 

Henry Beresford 02 10 06 

Jonathan Orris 02 04 06 
Edward Creek ") 

Henry Finch [ 10 02 00 
John Avis ) 

Henry Kerby 02 04 06 

Thomas Elliott 02 12 00 

Henry Wright 00 06 00 
Bartholomew Whitwell 02 04 06 

Thomas Skinner 03 04 09 

Richard Knight 02 04 06 

Percivah Clark 02 04 06 

Mark Wood 02 04 06 



SOLDIERS IN THE "FALLS FIGHT.' 



249 



July 24 1676. 
Thomas Brissenden 04 16 00 

John Newman 05 03 09 

John Simple 02 04 06 

August 24'^ 1676. 
William Turner, Capt. 06 06 06 
Samuel Gallop 02 03 08 

Philip Jessop 03 13 08 

William Turner 05 08 06 



John Sherly 05 14 00 

Edward Samson 01 17 08 

Josiah Mann 03 13 08 

John Smith 00 10 02 

Sept. 23* 1676. 

Thomas Bond GO 06 00 

Thomas Lyon 10 04 00 

Roger Jones 08 08 00 



The credits above mostly represent those soldiers who served 
under Capt. Turner from February 20th until April 7th, and the 
sum .£02 04s. 06d. covers the time until their arrival home, 
about seven weeks and five days from their marching away. 
After April 7th, those of his soldiers who remained in the West 
received credit at the several garrisons at which they were 
located, and their names will appear in that connection ; and this 
is the reason that so few who were in the "Falls Fight" are 
credited as serving under Capt. Turner. After his death the 
officers of the garrison signed their vouchers. 

The following list is the most important of all these that are 
preserved pertaining to the soldiers of Capt. Turner, as it con- 
tains the names of all the soldiers of whom the committee could 
find any trace. The grant was made of a township of land, as 
near as might be to the scene of the " Falls Fight," to all officers 
and soldiers who were engaged therein. This alphabetical list 
was evidently kept in the hands of the committee, and new 
names are added in different hands through several years. A 
few fragmentary papers are preserved in the archives in connec- 
tion with this list, that show the methods of proving and identi- 
fying claims. A certificate from John Bradshaw, still alive in 
February, 1735, declares that himself, Mr. Isaiah Tay, late of 
Boston, deceased, who was a lieutenant under Capt. Turner, 
and Nathaniel Pierce, of Woburn, were in the fight. John 
Dunkin, of Worcester, certifies, April 1st, 1735, that his uncle 
Jabez Dunkin was killed in the fight, and applies as his proper 
heir. John Chase, of Newbury, certifies that he was in the 
expedition with Capt. Turner, and helped to bury him, and that 
Samuel Coleby, late of Almsbury, deceased, was with him. 
Some other papers of like tenor are preserved, and several frag- 
ments of evidence from town and church records, showing that 
the committee demanded proofs before granting the claims. The 
residences of the soldiers were given according to the best knowl- 
edge of the committee, very often at loss for any information 
after the lapse of sixty years. Many of the soldiers, after the 
war, had removed to interior towns, and their descendants to dif- 
ferent States, and sometimes the present residence of the claimant 
would be given as the supposed home of the soldier ancestor. 
Very many of the soldiers from the East were single men, boys 



250 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



and apprentices, and when these were killed their names were 
soon lost, unless some record was made. At Northampton a 
record of the death of thirteen of the soldiers, who had been in 
garrison there, together with that of Capt. Turner, is found upon 
the town books under date of May 19, 1676, with the comment, 
"all slain by Indians." The committee finding this record, and 
not knowing otherwise, assigned Northampton, or "North," as 
their residence. It will be seen that one hundred and thirty-five 
names appear, while up to 1741 only ninety-nine claimants had 
been admitted. This may be explained by the fact that so many 
of those engaged in the affair were strangers in the colony, or 
mere boys, who left no legal claimants in this country. In other 
cases it would be difficult to prove relationship such as would 
entitle to a claim, especially when the soldier ancestor had 
removed to a distant part of the country. 



A List of y^ Soldiers y' were in y' Fall Fight under Capt. W" Turner, 
approved off by y^ Committee of y^ Gen. Court. (Dated June, 1736.) 



AUexander, Nath", N. Hamp*. 
Alvard, Thom% Hadfield. 
Atherton, Hope, Hatfield. 
Ashdown, John. 
Arms, William, Hadley. 
Baker, Timothy, North Hampt. 
Bedortha, Sam", Springfield. 
Bennett, James, South Hampt. 
Barber, John, Springfield. 
Burnap, John. 
Bradshaw, John, Medford. 
Burnitt, John, Windham. 
Bushrod, Peter, Northampton. 
Boultwood, Sam", Hadley. 
Bardwell, Robt', Hatfield. 
Ball, Sam", Springfield. 
Burton, Jacob, North. 
Beers, Richard, of Watertown, eld- 
est son of Elnathan Beers. 
Belding, Sam". 

Clap, Preserved, Northampton. 
Fowler, Joseph, North. 
Flanders, John. 
Foot, Nath", Hatfield. 
Gleason, Isaac, Spring. 
Grover, Simon, Boston. 
Gerrin,^ Peter, North. 
GrifiSn, Joseph, Roxbury. 
Hitchcock, John, Springfield. 
Hitchcock, Luke, Springfield. 



Hadlock, John. 
Hoit, David, Hadley. 
Hawks, John, Hadley. 
Hawks, Eleaz% Hadley. 
Howard, WiUiam, North. 
Harrison, Isaac, Hadley. 
Hughs, George, Spring. 
Hinsdell, Experience, Hadley. 
Hodgman, Edward, Spring. 
Hunt, Sam", Billerica. 
Harwood, James. 
Ingram, John, Hadley. 
Jones, Sam'. 
Jones, Robertt. 
Jilett, Sam", Hatfield. 
James, Abell, North. 
King, John, North. 
Keett, Franc. Northamton. 
Kellogg, Joseph, Hadley. 
Lee, John, Westfield. 
Lyman, John, North. 
Leeds, Joseph, Dorchester. 
Leonard, Josiah, Spring. 
Langbury, John, North. 
Lyon, Thomas, North. 
Miller, John, North. 
Meriy, Cornelius, North. 
Morgan, Isaac, Springfield. 
Morgan, Jonathan, Spring. 
Miller, Thomas, Spring. 



1 In the Northampton records Peter Jerrin. In Hull's accounts two persons appear in different 
places, Peter Jennings and Peter Gennings. This may be one of the two. 



LIST OF TURNER'S MEN. 



251 



Mun, James, Alive : Colchester. 
Mun, John, Deerfield. 
Monteague, Peter, Hadley. 
Mattoon, Phillip, Hadley. 
Man, Josiah. 
Nims, Godfrey, North. 
Newbury, Tryall, Boston. 
Old, Robert, Spring. 
Chapin, Japhett, Springfield. 
Crow, Sam", Hadley. 
Crowfott, Joseph, Springfield. 
Clark, William, Northampton. 
Church, John, Hadley. 
Coleman, Noah, Hadley. 
Chamberlain, Benja., Hadley. 
Chamberlain, Joseph. 
Colfax, John, Hatfield. 
Cunnaball, John, Boston. 
Chase, John, Almsbury. 
Coleby, John, Almsbury. 
Dickenson, John, Hadley. 
Drew, W", Hadley. 
Dickenson, Nehemiah, Hadley. 
Dunkin, Jabez, Worcester. 
Edwards, Benj*, North. 
Elgar, Thomas, Hadley. 
Fuller, Joseph, Newtown. 
Feild, Samuel, Hatfield. 
Forster, John, North. 
Pumroy, Medad, North. 
Price, Robert, North. 
Pike, Joseph, Spring. 
Pumroy, Caleb, North. 
Preston, John, Hadley. 
Pratt, John, Maiden. 
Pressey, John, Almsbury. 
Pearse, Nath', Woburn. 
Rogers, Henery, Spring. 

Endorsement of the committee : 

By y^ best Acco" we can come at y" foregoing is a true list of y® Sol- 
diers y' were in y*' falls fight w'^ y^ Indians under Capt. Turner & for 
ought appears to us at present y^'' Descendants according to y'' acts of 
y*" General Court are to be admitted to share in y^ Grant of y*^ town- 
ship above Deerfield granted them. 



Roberts, Thomas, North. 

Ransford, Sam", North. 

Ruggles, George, North. 

Read, Thomas, Westford. 

Roper, Ephr*. 

Siky, Nath". 

Suttleife, Nath", Hadley. 

Stebins, Sam", Springfield. 

Stebins, Benoni, North. 

Stebins, Thomas, Springfield. 

Smeade, W", Northampton. 

Smith, John, Hadley. 

Stephenson, James, Springf. 

Seldin, Joseph, Hadley. 

Scott, W^, Hatfield. 

Salter, John, Charlestown. 

Simonds, John. 

(Smith, Rich'i.)^ 

Turner, Capt. W"", now Swan'y. 

Tay, Isaiah, L'., Boston. 

Thomas, Benj*, Spring. 

Taylor, John. 

Taylor, Jonathan, Spring**. 

Tyley, Sam". 

Veazy, Sam", Brantrey. 

Wright, James, North. 

Webb, John, North. 

Webb, Richard, North. 

Waite, Benjamin, Hatfield. 

Witteridge, John, North. 

Walker, John, North. 

Webber, Eleaz^ 

Wattson, John. 

Wells, Thomas, Hadley. 

White, Henry, Hadley. 

Warriner, Joseph, Hadley. 

Wells, Jonathan, Hadley. 

Worthington, W". 



The following list of claimants was admitted June 23d, 1736, 
and the name of John Scott, of Elbows, was added, doubtless 
before the report was accepted, and the figures also were changed. 
Thos. Wells, of Deerfield, was then appointed agent for the pro 

1 This name is in the margin, and was added after the list was made out. 



252 KING Philip's war. 

prietors. Lots were drawn to the claimants according to the 
above list, and the settlement progressed. A previous grant to 
Mr. Fairweather of five hundred acres, together with much moun- 
tainous and waste land, reduced the original grant of six miles 
square to a tract of far less value, so that in 1741, when new 
claimants began to appear, the proprietors petitioned for and 
obtained another tract lying contiguous, a " gore " not yet covered 
by any previous grant. Two new claimants, Samuel Coleby, 
eldest son of Samuel Coleby, of Almsbury, and Tryall Newbury, 
of Maiden, were admitted to first choice of lots on the new tract, 
by act of the Court August 1, 1741. Perhaps later claimants 
were admitted. The grant embraced the present town of Ber- 
nardston (at first called " Falltown " ), Colraine, Leyden, etc. 
The names of descendants stand first in the list. 

A list of Soldiers and Descndts of such as are Deceased that were in 
the fight called the falls fight above Dearfield who are intituled to 
the township granted by the Generall Court, as follows : 

Joseph Atherton, Deerfield, only son of Hope Atherton. 

Nath^ AUexander, Northampton, Nath Alexander. 

Thomas Alward, Middleton, eldest son of Thorn: Alvard. 

John Arms, Dearfield, son William Arms. 

John Baker, Northampton, son of Timothy Baker. 

Samuel Bedortha, Springfield, son of Sam: Bedortha. 

John Field, Dearfield, Dsc'nd' James Bennett. 

John Barbur, Springfield, son John Barbur. 

John Bradshaw, Medford, John Bradshaw. 

Isaac Burnap, Windham, son John Burnap. 

Sam' Clesson, Northampton, Desc* Peter Bushrod. 

Sam' Boltwood, Hadley, son Sam: Boltwood. 

Sam' Bardwell, Dearf, son Rob' Bardwell. 

John Hitchcock, Springfield, Descend. Samll: Ball. 

Stephen Beldin, No'^'ampton, son Stephen Beldin. 

Richard Beers, Watertown, son Elnathan Beers. 

Samuell Beldin, Hatf"^, Sam" Beldin. 

Preserved Clap, N^'ampton, son Preserved Clap. 

Thomas Chapin, Springfield, son Japheth Chapin. 

Samuell Crow, Hadley, son Samuell Crow. 

Joseph Crowfoot, Wethersfield, Descend' Joseph Crowfoot. 

William Clark, Lebanon, son William Clark. 

Noah Cook, Hadley, Descend' Noah Coleman. 

Benj"^ Chamberlain, Colchester, Benj* Chamberlain. 

Nath" Chamberlain, Descend' Joseph Chamberlain. 

Sam" Cunniball, Boston, son John Cunniball. 

John Chase, Newbury, John Chase. 

William Dickeson, Hadley, son Nehemiah Dickeson. 

Samuell Jellet, Hatfield, Descen' John Dickeson. 

Benj^ Edwards, N. Hampton, son Benj* Edwards. 

Joseph Fuller, Newtown, Joseph Fuller. 

Sam" Feild, Dearfeild, son Sam" FeUd. 



GRANTEES AND DESCENDANTS. 253 

Nath" Foot, Colchester, son Nath: Foot. 

John Flanders, Kingston, son John Flanders. 

Isaac Gleeson, endfield, sou Isaac Gleason. 

Richard Church, Hadley, Desc' Isaac Harrison. 

Simon Grover, Maiden, sou of Simon Grover. 

Samuell Griffeu, Roxbury, son Joseph Griffen. 

John Hitchcock, Spriugf'^, sou John Hitchcock. 

Luke Hitchcock, Springf*, sou Luke Hitchcock. 

Jonathan Hoit, Dearf, sou David Hoit, 

Jonathan Scott, Waterbury, Descend' John Hawks. 

Eleaser Hawks, Dearf, son Eleaser Hawks. 

James Harwood, Concord, son James Harwood. 

John Doud, Middleton, Descend' Experience Hinsdell. 

Samuell Hunt, Tewsbury, Samuell Hunt. 

William James, Lebanon, son Abell James. 

John ingram, Hadley, son John Ingram. 

Sam" Jellet, Hatfield, son Sam" Jellett. 

William Jones, Almsbury, son Robert Jones. 

Medad King, N hampton, son John King. 

Francis Keet, N hampton, son Francis Keet. 

Martin Kellog, Suffield, sou Joseph Kellog. 

John Lee, Westfield, son John Lee. 

John Lyman, N hampton, son John Lyman. 

Joseph Leeds, Dorchester, son Joseph Leeds. 

Josiah Leonard, Spi'ingf^, son Josiah Leonard. 

John Merry, Long Island, son Cornelius Merry. 

Stephen Noble, formerly of endfield, Des"' Isaac Morgan. 

Jonathan Morgan, Springf*, son Jonathan Morgan. 

Thomas Miller, Springf^, son Thomas Miller. 

James Mun, Colchester, James Mun. 

Benj^ Mun, Dearfield, son John Mun. 

John Mattoon, Wallingford, son Phillip Mattoon. 

John Nims, Dearf*, son Godfrey Nims. 

Ebenezer Fumroy, N hampton, son Medad Pumroy. 

Sam" Pumroy, N. H., sou Caleb Pumroy. 

Samuell Price, Glassenbury, son Robert Price. 

Sam" Preston, Hadley, Des' John Preston. 

Thomas Pratt, Maiden, son John Pratt. 

John Pressey, Almsbury, son John Pressey. 

Henry Rogers, Springf^, son Henry Rogers. 

John Reed, Westford, son Thomas Reed. 

Nath" Sikes, Springf^ son Nath" Sikes. 

Nath" Sutlifif, Durham, son Nath: Sutliff. 

Sam" Stebbins, Springf*, son of Samuel Stebbins. 

Luke Noble, Westfield, Des' of Thomas Stebbins. 

Ebenezer Smeed, Dearfield, son of William Smeed. 

Joseph Smith, Hatfield, son of John Smith. 

James Stephenson, Springf**, son of James Stephenson. 

Thomas Selden, Haddam, son of Joseph Selden. 

Josiah Scott, Hatfield, son of William Scott. 

John Salter, Charlestown, son of John Salter. 

William Turner, Swansey, Grandson of Capt. Turner. 



254 KING Philip's war. 

Benjamen Thomas, Stafford, son of Benjamen Thomas. 

Joseph Winchall, jr. Suffield, Descend' Jonathan Tailer. 

Samuell Tyley, Boston, son of Samuell Tyley. 

Preserved Wright, N. H. son of James Wright. 

Cornelius Webb, Springf*^, son of John Webb. 

Jonathan Webb, Stamford, son of Richard Webb. 

John Wait, Hatfield, son of Benjamen Wait. 

Eleaser Webber, Westfield, son of Eleaser Webber. 

Thomas Wells, Dearfield, son of Thomas Wells. 

Ebenezer Wariner, Endfield, son of Joseph Warmer. 

Jonathan Wells, Dearfield, Jonathan Wells. 

William Worthington, Colchester, son of Nicho Worthington. 

John Scott, elbows, Grandson John Scott. 

1 The Committee appointed to inlist the oflBcers and Souldiers 

96 in in the fight called the falls fight under the Command of 
number Capt. William Turner then Slain and the Descend'^ of such as 

97 in are Deceased and that are intituled to the grant of this great 
all and generall Court made them of a towneship, have attended 

many times that service & returne the list above & afore- 
said which contains the persons names claiming & from 
whome and which the Committee have accordingly allowed 
all which is Submitted. 

W" Dudley 
Boston June 1736. Eze. Lewis 

John Stoddabd 
In CouncU June 23, 1786 Joseph Dwight 

Read and ordered that this Report be accepted. John Wainweight. 
Sent down for concurrence. 

Simon Frost, Dep'y Secretary. 
Archives, vol. 114, p. 610. 

Quite a number of the soldiers, as will be noticed, were alive, 
and presented their claims in their own persons ; for instance, 
Nathaniel Alexander, John Bradshaw, Samuel Beldin, John 
Chase, Joseph Fuller, Samuel Hunt, James Mun, Jonathan 
Wells, and very likely many others. 

CAPT. WILLIAM TURNER'S FAMILY. 

Notwithstanding the notable career of Capt. Turner, all the 
results of efforts to trace his posterity so far amount to a few 
accidental clues and inferences, and the following attempt to 
arrange these is little more than a summary of probabilities. 
William Turner was of Dorchester from 1642-1664, but no record 
of marriage or birth of children is yet found. On Boston Town 
Records, under date of July 31st, 1665, " Sargt Will: Turner was 
ordered to p'vide for himselfe and family in some other place, 
having carried it ofencively here." He was again admonished 
August 28th, and, not complying, was, on Sept. 25th, ordered 
to be presented to the next county court. Of his further perse- 



CAPT. turner's family. 255 

cution, account is given above. On Boston Town Records is 
found, " Prudence, dau. of William and Frances Turner born 
October 12th 1665." In Suffolk Registry of Deeds, vol. x. p. 
318, William Turner and Mary his wife, relict and executrix to 
the Will of John Pratt, her former husband, dec'd ( Vide His- 
torical and Genealogical Register, vol. vii. p. 36), convey to Jacob 
Hewins a dwelling-house and three-and-a-half acres of land, etc. 
This lot was bounded on the south very nearly by what is now 
Howard Avenue, and lay not very far to the west from the comer 
of what are now Dudley Street and Howard Avenue in Ward 20. 
The deed was made April 1st, 1671, and shows that the wife 
Frances was dead and the second wife Mary, widow of John 
Pratt, had been married. Their home was doubtless in Boston 
after 1665. No record is found of the death of this second wife, 
but in his will above mentioned, dated February 16th, 1675-6, he 
mentions Mary his wife, formerly wife of Key Alsop. Now Key 
Alsop died April 30th, 1672, and she married Capt. Turner prob- 
ably in 1673-4 as his third wife. Frances, the first, was probably 
the mother of all his children, but of the place and date of 
their births no record is found save of Prudence, above men- 
tioned, and William, of his company, who is identified as his son, 
by reference to him in the petition of Mary Turner above given. 
His will, however, proves that he had sons and daughters living 
in 1676, and it would seem that the son William was under 
twenty-one years, as his mother-in-law petitions for his wages as 
appears above. Thomas and William Turner were serving in the 
garrison at Marlborough in the summer and fall of 1675, and in 
the trouble which Lieut. John Ruddock had with the Marlborough 
townspeople, Thomas was first on the list of soldiers, who gave 
evidence in favor of the Lieutenant, and then disappears from 
view, but reappears in 1678 at Bridgewater, where, with Joseph 
Howard, he is appointed surveyor. In 1680 he is at Scituate, 
where he settles and has cliildren, of whom the second son, 
William, born Jan. 13th, 1683-4, furnishes the clue which con- 
nects this family with Capt. William of the Falls Fight ; for this 
William, son of Thomas, was the same who in 1736 drew Capt. 
Turner's right in the grant above mentioned, and is styled his 
" grandson ; " he died in Newport, R.L, " Oct. 4th, 1759, in the 
77th year of his age," and the correspondence of birth, grant and 
death, affords the clue. Dr. T. Larkin Turner, of Boston, has 
worked out this theory, and following it up I find many other 
points. From Bristol County Registry I find that in 1710 Josiah 
Turner, of Swansey, sold to his "brother Thomas Turner, of 
Scituate, shipwright," a farm in Swansey. Both were inhabitants 
of Swansey in 1711. The Province law enacted that the eldest 
male heir of a soldier-grantee should have the choice of taking 
the grant and paying off the other heirs their proportional part 
of XIO, which was the established valuation of a share. 



256 KING Philip's war. 

The various clues and inferences above seem to point to the 
following as a fair approximation to the family of 

Capt. William Turner and wife Frances. 

Patience,^ bapt. in Dorchester, Nov. 10, 1644. Thomas,^ soldier at 
Marlborough, 1675; at Bridgewater, Scituate and Swansey, a 
shipwright, 1678-1715; at latter date he purchased land in Free- 
town of Constant Church. William,^ the soldier in the army 
with his father as noted above, settled in Boston. Joshua,^ joined 
1st Baptist Church in Boston, 1669. Josiah,^ of Swansey, in 
1706, with wife Hannah and children. Elizabeth," joined Bap- 
tist Church 1676; perhaps m. Alexander Dunkan, July 6, 1698, 
" married by Mr. Miles." Prudence^ b. in Boston, Oct. 12, 1665. 
Joseph,^ who (perhaps) married Sarah Wyman, dau. of Thomas, 
a " Tailor," 1704. 

Second Generation. Line of Thomas,^ of Scituate^ etc. 

Thomas,'' b. Sept. 18, 1682. Probably settled in Rochester, Mass., 
and had family there ; perhaps died before 1736, or waived his 
right or sold it to William his brother, of Swansey. 

William,'' m. Patience Hale, of Swansey, in 1711. Settled in 
Swansey, and was quite a large land-owner and a ship-builder. He 
succeeded to the Indian- War claim of his grandfather, as above- 
said. He was one of the non-resident proprietors who agreed to 
pay £23 each to carry forward the settlement of the Township. 
He was of Swansey as late as 1748, but later removed to New- 
port, R.I., where he died Oct. 4, 1759, in his 77th year. His chil- 
dren, born in Swansey, were: WiUiam, b. April 27, 1713, became 
a physician in New Jersey ; and his other children, born between 
1714 and 1734, were : LUlis, Nathaniel, Patience, Caleb, and Hale. 

ii. Rebecca.^ iv. Joshua.'' v. Caleb." vi. David.'' vn. Joseph." 
vin. Benjamin." The descendants of these six are scattered 
through various parts of New England; and Dr. T. L. Turner, 
of Boston, has in preparation a genealogy of this whole branch 
of the Turner family, and has furnished much of the material 
above, for my use in this article. 

Second Generation. lAne of William.^ 
William ^ Turner, son of Capt. William, a soldier at Marlborough Gar- 
rison in the summer and fall of 1675, in the Army with his father 
from February 21, 1675-6, until the Captain's death, but was not 
in the " Falls Fight." He served sometime after that, as the 
accounts of service indicate. Married before 1679, and settled in 
Boston. Is in a list of handy-craftsmen later. In 1691 was 
among those who returned from the West Indies, bringing an 
account of the great earthquake there ; 1 695, chosen constable in 
Boston; 1698, tythingman ; 1699, clerk of the market; 1701, 
licensed to sell wine, etc. ; 1708, his wife Hannah is licensed to 
sell wine. His first wife was Ruth, by whom he had Joshua, b. 
Sept. 28, 1679, and again Joshua, b. Aug. 20, 1687. He married 



CAPT. turner's family. 257 

Hannah Jacklin, Aug. 28, 1689, and had Mercy, b. Feb. 19, 1691 ; 
Hannah, b. Feb. 25, 1693 ; William, b. Dec. 12, 1699. Mary, b. 
March 29, 1696, and Mary, b. Feb. 28, 1697, are assigned to 
parents " William and Mary," but probably is a mistake and 
should be William and Hannah. 
JosiAH ^ Tm-ner, son of Capt. William, settled in Swansey with wife 
Hannah, and had there John,^ b. Nov. 11, 1706; Nathaniel,^ b. 
March 19, 1709-10. 

Thanks are due to Dr. T. Larkin Turner and Messrs. W. B. 
Trask, J. W. D. HaU, H. O. Wood, and G. H. Tilton, for help- 
ful assistance in the above account of Capt. Turner's family, the 
results of which do not at all represent the amount of work 
done. 



XVIII. 

CAPT. JONATHAN POOLE, CAPT. THOMAS 
BRATTLE, AND THEIR COMPANIES. 



JONATHAN POOLE, of Reading, was the son of John and 
Margaret, and was born (probably at Cambridge) in 1634. 
His father was one of the first settlers of Reading, a large 
land-owner, and doubtless was the wealthiest of the settlers. The 
family homestead was on the present site of the " Wakefield 
Rattan Works," and to this and other large tracts of land Jona- 
than succeeded upon the death of his father in 1667. 

His wife's name was Judith, and their chiklren, born in Read- 
ing, were — Sarah, born 1656, married, 1673, Thomas Bancroft; 
Judith, born 1658 ; Mary, born 1660, died 1601 ; Mary, 2d, born 
1662, married, 1682, James Nichols; John, born 1665 ; Jonathan, 
born 1667, married Bridget Fitch, 1691-2 ; Thomas, born 1673 ; 
William, born 1677 ; Elizabeth, born 1678. 

Capt. Poole died in 1678 ; aged 44 years. His widow, Judith, 
married, 1681, Capt. Wm. Hasey, and third, Lieut. Robt. Goukl, of 
Hull, and died, in Hull, 1704. 

In October, 1671, he was appointed Quartermaster, and in 
May, 1674, Cornet of the " Three County Troop," and still held 
that ofhce when the war broke out in 1675. In the summer he 
was in service under Lieut Hasey, serving as Cornet, and will 
appear in Hasey's list. In the campaign under Major Appleton, 
in the fall of 1675, we find him in important positions. Sept. 
30th he was in command of the garrison at Quabaog. He proba- 
bly marched his troops, about October 10th, to Hadley, whence 
he was assigned by Major Appleton to the defence of Hatfield. 
On October 19th, when that town was attacked, Capt. Poole was 
in command of a company, and gallantly and successfully de- 
fended the north side of the town, account of which is given 
above. In this defence, John Pocock, of Capt. Poole's company, 
was killed. When Major Appleton had the command of this army 
of the west suddenly thrust upon him by the Council, he ap- 
pointed Cornet Poole to a captaincy, and sent word to the Coun- 
cil of his action, but the Council in reply rebuked this assum[)tion 
of authority on his part, instructing him that it is his place to 
recommend a deserving officer, but the Council's place to pro- 



CAPT. POOLE'S SOLDIERS. 



259 



mote. Upon the necessity to consult the Council more fully 
than by letters, he sends Capt. Poole personally in charge of his 
messengers, who evidently made so good an impression upon the 
worthy magistrates that they recognized the wisdom of Major 
Appleton, and upon his withdrawal of the main army for the 
campaign at Narraganset, Captain Poole was placed in command 
of the garrison forces in the Connecticut towns, and remained at 
his post until, at the earnest solicitation of his friends and family, 
he was relieved by the appointment of Capt. Turner, April 7th, 
1676. Of his service during the winter some idea may be gained 
from the following extract from a letter of Rev. John Russell to 
the Council : 

Capt. Poole who hath been last here for y^ governm' of y'' souldiers & 
as president of y^ Council of warr here doth earnestly intreate for a 
liberty to repaire to his own very much suffering famUy at least for 
a while, We may not be so selvish as to be unsensible to kindnesse to 
us in his stay here or losse to liim thereby so as to hinder y* promoting 
of any ratiouall request consisting w'^ o'' pubhke safety : We are 
thankfull for what blessing God hath made him to us ; desirous to 
retaine him while not to much to his p'judice. He signifies to us y' 
there is now here in the army a man of y'' same Town viz. Redding by 
Name Mr. John Brown whom he judgeth very fitt to oversee the 
souldiers, etc., etc. 

Hadley March 16"^ 1675-6. Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 163. 



Credited under 


October 19'^ 1675 




Benjamin Hurd 01 


10 00 


Thomas Lasel 02 


02 00 


November 20'^ 1675 




Simon Bun' 01 


08 02 


Joseph Hartshorne 03 


17 00 


Jacob Hurd 01 


01 00 


William Arnold 04 


10 00 


James Pike 04 


16 10 


Phineas Upham, Lieut. 06 


19 04 


Abraham Staples 00 


10 00 


Samuel Read 01 


00 00 


December 20"^ 1675 




Benjamin Chamberlain 03 


13 08 


Walter Hickson 04 


10 00 


John Pemberton 04 


03 00 


January 25* 1675 




John Pocock 01 


02 04 


Joshuah Fuller 03 


06 00 


Joseph Chamberlaine 01 


04 00 


February 29, 1675 




George Eborne 01 


04 00 


March 24, 1675. 




John Laine 09 


00 00 



Capt. Poole. 

Richard Silvester 05 00 00 

John Arnold 02 14 00 

John Jones 06 18 00 

April 24"^ 1676 
Anthony Ravinscroft " pr Sam 

Allin" 01 06 00 

John Dunster 07 06 06 

June 24"^ 1676 

Richard Silvester 03 03 00 

Thomas Bishop 09 00 00 

Benjamin Norden 06 00 00 

John Wild 09 05 08 

John Knight 11 02 08 

John Hall 11 09 00 

George Ebern 01 04 0') 

Edward Bishop 07 03 02 

Jonathan Poole, Capt. 05 00 00 

Joseph Hartshorn 05 06 08 

Samuel Neal 08 00 00 

John French 10 15 00 

Increas Whetston 07 03 02 

Thomas Burges 07 19 02 

William Chubb 07 18 06 

Jonathan Poole, Capt. 44 05 04 



260 


Kii^G Philip's war. 




William Rayment 


04 


02 07 


Thomas Eaton 


02 14 10 


Thomas Sparks 


03 08 06 


Samuel Gatchell 


02 14 10 


Zechariah Herrick 


03 


08 07 


Isaac Foster 


04 05 08 


John Clark 


03 


08 06 


Benony Mactonell 


00 10 02 


William Elliot 


02 


01 00 


James Carr 


02 18 01 


Benjamin Collins 


03 


10 00 


John Dunton 


05 09 08 


Uzall WardaU 


03 


08 07 


John Dethsidy 


04 05 08 


July 24"^ 1676 




Joseph Norman 


02 15 08 


Thomas Cooke 


09 


18 00 


Francis Cooke 


01 01 03 


Joshuah Boynton 


02 


07 00 


John Prescott 


00 12 00 


William Bond 


01 


00 00 


Nehemiah Tottingham 


00 10 02 


Daniel Smith 


01 


05 06 


Joseph Peirce 


00 17 00 


August 


24th 




William Duty 


00 15 08 


Robert Simpson 


03 


12 00 


Joshuah Sawyer 


01 00 00 


Samuel Nicholson 


01 


04 00 


Jonathan Poole 


13 14 00 


Thomas Smith 


01 


13 04 


Humphrey Willard als. 




John PengUly 


04 


07 03 


Millard 


00 10 02 


Joseph Jacobs 


02 


14 10 


Benjamin Merifield 


00 10 02 


George Crosse 


02 


14 00 


Thomas Hoppin 


00 09 04 


Elisha Fuller 


02 


14 10 


Joseph Hartshorn 


02 16 00 


John Randall 


00 


19 08 


Timothy Hewitt 


08 19 08 


James Miller 


00 


18 06 


Israel Howing 


00 10 02 


Samuel Graves 


02 


01 03 


William Pashly 


00 18 00 


John Hascall 


02 


14 00 


Josiah White 


05 18 09 


John Day 


04 


10 00 


William Deane 


01 01 09 


William Day 


00 


10 02 


John Parker 


00 10 02 


Joseph Burrell 


01 


04 00 


Henry Duen 


01 00 06 


John Smith 


01 


10 10 


Nathaniel Bray 


02 14 00 


John Fitch 


03 


00 10 


Richard Wood 


00 17 00 


John EUitt 


03 06 03 


James Chute 


01 10 10 


Jonathan Moss 


01 


10 10 


Thomas Woolson 


00 08 06 


Moses Chadwell 


01 


08 00 


Sebius Jackson 


01 11 05 


Samuel Fisk 


01 


04 00 


Thomas Browne 


00 04 03 


Samuel Stainwood 


04 


10 00 


Henry Spring 


00 07 00 


John Long 


00 


17 00 


Joseph Sherman 


01 07 00 


Jacob Pudenter 


01 


04 00 


John Stone 


01 11 00 


James Atkeson 


00 


11 00 


John Graves 


05 06 04 


Richard HaU 


07 


19 04 


Stephen Pain 


00 08 06 


John Elsmore 


01 


02 06 


Josiah Jones 


00 15 08 


Caleb Ray 


00 


10 04 


Robert Mann 


01 18 06 


Thomas Vely 


01 


10 10 


John Sterns 


00 08 06 


William Stacey 


00 


12 00 


John Oyne 


00 15 06 


September 


23<* 1676 




Nathaniel Robins 


00 12 10 


John Flanders 


02 


14 10 


Thomas Chamberlaine 


03 18 10 


Henry Bragg 


04 


05 08 







Worke done ffor y^ Soulders by y^ order of Capt: Poole & Commesary 
Coaleman of Hattfeild December y^ lO*'' 1675 by Jacob Gardener 

William Arnall — Imprimis. 1 paire of Shewes & ) 

Vamping a paire of bootes j 

John Watson — 2 paire of Shewes . . . . 0: 16: 00 

Anthoney Ravenscraft — 1 pair of Bootes . . . 1: 00: 00 



0: 17: 00 



CAPT. BRATTLE'S FAMILY, 



261 



John Downing — 1 paire of Shewes 
Javish Musgrove — 1 paire of Shewes . 
Hue Pike — 1 paire of Shewes 
Robert Symson — 2 paire of Shewes 
Epheram Rigman — 1 paire of Shewes . 
John Arnall — 1 paire of Shewes & Stockins 
Thomas Burges — 1 paire of Shewes . 
William Briggs — 1 paire of Shewes . 
Jeremy Clothier — 1 paire of Bootes . 
Richard Silvester — 1 pair of Shewes . 
John Hall — 1 paire of Shewes 
Mosses Knapp — 1 paire of Shewes 
Richard Smith — 1 paire of Shewes 
Robert Coates — 1 paire of Shewes 
Joseph Hartshorne — 1 paire of Shewes 
Tho: Brian — 1 paire of Shewes and pouch 
Will: Chub — 1 paire of Shewes . 
John Hues — 1 paire of Shewes . 
Benjamine Barret — 1 paire of Shewes . 



0: 08: 00 

0: 08: 00 

0: 06: 00 

0: 16: 00 

0: 08: 00 

0: 14: 00 

0: 08: 00 

0: 05: 00 

1: 00: 00 

0: 08: 00 

0: 08: 00 

0: 08: 00 

0: 08: 00 

0: 08: 00 

0: 08: 00 

0: 09: 00 

0: 08: 00 

0: 08: 00 

0: 08: 00 



These is to SertifBe y* Honoured Commetty ; that these two bills was 
delivered by y^ order of Capt. Poole & my Self ffor y® use of the soul- 
ders and Rec** by the solgers, 

by me John Coaleman comisarey of Hatfield. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 83. 



CAPT. THOMAS BRATTLE AND HIS MEN. 

Thomas Brattle was born about 1624. Was a merchant of 
good standing in Boston in 1656 ; was of the Artillery Company 
in 1675. He was an enterprising land-purchaser, and bought 
large tracts on the Kennebec and the Merrimac, the latter of the 
Indians. He owned valuable iron works at Concord, and was 
deputy from that town from 1678-1681 ; also from Lancaster, 1671- 
2. Was one of the founders of the Old South Church, and in 1671 
one of the commissioners sent to treat with Philip at Taunton ; 
and in nearly all the relations of public life he appears as one of 
the most active and influential men of the colony. He married, 
probably in 1656, Elizabeth Tyng, daughter of Capt. William and 
Elizabeth (Coytemore) Tyng, whose tragic death, Nov. 9th, 
1682, is recorded in Judge Sewall's Diary. Their children, born 
in Boston, were — Thomas, born Sept. 5, 1667, died same day ; 
Thomas, born June 20, 1658; Elizabeth, born Nov. 30th, 1660; 
William, born Nov. 22, 1662 ; Katharine, born Sept. 26, 1664 ; 
Bethiah, born Aug. 13, 1666 ; Mary, born Aug. 10, 1668 ; Edward, 
born Dec. 18, 1670. Thomas Brattle was appointed Cornet of 
the Suffolk troop. May 30th, 1670 ; Lieutenant, Oct. 13, 1675 ; 
Captain, May 5, 1676. When the war broke out, Capt. Brattle 
was an immediate and important friend of the colony. He loaned 
the colony two hundred pounds, and in the first few months of 



262 KING Philip's wab. 

the war he is personally credited with cash, supplies and service 
to the amount of fifteen hundred pounds upon the treasurer's 
accounts. 

Sept. 8, 1675, the Council orders Cornet Thomas Brattle, with 
a party of horsemen under his command, to take fifty soldiers 
who are appointed to meet him at Leftenant Thomas Hench- 
man's, in Groton, and distribute them according to his discretion 
in the towns of Dunstable, Groton and Lancaster ; and to 
arrange with the inhabitants for the support and aid of their 
garrisons ; also to settle affairs, so far as possible, with the 
friendly Indians at Wamesit, Nashoba and Marlborough, to 
induce the chief Wannalancet to return and live quietly at 
Wamesit, giving his son as a hostage into the hands of the 
English, etc. The issue of this affair will appear in the account 
of the Pennacooks. Capt. Brattle was engaged in the organization 
and supply of the several expeditions west and south. He was 
personally with the forces at Narraganset, in the reorganization 
of the army after the Swamp Fight. On May 15th, 1676, in the 
expedition to Hassanamesit under Capt. Henchman, Capt. 
Brattle, with a party of horse, fell upon the Indians between 
Mendon and Hassanamesit and killed about twenty, of whom 
four were squaws. The enemy dispersed into the swamps, and 
the main body escaped. 

On May 24th, Capt. Brattle " with a troope of horse," about 
fifty, went in pursuit of the Indians "that had newly done 
spoyle at Seaconcke." With a small party of foot, he arrived at 
the Falls of "Pocatuck River," being on the Seaconck side. 
The Indians appeared on the opposite side in force. Leaving 
the foot behind, Capt. Brattle led the troopers up the river, 
where they crossed with great difficulty, and soon came down 
upon the Indians and put them to a disastrous flight, capturing 
large store of their fish and other supplies, killing several. 
One of the English was killed, and Cornet Elliot was wounded 
in the hand. The dead soldier was carried to Seaconck and 
buried. An Indian boy was captured who testified that these 
Indians were three or four hundred, and belonged to "Nep- 
sachuit." See Col. Records, vol. v. p. 96, the full letter of the 
General Court. 

June 30th, 1676, Capt. Brattle is sent on an expedition towards 
Mount Hope with instructions as follows : 

Instructions for Capt. Thomas Brattle. 
You are to take twenty of your Troope with such oflEicers as you 
shall see meete, together with an officer & ten Troop" of Left. 
Hassey's Troope and with them to march with all expedition to Ded- 
ham where are ordered to be an officer with eighteen foote souldiers 
mounted from Dorchester, sixe from Roxbury and twenty from 
Dedham with an officer. All appointed to be at Dedham the Rende- 



CAPT. brattle's instructions. 263 

vous this day at fower of the clock this afternoone, whom you are to 
take under your Conduct and the officers and souldiers are Required to 
obey you as theire Commander for this Service of the Country. You 
are to march with your Troopers & Dragoons to be at John Wood- 
cocks by midnight where you shall meete with an Indian Pylot 
and two files of musketeers which Pylot liath engaged to bring 
you upon Phillip and his Company who are not above thirty men as he 
saith & not ten miles from Woodcocks ; be sure to secure your Pylot 
to prevent falsehood and escape. You are to endeavour with your 
utmost diligence to Come up with the enemy and Coming up with 
him, or any other of them, you are to subdue kill and destroy, in your 
marches take heed of Ambushments and see you keepe your souldiers 
in Comand and that they moove with as much sylence as may be, that 
you be not prevented. In case the ennimy should be past to Mount 
Hope and that you Can meete with Plymouth forces you are to Joyne 
with them. If upon Intelligence you may probably Come up with 
ennemy to fight subdue & destroy them. 

ffor that you are victualled onely for sixe days, you are to order 
that your march out may be proportionably thereto for your Retume 
unless by the longer stay you shall see you have very probable ad- 
vantage against the enemy & you may have Recruite of proper 
officers from our Confederates or cann give timely notice to us to send 
you supply. 

In case you meete not with a Pylot at Woodcoks you are to send 
to Mr. Newman at Rehoboth and lett him know of your being there, 
and wayting to endeavour to surprise Phillip ; And In case that f aile, 
if upon Intelligence you have oppertunity to fall upon any other of the 
ennemy you are to attend that ; Upon all occasions & opportunity you 
are to Advise us of your motions and of Gods dealings with you ; for 
your so doing these are your order and warrant. Given at Boston the 
thirtieth day of June 1676, 

By the Gouvernour & Council of the Massachusetts. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 69, pp. 24, 25. J. L. G. 

In this expedition Capt. Mosely was joined, as related by Mr. 
Hubbard. The plan was carried out, but when they arrived at 
the swamp they found the wily chief and his bodyguard " newly 
gone." They, however, joined with the Plymouth forces under 
command of Major Bradford, and succeeded, before their return 
home in the latter part of July, in securing the Plymouth and 
southern towns, and in killing or capturing one hundred and 
fifty of the enemy. 

Capt. Thomas Brattle died April 5th, 1683. He left, it is 
said, the largest estate ^ in New England at that time. His son 

'In the old Court files, Book 8, is preserved the following, which may be of interest as describ- 
ing Capt. Brattle's Kennebec grant : 

" Thomas Brattle in behalf of himself & other the Heirs of Capt. Thomas Brattle, Mr. Antipas 
Boyes, Mr. Edward Tyng & John Winslow claims a certain Tract of Land in America in or 
between & extending from the utmost Bounds of Cobbeseconte which adjoineth to the River of 
Kennebeck towards the Western Ocean, and a Place called the Falls at Nequamkeek & a Place 
of fifteen English Miles on both Sides the River called Kennebeck River & all the said River that 
lyeth within the said Limits & bounds Eastward, Westward, Northward & Southward as per 
Deed from the Govern™' of Pliraouth Colony dated 27 Octo' 1661 & Orderly recorded. 

" A true copy Examined pr Tho' Clabke Dept^ Sec'ty." 



264 



KING Philip's war. 



Thomas administered upon the estate. This son Thomas gradu- 
ated at Harvard, 1676, and was eminent for his scholarship, 
especially in mathematics. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal 
Society of London, which was a mark of great distinction to an 
American. He was celebrated for his opulence, talents and 
benevolence ; was treasurer of Harvard College from 1693 to his 
death. May 18, 1713. He was never married. William Brattle, 
second son of Capt. Thomas, graduated at Harvard College in 
1780, and received degree of B.D. in 1692, and in 1696 was 
ordained pastor of the church in Cambridge. He was a celebrated 
scholar and preacher, being especially liberal for his time. He 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Nathaniel Hayman, of Charles- 
town, Nov. 3, 1697, and by her had two sons, of whom William, 
the eldest, inherited his grandfather's Narraganset claim. 



Soldiers Credited under Capt. Thomas Brattle. 



October 19, 1675 
George Berbeck 00 

Dec. 20"^ 
John Paison 00 

Caleb Graunt 00 

Samuel Thacher 00 

Thomas Brattle, Lieut. 01 
John Bennet 00 

John Willington 00 

Solomon Phips 00 

Samuel Williams 00 

Samuel Minott 00 

William Kent 00 

Samuel Payson 00 

March 24"^ 1676 
John Needham 00 

John Bennitt 01 

August 24 1676 



Ebenezer Williams 
Joshuah Henshaw 
William Kent 
John Newell 
Richard Scott 
John Pinder 
James Chevers 
James Francklin 
John Oynes 
John Barrett 
Justinian Holden 
Joseph Buch 
Thomas Leonard 
Moses Paine 
John Waiard als. 
Obediah Wood 



01 
01 
02 
00 
02 
00 
00 
00 
00 
01 
00 
01 
00 
01 
Ware 01 
00 



10 00 


10 


00 


10 


00 


10 00 1 


05 


00 


10 00 1 


10 


00 


10 00 1 


10 


00 


10 00 


10 00 


17 


00 


14 


02 


14 


02 


12 


10 


07 


06 


11 


00 


19 


08 


02 


00 


15 


08 


18 


09 


15 


08 


15 


08 


12 


10 


15 


08 


12 


10 


15 


08 


11 


05 


14 


03 


15 


08 



Hugh Taylor 00 

Jonathan Atherton 01 

Ebenezer Heiden 01 

John Bennett 02 

Richard Francis 01 

Denis Syhy 02 

Moses Paine 01 

John Smith 00 

Richard Hall 01 

Paltiel Grover 01 

Thomas Adams 00 

Francis Cooke 01 

Samuel Williams 01 

John Wells 02 

John Needham 01 

John Long 01 

Ehsha Foster 01 

Samuel Maxfield 01 

Evan Jones 01 
Wm. Harsey als. Hasye 01 

John Needham 00 

David Freeman 01 

Benjamin Mills 01 

John Pason 00 

Samuel Church 01 

John Stearnes 01 

Josiah Jones 01 
Increas Twingals.Winne 01 



Patrick Morrene 
Timothy Dwight 
Henry Spring 
John Kendall 
Ephraim Regimant 
Thomas Holman 



15 08 

10 00 

11 05 

02 09 
00 00 

17 09 
08 07 

12 09 

18 10 
12 10 
15 08 
00 00 
17 06 
17 00 
12 10 
05 06 
04 08 
04 08 
04 08 
12 10 
07 00 

03 06 
03 06 
10 00 
07 00 
07 00 
02 00 
12 10 
00 00 
15 04 
07 00 
12 10 
00 00 
02 10 



CAPT. BRATTLE'S COMPAKY. 



265 



Timothy Dwight 
Joshuah Lambe 
Francis Coard 
Thomas Robinson 

September 23^ 
Thomas Browne 
Samuel Gary 
John Winter 
James Bird 
Timothy Hawkins 
Daniel Smith 
John Tolman 
Edward Couch 
John Turtle 
Samuel Stone 
Thomas Peirce 
Zechariah Fowle 
John Blackman 
James White 
Samuel Parker 



00 08 08 
02 02 10 

01 00 00 

00 18 08 
1676 

01 02 10 

00 19 08 

01 02 10 

00 12 09 

01 00 00 

01 02 10 

02 01 05 
01 04 06 
01 12 10 
01 02 10 
01 12 10 
00 08 06 

00 10 02 

01 02 08 
01 03 06 



James Pemerton 00 14 03 

Daniel Greenland 01 12 10 

Anthony Howard 01 08 06 

Daniel Champney 01 02 10 

Joseph Sherman 01 07 00 

William Bond 01 02 10 

James Baker 01 04 06 

Daniel Ruff 01 04 00 

William Ager 01 05 08 

John AlUce 01 02 02 

Richard Wood 01 17 00 

Joshuah Sayer 01 14 03 

Thomas Pemberton 03 05 08 

John Mason 01 12 10 

Nathaniel Rowleston 01 02 10 

James Miller 01 00 00 

Charles Davenport 00 13 00 

Jonathan Gilbert 02 00 00 

Samuel Sumner 00 19 08 



XIX. 

CAPT. JOSEPH SILL AND HIS MEN. 



JOSEPH SILL (or as it is variously spelled, Syll, Scill and 
Scyll) was the son of John and his wife Joanna, of Cam- 
bridge, 1637-8, and was born there about 1639. He 
married, December 5, 1660, Jemima, daughter of Andrew and 
Elizabeth (Danf orth) Belcher, of Cambridge, and had children — 
Andrew, born February 5, 1665-6, died June 12, 1666 ; Joseph, 
bpt. 11 Mar. 1666, d. young ; Jemima, born September 21, 1667, 
who married, December 21, 1687, John Hall, of Medford, and 
inherited for him her father's Narraganset claim ; Elizabeth, born 
September 12, married, November 12, 1685, Samuel Green, Jr. ; 
Andrew and Thomas, of whose births no record is found. Mr. 
Savage says that he removed to Lyme, Conn., at the close of 
Philip's war, and there married, February 12, 1678, his second 
wife, Sarah Marvin, widow of Reynold, and daughter of George 
Clark, by whom he had Joseph, born January 6, 1679 ; Zachariah, 
born January 1, 1682 ; perhaps others. 

Capt. Sill was called into military life early in the war, and 
served almost continually, in important times and places, till its 
close. When Capt. Richard Beers marched with his company up 
to relieve the garrison at Brookfield, Aug. 5th, 1675, Sill was his 
lieutenant, and shared the fortunes of the company in that cam- 
paign ; was probably in the fight at " Sugar-Loaf Hill " on 
August 25th ; but was probably left at Hadley in command of 
the rest of the company when Capt. Beers, and his twenty-six 
men, marched to the relief of Northfield on September 3d, and 
were ambushed and nearly all slain on the 4th, on what is since 
known as " Beers's Plain." After that disaster he remained in 
command of the remnant of the company for the rest of the cam- 
paign, and up to October 5th, when he ij> mentioned in Capt. 
Mosely's letter as having gone with Captain Appleton and a com- 
pany of one hundred and ninety men to protect Springfield. On 
October 4th a letter from the Council to Major Pynchon directs 
that " Lieut. Scill be dismissed home to his family," and his 
soldiers to make up some of the other companies as the Major 
thinks best. 

In a letter from Capt. Appleton at Hadley, October 17th, Capt. 



CAPT. sill's instructions. 267 

Sill is mentioned as being still in command of a company of sixty- 
men ; but he bad evidently returned home before November 1st, 
as upon the 2d he was called out again and given commission 
with the following instructions : 

Orders and Instructions for Capt. Joseph Syll. 

By virtue of An order pr. Council impowring mee to give you Instruc- 
tions &c. 

1] You are to Take charge of the soldiers raised from Charlestown, 
Wattertown & Cambridge ; which are about sixty men ; & being fitted & 
furnished with Arms, Ammunition & provision for a weeke ; you are to 
march away ; forthwith to Naticke & there take such trusty Indian 
guides with you (as Corporall watson hath p'^pared for that purpose) 
& then march away w"" all eonVnt speed to Hassanamesitt (an Indian 
plantation neare nipmuck River) from whence you are to send intelli- 
gence unto Captain Daniel Henchman who with his company is marched 
to Mendon ; informing him y' you are ordered to joyne with him to pursue 
the enimy, whom we heare is come down to a place called Packachooge 
about 7 miles from Hassanamesit Norwest, & hath killed and surprised 
some of o^ neighbour Indians that were gathering corne there ; and as 
wee have ground to feare hath lately Attacked marlborow. 

2] Being joyned with Capt. Henchman you are to be under his 
order and joyntly to seeke out for the enimy at y^ said place or any 
other place where you can understand hee is ; and if you meet the 
enimy you are to use your best skill & force to surprise, sease kill and 
destroy the enimy ; and to receive and release any of our friends either 
English or Indians y' are taken or injured by him ; 

3] You are to be very careful to send forth scouts ; before you to 
discou'' the enimies quarters & if it may bee to com upon him in the 
night. 

4] You are carefully so to march y' men in the woods so y' if it be 
possible to avoide or shunne or well serch before you com to neare all 
thick places as swamps or thicketts wher the enimy uses with subtility 
to lurk in Ambushments. 

5] You are in all yo"" Attempts & enterprises to have yo'" harts Ufted 
up to God in Ch' Jesus ; who is the Lord of hosts & God of armies that 
hee will give his p'^sence with you & assistance unto you & yo'' Company 
in all yo"" undertakings not trusting or relying upon the Arme of flesh 
but upon the Lord alone from whose greatness Blessing & p'^sence all 
good comes. 

6] And you are carefully so to demeane yo''selfe in yo'' conv''sation 
y' you may give yo"" soldiers a good example in piety & vertue & so 
govern the soldiers under yo"" command y' yo'' campe may bee holynes 
to y^ Lord & to this end you have y'^ military laws printed and pub- 
hshed, which are for yo'' rule & direction in that matter. 

7] If you finde a considerable quantity of corne at Packachooge if 
yu can save it wee give it you and yo"" soldiers together w"' Capt. 
Henchman and his soldiers for plunder. 

So desiring the ever living Loi'd God to accompany you & yo'' com- 
pany with his gratious conduct and presence, And that he will for 
Chts sake approve in all the mounts of difficulty ; & cover all yo"" heads 



268 KING Philip's war. 

in the day of Battle & deliver; the blood-thu-sty & cruel enimy of 
God & his people into yo'^ hands, & make you executioners of his just 
Indignation upon them and returne you victorious unto us "We comitt 
you & yo'' company unto God & remaine Yo' very Loving freind 

Daniel Gookin, Sen'.^ 
November the 2'^ 1675. 
These orders & Instructions past by the Councill November 2, 1675. 

E. R. S. 
[Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 40.] 

The account of this expedition has been given in part in 
connection with Capt. Henchman's company, but many addi- 
tional particulars, and, indeed, the most reliable account attain- 
able now is given in Gen. Daniel Gookin's account of the 
"Praying Indians." It would seem by his account that 
the chief cause of this expedition of Henchman and Sill was 
the capture by the hostile Indians of three of the villages of the 
"Praying" or "Christian" Indians, viz.: Magunkog (Hopkin- 
ton), Hassanamesit (Grafton) and Chobonokonomum (Dudley). 
Capt. Sill was at Hassanamesit on November 6th, having with 
him as guides six of the Natick " Praying Indians," of whom 
the principal were James Quannapohit and Eleazer Pegin. 
These two, with about a dozen of the company, went out to 
scout, and discovered seven hostile Indians leading away a white 
boy captive. The hostiles fled, but were so closely pursued by 
the Natick scouts that they were forced to abandon the boy, who 
was taken by our Indians and brought back to Capt. Sill. This 
boy's name was Christopher Muchin, a servant or apprentice of 
Peter Bent, a miller at Marlborough ; and he told the Captain 
that he was seized the day before at Bent's mill, and that Bent's 
son, a lad of about nine years, was taken at the same time, 
scalped and left for dead — who, however, recovered. After 
this Capt. Sill's company joined with Capt. Henchman's, and 
under the latter's command all marched to a place called Packa- 
chooge (southerly part of Worcester), and there encamped for 
one night in two large wigwams recently left by the Indians. 
In this place, as well as in others on the way, quantities of corn 
were discovered, and much of it burned, but no Indians were 
found except by the small scouting parties led by the Naticks. 
The companies marched back to Hassanamesit and there sepa- 
rated before November 10th, and Capt. Sill marched with his 
company to Marlborough and Sudbury, where he was located on 
November 16th, but marched to Springfield immediately, and on 
the 20th, in the disposal of the troops by Major Appleton into 
the garrisons for the winter, thirty-nine of his men were left at 
Springfield under command of Lieut. Niles. Capt. Sill was 
thereafter employed in guarding the supplies and conducting 

1 Thus signed, and then scratched out and the Council's authority substituted by the Secretary, 
as shown on next page. 



AT GROTON AND VICINITY. 269 

affairs, under Major Willard's orders, at the various garrisons as 
there was need, and was with the army at Narraganset after the 
Swamp Fight. He was sent with a company of dragoons, with 
some sixty carts, to bring off the inhabitants of Groton. The 
line of carts was said to be over two miles long, and the convoy 
of some fifty men very inadequate when stretched out to that 
length. This line was ambushed and attacked, but either the 
Indians were too few in number, or the long line of carts, with 
their guard, was too formidable or awkward to handle, so that 
having killed two of the advance guard at their first fire, and the 
guards not being thrown into confusion by the attack, but 
quickly rallying under their captain and preparing for defence, 
the Indians, after a few desultory shots from their safe covert, 
retired. 

The following paper will show something of the kind of service 
in which Capt. Sill was engaged during this time. 

At a Councm held at Boston the 21^' of 1 : Month, 1675-6 
It is ordered that Capt. Syll give forth his orders to the several 
Constables of Charlestowne, Cambridge, Watterton, Sudbury & Marl- 
boro forthwith to send in to him the horses & men y' were under his 
command formerly for the carriage of Ammunition and provision from 
Northbrow to Brookfield (or in default y'^of to impresse so many) & 
Maj' Willard is ordered forthwith to appoynt said Capt. Syll : twenty 
troopers & Dragoones of Essex & Norfolke men to guard the said to 
the place appointed ; and after the delivery of the said provisions & 
Ammunition at the Garrison there the said Syll is ordered to returne 
home and dismiss the said Horses & men & Returne the troopers & 
dragoones to Maj'' Willard & attend his further orders. 

It is further ordered y' Capt. SyU cause the Coopers at Cambridge & 
Charlestowne to make so many 4 gallon runletts to put powder in as 
may suffice to carry 200"' powder from Marlborow to Brookfeild for 
the Country service. Past E. R. S. 

It is ordered by the Council, That the Commissary of Marlborow 
deliver to Capt. Syll such Ammunition and Provisions as his horses 
and Company can carry to Brookfield & after y^ delivery of y^ same 
to him, the said Commissary is to returne home, comitting what is 
remaining of the magazine at Marlborough unto Decon WUliam Ward's 
care. E. R. S. 

[Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 170.] 

Mr. Hubbard, in his History, says : 

After this April 17. Capt. Sill being appointed to keep Garrison at 
Groton, some Indians coming to hunt for Swine, three Indians drew 
near the Garrison-house supposing it to have been deserted; two of 
them were slain by one single shot made by the Captain's own Hands, 
and the third by another Shot made from the Garrison. 



270 kikct Philip's war. 

On April 27th six companies were raised, three of foot under 
Capts. Sill, Cutler and Holbrook, the horse under Capts. Brattle, 
Prentice and Henchman, and sent to repress certain " Insolen- 
cies " of the enemy, and to range the woods towards Hassana- 
mesit. There, guided by the Natick scouts, our horsemen fell 
upon quite a large party of the enemy and captured or killed 
sixteen, account of which has heretofore been given in the 
chapter devoted to Capt. Henchman. 

These forces were released on May 10th, owing to the trouble- 
some distempers resulting from an " epidemical cold " at that 
time prevalent throughout the country ; but the release was only 
till such time as the troops had generally recovered and were 
needed. The occasion came, and on May 30th the same forces 
were called out again and marched to Brookfield, where they 
were to meet the forces of Connecticut ; but they came upon a 
body of Indians, " fishing in Weshacom Ponds towards Lancaster," 
of whom they killed seven, and captured twenty-nine, the latter 
mostly women and chiklren. This affair occurred on May 7th, 
and necessitated delay and a return to Marlborough for supplies, 
so that when they arrived at Brookfield the Connecticut forces 
had marched to Hadley, where ours joined them on the 14th, 
two days after that place had been attacked by a large body of 
the enemy, who, busily watching the advance of our forces from 
Marlborough, seemed to have missed the Connecticut companies 
coming into the town, and were surprised at their presence, and 
fled precipitately when a shot from a small cannon struck an out- 
lying house which some of them were plundering. The Con- 
necticut soldiers pursued them for some miles up the river, and 
killed several, but could not overtake or flank them. The Massa- 
chusetts troops arrived on May 14th, and the united forces, with 
the Mohegans, amounted to about one thousand men. Major 
Talcott, with the Connecticut troops, on the 16th, marched up on 
the west side of the river, and Capt. Henchman with those of 
Massachusetts on the east side. A heavy rain-storm prevailed 
during several days, drenching them, and spoiling most of their 
ammunition and provision. They returned to Hadley on the 
18th, and Major Talcott two days later marched homeward with 
his force, while Capt. Henchman with his troops remained several 
days diligently searching for the enemy; but not finding them, 
and fearing they were gathering towards the eastern towns, he 
marched homeward about June 24th. Capt. Henchman's letter 
(ante^ P^gs 57) gives an account of the experiences on this 
march home. Capt. Sill was selected to command a force con- 
sisting of about one hundred foot, a troop of horse and the com- 
pany of friendly Natick Indians, and to scout from Quonsigamon 
pond towards Wachuset and thence to " Nashaway and the 
Weshakem Ponds," and join the main force, awaiting probably at 
Brookfield or Marlborough. The result of this scouting expedi- 



CAPT. SILL AT THE EASTWARD. 271 

tion under Capt. Sill is not found recorded. The enemy were 
now scattered towards Plymouth Colony and into the eastern parts, 
about Dover, Wells, and as far as Casco Bay. 

The main part of the troops in this campaign was dismissed 
early in July, but about the first of September we find Capt. Sill 
again in command of a company and marching to the eastward 
to protect the frontier settlements now tlireatened by the many 
hostile Indians who had taken refuge with the tribes in those 
parts. At Dover, on September 6th, his company, together with 
that of Capt. Hathorne, found four hundred Indians who were 
gathered at Dover at Major Waldron's, with whom the neighbor- 
ing tribes had made peace. The Captains Hathorne and Sill were 
commissioned to seize and kill all Indians who had been con- 
cerned in the war, and there were many of these mixed in with 
the peaceful tribes and had come hither under their protection 
and pledge. The Captains urged their commission, and Major 
Waldron urged his duty and pledge of hospitality ; but find- 
ing them determined he compromised the matter by planning a 
stratagem by which some two hundred of the hostile Indians were 
made prisoners, while Wannalancet and his Pennacooks, Ossipees 
and Pequakets were allowed to depart unharmed. The account 
of this transaction will properly fall under the chapter concerning 
Major Waldron. 

Two days after this affair these companies, together with some 
of Major Waldron's and Capt. Frost's men, marched on to the 
eastward as far probably as Falmouth, but, finding no enemy 
and all the settlements deserted or destroyed, they returned 
to Piscataqua, and were in these parts on October 3d, as men- 
tioned in a letter of Gen. Denison to the Council. Capts. 
Sill, Hunting and Frost are said to be there under com- 
mand of Capt. Hathorne. It was there, about this time, that 
some insubordination or other objectionable conduct occurred, 
which occasioned the following action of the Court on October 
17th, 1676 : 

Whereas Capt. Joseph Scyll hath therefore binn imployed in the 
countrys service, as commander of a company, & that information is 
given that of late he hath carried himself offencively in that place, this 
Court doth the'"fore order, that the said Scyll be forthwith dischardged 
from that imploy, & some other meet person appointed in his room. 

[Colony Records, vol. vi. p. 126.] 

I find no explanation of this in any other place, and no subse- 
quent action by the Court concerning Capt. Sill, save that 
indicated in the answer to the petition below, which appears also 
in Colony Records, vol. v. p. 506. Mr. Hubbard's account indi- 
cates that Capt. Sill still held his command, and went with Capt. 
Hathorne on the march in November, 1676, to Ossipee and 



272 



KING Philip's war. 



Pequaket. Sometime before November 7, 1681, Capt. Sill 
removed to Lyme, Conn., where he was living at that date. He 
died at Lyme, August 6, 1696. His son Thomas was a ship- 
master, lived in Boston in 1699, and was probably the Capt. Sill 
who died there in May, 1709. 

Credited under Capt. Joseph Syll. 



November 30*^ 1675 

Benjamin Dowse 00 14 06 

Joshua Begalow 00 14 06 

John Bond 00 14 06 

James Kellon 00 14 06 

Samuel Cutler 00 14 06 

George DeU 00 14 06 

Jonathan Smith 00 14 06 

Isaac Lamed 00 14 02 

Paul Wilson 00 14 06 

Nathaniel Hely 00 14 06 

John Chadwick 00 14 06 

Gershom Swan 03 00 00 

Nath Sanger 00 14 06 

Samuel Peirce 04 16 00 

Samuel Butterick 04 16 00 

Roger Jones 04 16 00 

Joseph SyU 03 06 09 

December 20*^ 1675 

Daniel Warrm 00 10 04 

Joseph Waite 00 14 06 

William Sheaf 01 03 08 
Nathaniel Frothingham 00 17 00 

WiUiam Bodman 00 14 06 

Peter Frothingham 00 14 06 

Amos Marrett 00 14 06 

Zachariah Brigden 00 14 06 

Samuel Cooke 00 14 06 

William Brown 00 14 06 

John Bicknell 00 14 06 

Thomas MousseU 01 04 03 

Timothy Cutler 00 02 06 

James Smith 00 02 06 

Elnathan Beeres 00 14 06 

Nathaniel Bersham 00 14 06 

John Oyne 00 14 06 

Thomas Hamond 00 14 06 

John Barnard 00 14 06 

William Richardson 00 17 06 

Thomas Rand 00 14 06 

Joseph Dana 00 14 06 

Thomas White 01 04 09 

January 25'^ 1675-6 

Andrew Stimson 00 14 06 



Samuel Gibson 00 17 00 

WilUam Barret, Lt. 01 03 08 

John Craig 00 16 02 

JohnHastmgs 00 17 00 

Jason Russell 00 14 06 

John Squire 00 14 06 

Samuel Buck 00 14 06 

Samuel Robins 00 14 06 

Abraham Spencer 01 19 00 

Solomon Prentis 00 09 06 

John Sunpull 00 14 06 

John Melven 00 14 06 

John CrumweU 00 14 06 

John Bradshaw 01 05 08 

James Holland 00 09 04 

Benjamin Rice 00 12 00 

WiUiam Crouch 01 19 04 

Thomas Foster 01 04 05 

Josuah Eaton 00 14 06 

February 29*^ 1675-6 

Joseph Syll, Capt. 07 10 00 

Thomas Hovey 02 00 00 

Benjamin Russell 01 10 00 

Robert BurdaU 01 10 00 

John Foskett 00 18 00 

Obadiah Searl 01 10 00 

March 24«» 1675-6 

Zachariah Sawtell 02 05 04 

John Barrett 01 10 00 

Abraham Cosens 01 08 02 

James Wheeler 01 08 02 

John Gleeson 01 08 02 

AprU 24«' 1676 

Daniel Magennis 02 08 00 

Thomas Adams 01 08 02 

Thomas Talley 01 06 06 

WilUam Pashly 01 12 06 

Thomas Polly 00 15 04 

Samuel Cleaveland 02 04 06 

WUliam Vines 01 09 02 

Daniel Hudson 02 02 00 

Richard Taylor 00 14 10 

Jonathan Crisp 01 13 00 

Thomas Whitney 03 11 00 



CREDITS UNDER CAPT. SILL. 



273 



Philip Jones 


03 01 


00 


July 24"> 1676 


June 24''' 1676 






Joseph Clark 


11 05 03 


George Adams 


01 


08 02 


Moses Whitney 


03 05 00 


Samuel Tiampson 


02 


19 


06 


John Goodwin 


02 18 00 


Thomas Adams 


01 


08 


02 


Samuel Damman 


00 17 00 


Joseph Peirce 


01 


06 


00 


John Fisk 


03 12 00 


James Bernard 


03 


05 


00 


Hopewell Davis 


01 09 00 


Francis Shepheard 


01 


05 


08 


Nathaniel Kettle 


00 18 00 


Ephraim Bemish 


03 


05 


00 


Jonathan Cary 


01 05 00 


Josiah Hobbs 


03 06 


00 


Thomas Mitchinson 


02 13 00 


Josiah Clarson 


02 


07 


10 


Richard Woods 


01 06 06 


Joseph Simons 


02 


07 


10 


Henry Salter 


01 10 10 


Sebread Taylor 


02 


07 


00 


August 24«> 1676 


Henry Harris 


02 


06 


02 


John Chapman 


02 08 10 


Jonathan Laurence 


01 


14 


06 


Jonathan Barker 


01 06 06 


Joseph Lambson 


01 


05 


08 


Jonathan Remmington 


09 08 08 


Zachariah Brigden 


02 


08 


00 


William Stephens 


03 13 08 


Joseph Bickner 


01 


05 


08 


Ambros Mackfassett 


02 18 00 


Jacob Amsden 


03 


00 


00 


John Tarball 


03 13 10 


Paul Wilson 


01 


02 


02 


Mathew Griffin 


04 08 09 


William Twing 


01 


05 


08 


Thomas Hall 


01 10 00 


John Chapman 


03 


19 


06 


Edward Smith 


03 13 00 


John Figg 


01 


05 


08 


Samuel Scripture 


02 04 06 


William Gill 


03 


03 


00 


Ambros Mackfassett 


00 04 02 


Simon Rogers 


01 


05 


08 


William Tarball 


02 04 06 


Joseph Smith 


01 


09 


00 


Joseph Harris 


01 10 00 


Theophilus Thornton 


01 


05 


08 


John Salter 


00 16 02 


Nicholas Bullis 


01 


05 


08 


Thomas Whitney 


00 04 02 


Joseph Bateman 


01 


05 


08 


Thomas Chadwick 


01 10 10 


Ambros Mackfassett 


00 


14 


06 


Samuel Lord 


01 15 10 


Moses Wheat 


01 


10 


10 


Cornelius Church 


03 13 00 


Jeremiah Mosse 


03 


10 


00 


John Walker 


01 10 10 


Samuel Lewis 


01 


10 


00 


Theophilus Philips 


03 12 06 


John Barnard 


05 


15 


10 


Jacob Waters 


00 07 08 


Humphrey Miller 


02 


07 


02 


Thomas Parker 


04 19 09 


Thomas Region 


01 


16 


00 


Ephraim Philips 


02 04 06 


Timothy Cutler 


01 


09 


00 


Thomas Farmer 


02 04 06 


Richard Griffin 


01 


07 


04 


John Barbeene 


02 15 00 


Zechariah Brigden 


01 


09 


02 


Jonathan Whitney 


03 13 08 


Joseph Needham 


04 


01 


00 


John Eliott 


02 07 00 


Samuel Taylor 


03 


06 


00 


Joseph Symons 


01 18 06 


Samuel Parry 


01 


09 


02 


Jonathan Smith 


02 04 06 


James Barnard 


04 


01 


00 


Ellis Barron 


03 18 00 


John Gale 


01 


08 


02 


John Cutler 


01 11 08 


Simon Stone 


03 


11 


00 


Samuel Perry 


01 18 06 


John Clary 


02 


08 


00 


Benony Macktonnell 


03 06 00 


Joseph Blanchard 


01 


08 


02 


Benjamin Symons 


03 00 00 


Isaac Emsden 


03 


12 


00 


Samuel Gallup 


01 06 06 


Jonathan Kettle 


02 


03 


08 


Jonathan Parker 


01 09 00 


Samuel Bickner 


01 


15 


02 


Zechariah Cuttin 


02 14 10 


Hopewell Davis 


01 


16 


00 


Henry Prentice 


03 10 00 


John Mirick 


02 03 08 


John Streeter 


03 06 09 



274 

Jonathan Parker 


KING 

01 01 


PHII 

04 


IP's WAR. 

John Barnard 


00 18 00 


Nathaniel Greene 


02 04 


06 


Humphrey Millard 


03 01 08 


John Weld jn' 


01 06 


06 


Benjamin Merifield 


00 11 00 


Benjamin Burges 


01 06 


06 


George Dill 


01 16 10 


Zechariah Padlefoot 


01 06 


06 


John Mudg 


03 12 10 


James Atkesson 


00 07 


08 


James Miller 


00 04 02 


John Sanders 


02 19 


00 


John Salter 


00 09 04 


Joseph Lowe 


02 09 


08 


Daniel Woodward 


00 15 04 


Zaoharius Brigden 


01 00 06 


Hopewell Davis 


02 08 00 


John Bateman 


02 07 


00 


Isaac Laurence 


02 14 00 


Joseph "Waight 


00 15 


04 


James Wallis 


00 14 06 


Thomas Frost 


00 14 


06 


John Robey 


01 16 00 


William Ball 


00 04 


02 


Alexander Steward 


00 04 02 


Caleb Ray als. Rey 


00 06 


10 


John Parker 


00 14 06 


William Butter 


02 19 


02 


John Knight 


02 14 00 


Zechariah Hicks 


01 00 


06 


Abraham Whitaker 


02 15 08 


Peter Edgerton 


03 03 


00 


Mathew Clark 


02 15 08 


Joseph Mayo 


02 09 


00 


Nicholas Browne 


02 15 08 


September 23"* 


1676 




John Hartshorn 


02 15 08 


John Dunton 


01 02 


02 


Joseph Syll, Capt. 


06 00 00 


Nehemiah Tatingham 


03 05 


00 


Jacob BuUard 


02 04 06 


Thomas Chamberlain 


01 09 


02 


Philip Gleson 


00 17 00 


Stephen Francis 


01 18 


03 


Daniel Maginis 


04 13 00 


Justinian Houlding 


00 16 


03 


Thomas Dawby 


00 14 10 


Joseph Holland 


02 08 


10 







The names of those who served under Capt. Sill after Septem- 
ber 23d, 1676, were credited in a later Journal, now lost. The 
following interesting document explains itself : 



To the honored Generall Court assembled at Boston the Petition of 
Joseph Sill, 
humbly sheweth 
That your petitioner accounts it a great priviledge that from his child- 
hood he hath bin trained up, and hath spent so many of his dayes 
under your government, and cannot without singular content and com- 
placency call to minde, that he hath bin honoured to be called forth 
under your commission, to appear in the field against your enemies, in 
pursuance of which he did according to his mean ability serve you 
faithfully, and for length of time and number of expeditions, may 
(without ostentation be it spoken) compare with most if not any who 
were listed in your service ; and accounts noe part of his dayes, next 
to those which have bin improved in the immediate service of God, so 
well spent as those which have bin imployed in the service of his 
country and the government, remaining still devoted, in all that he 
hath and is, unto your service, without any selfish aimes. Yet being 
well assured that your noble and generous inclinations are not inferior, 
to his who accounted that day lost in which some or other were not 
benefited by him, nor to his, who was displeased with such as asked 
no kindness from him, he must confess that he hath some ambition that 
it may be manifested that he is not forgotten amongst those that have 



PETITION OF CAPT. SILL IN 1685. 275 

tasted of your beneficence, and humbly craves of the honoured court 
that you would please to grant to him a small number of acres of that 
land which hath bin recovered from the enimy, that so a little part of 
what he hath seen with his eyes and trod with his feet, in your service, 
may be committed into his hands, and that so he may the more com- 
fortably share in the blessings of these peaceful days wherein men may 
beat theyr swords into plow shares, and your petitioner shall pray, &c. 

Joseph Sill. 

The magis'^' judg meet to grant the petitioner 
two hundred acres of Land where he can find 
it free ; their brethren the Deputys hereto consenting. 
Edward Rawson, Sec'y. 

The deputyes consent not upon the consideration that this Court hath 
already granted a plantation of eight miles square in the nepmug coun- 
trey for the Accommodating such as were souldiers in the Late Warr 
with whom the petitioner may have his liberty to come in for a settle- 
ment if hee thinke good. 

Richard Sprague, pr order. 

November y« 19th 1685. 

[Mass. Archives, vol. 70, p. 148.] 



XX. 

VARIOUS OFFICERS AND COMPANIES. 



LIEUT. WILLIAM HASEY AND HIS COMPANY. 

WILLIAM HASEY, Boston, as early as 1652, lived at " Pull, 
ing Point ; " afterwards a large land-owner at Rumney- 
Marsh ; Artillery Company, 1652 ; freeman (Hazzey), 
1665. By wife Sarah had Esther, born about 1650, married 
Lieut. Henry Green of Maiden, January 11, 1671, and died Feb- 
ruary 26, 1747 ; William, born Sept. 15, 1652 ; Asa, born Janu- 
ary 1, 1655 ; Joseph, May 29, 1657 ; Susanna, May 30, 1660 ; 
Martha, baptized April 24, 1665. Lieut. Hasey married, second, 
May 16, 1681, Mrs. Judith, widow of Capt. Jonathan Poole. He 
died at Reading, May 30, 1689, aged about 70 years. 

Cornet William Hasey (or Haisy), May 27, 1674, was ap- 
pointed Lieutenant of the " Three County Troop," of which 
Edward Hutchinson was Captain and Jonathan Poole was made 
at same time Cornet; in Philip's war commanded a company in 
the summer of 1675. I find no connection between this family 
and William Hearsy of Hingham. 

William, the son, married Judith, and had William, born De- 
cember 21, 1679; Jacob, born August 26, 1684; Judith, Abi- 
gail, Martha; Nathaniel, March 13, 1693; and died June 7th, 
1695, aged 43, leaving widow Judith, who died November 17, 
1718, aged 68 3rears. 



Credited under Lieut. "William Hasey. 




October S''' 1675 


Phineas Sprague 


GO 18 06 


Benjamin Barrett 


GO 18 GO 


John Green, Gorpr. 


01 02 03 


James Barrett 


00 18 G6 


John Brown, Corpr. 


01 02 03 


Samuel Weeden 


GG 18 06 


John Eaton 


GO 18 06 


Daniel Greenland 


00 18 06 


Henry Greene 


GO 18 06 


Edward Tuttle 


00 18 06 


Samuel Richarson 


00 18 06 


Joseph Weeden 


GO 08 06 


Thomas Peirce 


GO 18 06 


Thomas Wheeler 


01 02 03 


John Gould 


00 18 06 


Thomas Wilson 


GO 18 06 


Joseph Wright 


00 18 06 


John Greenland 


GO 13 00 


John Batchelor 


00 18 06 


Thomas BrinknoU 


GO 18 06 


John Kendall 


GO 18 06 


John Green 


GO 18 06 


Thomas Hodgman 


00 18 06 


William Green, Corpr. 


00 15 06 


Josias Brown 


00 18 06 



CAPT. MANNING AND HIS MEN. 



277 



Joseph Wing 


00 18 


06 


August 24«' 1676 


Increas Wing 


00 18 


06 


Thomas Wheeler 


00 17 00 


John Brown 


00 18 


06 


John Barrett 


00 14 03 


Richard Middleton 


00 18 


06 


Increas Wing 


00 14 03 


Joseph Richardson 


00 18 


06 


John Richeson 


00 17 00 


William Hasey, Lieut. 


02 06 


06 


Thomas Hodgman 


00 14 00 


Jonathan Poole, Cornt. 


01 17 


02 


William (Greene 


00 17 00 


Isaac Brookes 


00 18 


06 


Phineas Sprague 


00 17 00 


July 24"^ 1676 




Joseph Winn 


00 14 03 


Nathaniel Richesson 


00 14 


03 


Thomas Brintnall 


00 14 03 


Samuel Richeson 


00 05 


U9 


William Hasey, Lieut. 


01 15 09 


Stephen Richeson 


00 04 


03 


John Kendall 


00 07 00 


Isaac Brooks 


00 01 


06 


September 23<» 


1676 


John Eaton 


00 14 


03 


John Waite 


00 14 00 


Thomas Peirce 


00 14 


03 


John Greene 
Thomas Gery 


00 14 00 
00 14 03 



CAPT. NICHOLAS MANNING, OF IPSWICH, AND HIS MEN. 

Capt. Nicholas Manning was the son of Richard Manning, of 
Dartmouth, co. Devon, England, and Anstiss (Galley), and was 
born there June 23d, 1644. He came to Salem (perhaps as 
mariner) and married Elizabeth, widow of Robert Gray, June 
23d, 1663, and had children — Thomas, Nicholas, Margaret, 
John, born between 1664 and 1668, and all died young. His 
mother Anstiss, then a widow, came to Salem in 1679, with six 
children, of whom Thomas, born February 11, 1664 (the young- 
est brother of Nicholas), was the ancestor (gr. grandfather) of 
Elizabeth Clarke Manning, mother of Nathaniel Hawthorne, the 
eminent author. Nicholas served in the Mount Hope campaign, 
June, 1675, in Capt. Paige's Troop, was also in command of a 
company that marched out to Narraganset to recruit the army 
after the Great Swamp Fight, His nephew Samuel inherited his 
Narraganset claim. 

He was an adherent of the Andros government, and under that 
was appointed to a judgeship on the Kennebec River, and upon 
Andros's overthrow he was arrested and imprisoned as one of his 
followers. 



Credited under Capt 

February 29'^ 1675-6 
Richard Scott 04 10 00 

John Ballard 01 16 00 

AnthonyNeedham,iieMi.lO 10 00 
Stephen Heurick 01 10 00 

Thomas Raymond 01 10 00 

Richard George 04 10 00 

March 24'*^ 1675 
Abiel Lamb 04 10 00 

John Pickard 01 10 00 



Nicholas Manning. 

Samuel Smith 01 10 00 
Ezekiel Mihill 01 10 00 
Daniel Gobeley 01 10 00 
Beckett 01 10 00 

April 24"' 1676 

Samuel Varnam 02 00 00 

John Rugles 05 16 00 

June 24''^ 1676 

John Wheeler 01 10 00 

Resolved White 02 10 00 



278 



KING PHILIP'S WAE. 



John Chapman 


04 10 00 


Robert Kinsman 01 10 00 


Edward Colcord 


02 00 00 


Nicholas Manning, Capt.18 00 00 


Eichard Norman 


01 10 00 


Jonathan Fairbanks 04 10 00 


Thomas Fuller 


01 10 00 


Alwin Breed 01 10 00 


Ebenezer Prout 


04 10 00 


Caleb KembaU 01 10 00 


John Spauldin 


02 00 00 


Elihu Wardall 01 10 00 


William Rayment 


01 16 00 


July 24*'' 1676 


Christopher Palmer 


01 08 07 


James Kidd 01 14 00 


Jonathan Moore 


01 12 10 


Henry Farrar 02 10 00 


John Lewis 


01 16 00 


August 24'^ 1676 


Samuel Johnson 


01 10 00 


Benjamin White 04 10 00 


Nathaniel Kirkland 


01 16 00 


Palmer 02 08 00 


Joseph Collins 


01 10 00 


Joseph Smith 02 00 00 


Samuel Hartwell 


01 10 00 





CAPT. JONATHAN REMINGTON AND HIS MEN. 

Jonathan Remington was the son of John of Newbury, 1637, 
and was born February 12, 1639 ; settled in Cambridge and 
married Martha Belcher, daughter of Andrew, July 13th, 1664, 
and had Martha, born February 18, 1666-7, died April 23, 1669 ; 
Jonathan, born March 17, 1668-9, died April 16, 1669 ; Martha, 
born October 28, 1674, married Capt. Nicholas Bowes of Boston, 
January 19, 1718-19 ; Jonathan, born September 25, 1677 ; Sam- 
uel, born July 11, 1679, died June 3d, 1680 ; Anna, born January 
30, 1680-81, married John Hill, June 24th, 1708; John and 
Mary, who died 1689 and 1690 ; Elizabeth, had a share in the 
estate ; Sarah, born May 10, 1688, married John Biscoe of Water- 
town, February 1, 1710-11. Was prominent in public and 
especially in military affairs, and from 1682 till his death kept 
the original " Blue Anchor Tavern," Cambridge. He held the 
position of corporal in the local military company at Cambridge, 
and was in command of a company during the winter and spring 
of 1675-6. He was active in the later Indian war, in 1689 at 
Groton, and in 1691 at Wells and in the eastward parts. He 
died April 21, 1700, leaving his widow Martha, who died July 
16, 1711, and through his son Jonathan left a notable and numer- 
ous posterity. He served with the Cambridge men under Capt. 
Davenport in the Narraganset campaign, and was in the Swamp 
fight. In the winter following he was active in the command 
and supply of some of the garrisons in the interior towns, and 
was ordered, March 11, 1675-6, to leave " the garrison " and 
march his soldiers home. His son Jonathan inherited Ms Narra- 
ganset claim. 

Credited under Captain Jonathan Remington 

AprH 24"^ 1676 

John King 03 15 00 

Aaron Jaques 03 06 00 

Joseph Gridley 03 17 00 



WiUiam Bishop 


03 06 00 


Peter Hanchett 


04 10 10 


William Haywood 


04 10 10 


Caleb Jackson 


04 10 00 





CAPT. REYNOLDS' MEN. 279 


Tobiah Redman 


02 07 02 


Richard Higinbottom 03 06 00 


William Brown 


01 16 00 


Richard Sawtell 03 06 00 


Robert Wills 


04 17 06 


Thomas Thorp 03 06 00 


John Burrows 


02 07 02 


June 24'^ 1676 


Jeremiah Hood 


04 10 10 


John Hollis 04 10 10 


Francis Cooke 


04 09 10 


Samuel Williams | ^^ ^ ^^ 
and his man J 


William Smith 


02 07 02 


John Parrum 


03 06 00 





LIEUT. NATHANIEL KEYNOLDS AND HIS MEN. 

Nathaniel Reynolds, born in England, was the son of Robert 
and Mary, of Boston as early as 1632. He married Sarah Dwight 
of Dedham, November 30, 1657. She died July 8, 1663, and he 
married Priscilla Brackett, of Boston, before February 21, 1666. 
Children of Sarah, first wife, — Sarah, born July 26, 1659, married 
John Fosdick ; Mary, born November 20, 1660, died aged 2 years, 
2 months ; Nathaniel, born March 3, 1662-3. By second wife — 
John, born August 4, 1668, died 1757, aged 88 years ; Peter, 
born January 26, 1670 ; Philip, born September 15, 1672, died 
young; Joseph, born January 9, 1677, died January 16, 1759, 
aged 82 years 7 days ; Hannah, born January 15, 1682, married 
Samuel Royall; Mary, born 1684? married Nathaniel Woodbury ; 
Benjamin, born May 10, 1686 (in Bristol) ; Ruth, born Dec. 9, 
1688, married Josiah Gary. 

He was of the Artillery Company 1658, and admitted freeman 
1665. He was in command of the garrison at Chelmsford in the 
fall and winter of 1675-6, and on February 25th the inhabitants 
petition the Court that he be allowed to remain, with his soldiers, 
for their protection. He removed to Bristol, R.I., after the war, 
and was prominent in the organization and development of that 
town. 



Credited under Lieut. Nath> Reynolds. 




April 24'*^ 


1676 


Thomas Stacy 


03 15 04 


Thomas Wiborn 


00 18 00 


David Couch 


03 15 04 


June 24'*' 


1676 


Joseph Bicknell 


00 12 00 


Michael Bastow 


00 18 00 


Joseph Bateman 


00 12 00 


Humphrey Miller 


02 18 00 


William Twing 


02 08 00 


John Sergeant 


00 12 00 


James Burrell 


02 03 08 


Zibeon Leatherland 


00 12 00 


Robert Mason 


00 12 04 


Digory Sergeant 


02 10 06 


Ephraim Mosse 


01 04 00 


Joseph Saxton 


00 12 00 


July 24"^ 1676 


Azbin Morris 


00 12 00 


Samuel Peacock 


00 14 00 


James Mecranell 


01 04 00 


August 24"^ 1676 


Joseph Lamson 


00 12 00 


Nath'l Reynolds, 


Lieut. 04 05 00 



280 KING Philip's wak. 



CAPT. JOHN HOLBROOKE, OF WEYMOUTH, AND HIS MEN. 

Capt. John Holbrooke was the son of Thomas, and the follow- 
ing list from the N. England Hist, and Gen. Register, Vol. 
XXV. p. 14, serves to fix the date of the family's arrival at Wey- 
mouth, Mass. 

Waymouth [England] y« 20''^ of March 1635 [-6] 
Bound for New England 
[No] 66 Thomas Holbrooke of Broudway aged 34: yeare 

67 Jane Holbrooke his wife aged 34 Yeare 

68 John Holbrooke his sonne aged 11 yeare 

69 Thomas Holbrooke his sonne aged 10 yeare 

70 Anne Holbrooke his daughf aged 5 yeare 

71 Elizabeth Holbrooke his daught"^ aged 1 yeare. 

All the data we have concerning Capt. John show the above 
age to have been some six years less than that given upon his 
gravestone, and to have been incompatible with many points in 
his history. He married Elizabeth Stream, who died June 25th, 
1688, aged 64 years ; and second, widow Mary Loring, who sur- 
vived him. His children were — John, married Abigail Pierce, 
daughter of Capt. Michael ; a daughter, married Simon Whit- 
marsh ; Abiezer ; Hannah, married Ephraim Pierce, son of Capt. 
Michael ; Grace, married Joseph Nash of Boston ; Samuel ; Lois 
and Eunice, twins ; Eunice, married Benjamin Ludden ; Ex- 
perience, married Joseph Edson ; Ichabod, married Sarah Turner. 

Capt. Holbrooke was a very enterprising man of business, and 
his real estate operations were quite extensive for his day. He 
was also prominent in military affairs, was Lieutenant of the 
local company, and, August 8th, 1664, was chosen to go upon 
some service as Lieutenant in the company of Capt. Hudson, 
but his wife and family being sick at the time. Ensign John 
Thurston, of Hingham, was appointed in his stead. In the time 
of Philip's war he was in command of the local company, and in 
the spring of 1676 was appointed to command one of the com- 
panies raised and sent out to suppress the " Insolencies " of the 
Indians and to " range the woods towards Hassanamesit." The 
following papers pertain to that service. Capt. Holbrooke died 
November 23, 1699, leaving a large estate to his numerous heirs. 

Concord y^ 29'^ of ApriU 1676 
Hon^"^ Sirs, 

According to orders I have obtained here to Concord & this Day 
have mustered my Company, And have here send the list of those that 
not appear according to order likewise the names of them y' are here 
now of my Companey, which are but very Small which is a great Dis- 
com'agement to me, therefore my humble request is that I may have 
my Company made up accordinge to my order of 80 men or else y' I 



CAPT. HOLBROOKE'S MEN. 



281 



may be Dismissed which I have mention to yo"" Honno" alreadye Iff I 
should not have a full Company. Some nessarys, I want for the 
Company I have neither Drume nor CoUors, which I Desire that If you 
thinke it fitt to send me Either houe-boye or a Drurapiter which is very 
requisitt, having nothing Else att present & remaine 

Your Honn°" Most humble Servant 

John Holbrook. 
Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 239. 

The following paper is doubtless the list referred to : 

These are to Certifie y^ Hon** Major Generall Denison or whome it 
may Conserne Being ordered to take 82 men under my Command to- 
gether with 28 horses & 14 men to tend them, viz. being order by 
Major Clarke 

39 men from Boston 4 horses 2 men 
9 men from Roxbury 4 horses 2 men 
9 men from Dorchester 4 horses 2 men 

6 men from Dedham 4 horses 2 men 

7 men from Brantry 4 horses 2 men 

6 men from Weymouth 4 horses 2 men 
6 men from Hingham 4 horses 2 men 

Defects from Boston for non-appearance Jn° Pemerton, Jn° Porter & 
Richard Knight From Dorchester non-appearance, Consider Atherton, 
Henry Wedarton [Withington] , Ebezar Clape. From Waymouth, 
Zachary Gorney. From Hingham, Jn° Feres & Arthur Sherman. 

p me John Holbrooke Cap" 

Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 12. 



Credited under Capt. John Holbrooke. 



June 24''^ 1676 




Jeremiah Conah 


03 02 06 


Daniel Adams 


01 


16 00 


Benjamin Molton 


03 02 06 


Samuel Adams 


01 


04 00 


Benjamin Bates 


05 15 10 


Denis Sihy 


02 


10 00 


James Atkins 


01 15 00 


August 24* 


1676 




Samuel Blake 


03 10 08 


Samuel Davis 


02 


00 00 


Thomas William 


01 10 00 


Joseph Lyon 


01 


11 08 


Isaac How 


01 01 04 


Moses Knapp 


03 


10 00 


Samuel Spencer 


01 01 04 


Roger Prosser 


00 


13 08 


Caleb Rey 


01 14 02 


Paul Gilford 


02 


19 00 


John Whitney 


00 18 00 


Dauiel Adams 


04 


12 01 


John Ellenworth 


01 11 08 


Joseph Walters 


04 


10 00 


Sept 23*^ 1676 




John Scott 


00 


14 06 


Joseph Tucker 


03 05 00 


John Plum 


01 


10 00 


Thomas Hoppen 


01 12 06 


John Harker 


03 


12 00 


James Hadlock 


02 08 00 


John Randall 


01 


11 08 


Thomas Bull 


04 07 06 


Samuel Wales 


01 


12 06 


John Craft 


02 14 10 


James Sinkler 


03 


02 06 


Benjamin Merifield 


03 01 08 



282 



KING PHILIP S WAR. 



Joshuah Child 


01 


10 00 


Richard Puffer 


02 


01 00 


John Parker 


03 


01 08 


Benjamin Phillips 


01 


10 10 


William Deane 


01 


15 08 



Daniel Harris 01 11 08 

WUliam Field 03 00 00 

Thomas Betell 04 02 00 

John Holbrooke, Capt, 16 01 03 



CAPT. JOHN WHIPPLE, OF IPSWICH, AND HIS MEN. 

The Whipple family in this country undoubtedly descended 
from Matthew Whipple of Booking, co. Essex, England, a 
clothier. Will of December 19th, 1616, probated January 28th, 
1618, mentions son Matthew, son John, daughters Jane, Eliza- 
beth, Mary, Anne, Johane, Amye ; " my sister, wife of Richard 
Rathbone ; Hercules Stephens, grandchildren Hercules and 
Margaret Arthur and Henry and Anne Coldham." 

The two brothers Matthew and John, who were settled at 
Ipswich some time before 1638, were probably the sons men- 
tioned above. They settled at the " Hamlet," now the town of 
Hamilton. John was a deacon or ruling elder of the First 
Church. He was freeman 1640, and representative for eight 
years between that and 1653. By first wife he had children 
— Mary, John, Susanna, Sarah, and probably others. 

Capt. John, son of "Elder" John, as above, born in Essex, 
England, about 1626, married, first, Martha Reyner, daughter 
of Humphrey, who died February 24, 1679 ; married, second, Eliza- 
beth Paine, June 28th, 1680. By first wife had children — John, 
born July 15, 1657 ; Matthew, born 1658 ; Joseph, born June 8, 
1666; Susan, Sarah and Anna. He was appointed Cornet of 
the Ipswich troop before 1675, and Captain in 1683 in place of 
Capt. John Apple ton. He was Lieutenant in Capt. Paige's 
Troop at Mount Hope, June, 1675, and was appointed Captain 
of a troop raised for service under Major Savage in March, 1676 ; 
was with the army in the unsuccessful manoeuvring of that 
campaign. In the letter of the Council to Mayor Savage, dated 
April 1st, 1676, is found the passage, "Touching that Rebuke 
of God upon Cap* Whiple and y* poore people at Springfield it 
is a matter of great shame and humbling to us." This was in 
answer to one from Major Savage of March 28th, dated at 
Hadley, in which he says that they have had advice from Spring- 
field that eight Indians assaulted sixteen or eighteen men, 
besides women and children, as they were going to meeting from 
a place called Long Meadow, " and killed a man and a maid, 
wounded two men, and carried away captive two women and 
two children." One of the men killed was John Keep. Mrs. 
Sarah Keep, his wife, was one of those captured with her child, and 
died soon from her wounds. Major Savage says, further, that 
being apprised of that affair and the way the Indians went, he 
sent out sixteen men in pursuit, who came up with the Indians, 
who, as soon as they found the English in close pursuit, killed 



OAPT. .lOTIN WHUM'l-K, OK H'SWIOII, \NI> ms MKN. 



2S;i 



tho two ohiUiron, and s(rikin<j^ Iho womon with (hoir linlcliots upon 
tlio liead, loft thiMu for (load ami Hod. Tlio hoiHomon hroujrlit 
IkioIc tho four hodios, tho womon hoini; yot alivo; ono rooovorod; 
and this disastor was a sovoro ro[)roa.oh to tho guard, who in a 
popuhir rhymo of tho day aro ronuMuhorod tliua : 

" Sovon Indians, and ono without a jjjun, 
Cauaod Capt.. Nixon .iiul forty mon to inn." 

I am inolinod to think (hat hy (ho (Vunoil, (•:i|)(.. Whip|)h\ aa 
t'omman(h<r of (ho troop, and |)orhapH a(. (l»a(. iwno wi(h (hoiu, was 
ludd rosponsibU^ for (ho disusdu-. 1 know nodiino: of ( 'Mpt. " Nixon." 



C^rcditi'd undtM- ('iip(.. ,l( 
Juno 21'" 1 



Jolii) Dodffo 
M:nivo IliiHcall 
VVilUiun Smith 
Uiohard diild 
ThouiMs lAiavor 
Sainuol Smith 
l):inii'l \Vy(H)mo, Qr. 
Joseph Clink 
John Iv.-iymout 
'rhiulouM lUMi-y 
MoHcM (•it'MVflaud 
John Siiwiii 
,)t)hii S((>iu^ 
Samul^l Si(>!iruoH 
Jolui Wiiit 
Sanniol Cooper 
.lainoH 'IVuuoy 
Sanuu^i Ladd 
Christophor I'almor 



(wC) 

o;} 

();{ 
03 
03 
03 
JWr.Of) 
03 
03 
03 
03 
03 
03 
03 
03 
02 
02 
04 
04 



oJMi Whippio of Ipswich. 

SM.nni(«l (liapinau 03 07 02 
or. July 24'" l(i7«') 

0() Joseph Taylor 03 OH 0(5 

00 Jamos llohbs 03 10 00 

0<) 'Pinvodiy liroad 03 OH ()() 

0(5 William Dollow 03 OH 0(5 

OC. llonry Koimy 03 OH ()() 

01) J:inu<"s l.owd'on 00 10 00 

OC. J()St«ph Katou 03 OH OC* 
00 Aujj:uHt 24'" 107 C. 

or. Thomas Urintnall 03 OH Of, 

OC. 'riiomas llod^nuin 00 17 00 

OC. John Whippio, Capf. 13 14 03 

OC. l*:dw.Mnl Ni^laiid 03 OH OC, 

OC, Sanniol (JiddiufTH 0'.) IC, Of, 

00 i'homas Andrews 03 OC, OH 

00 Kphraim Follows 03 ll> 00 

00 Soptouibor 23'' 1C,7C, 

00 John Hrowuo 04 02 00 
04 



OAI'T. .lOlIN .lACOIl, Oil' IIINOIIAM, AND HIM MK,N. 

(^■aj)t. John Jacob was (ho son of Nicholas, who caino from Old 
Tlingiiain, l*in<j;land, (o Iliniij'ha.m, Mass., in \V\'.V.\, wi(h wib> Mary 
and chil(lr(Ui John and I<Mi/,a.l)o(h ; aiul thoro had Josiah, Josoph, 
born May 10, I(',l(!, and four daut^ddcus. Nicholas was roprosorda- 
tivo in l(ilS a,n<l KM'.), a.nd diod'juno Ath, l(;r)7. 

Cn.\)l. John, born in Piiiidaud, marricnl Mar^iu-y l*'aiuos, Ooto- 
b(u- 20, l(;r)3, ami ha,d children John, born Ocli.lxu- 'JO, lOA-l, 
who, April 1!), 1(>7(>, was killed by tln^ Indians near his faiiuu-'H 
housti, in what is now Sou(.h llint;ham; Mary, l)orn March 21, 
l(;r)(;; Sarah, Immii Scp(. 2'.», \iu^il ; lionjaiuin, April 2, \i\f>\). 
Fiist wife died April 7, KiA'J, and ho marriod, stH'.ond, ()c(,ob«u- 51, 
Kill I, Mary Itusst^il, dau^hlcr of (Joor^o, a.ml had Jaol, l)orn 
Sopt(Uub(U' 7, l(>«i2; David, born Juno 'JO, IdlM; Kli/.aboth, l)oni 
April 11, lt)()(j; I'otor, Ixun February I'J, KKiH; Hannah, born 



284 KING Philip's war. 

December 26, 1669 ; Samuel, born November 30, 1671 ; Deborah, 
born May 15, 1674, died soon ; Deborah, 2d, born August 8, 1677 ; 
John, 2d, born July 31, 1679; Lydia, born April 18, 1681; 
Abigail, born Nov. 13, 1683. His will, probated Dec. 31, 1693, 
names his twelve living children, four sons and eight daughters. 
He was very active and influential. His house was fortified as a 
garrison by order of the General Court, Feb. 25, 1676. He was 
in command of a foot-company of about eighty men at Medfield, 
when, on Feb. 21, 1676-7, the town was attacked by a large 
body of Indians and partially destroyed. There were, besides 
this company of Capt. Jacob, a detachment of twenty troopers 
under command of Lieut. Edward Oakes, and the " train-band " 
of the town, about one hundred in number. These were 
quartered about the town in the various houses, and there were 
no scouts about the town to keep watch and ward, and the enemy 
crept in and about the houses, and just before daylight, at a 
given signal, fired the detached houses, near which they had 
placed ambuscades, and when the people and the soldiers 
quartered there, rushed out, they were shot down. The main 
guard, stationed near the meeting-house, had a cannon which 
they fired several times, which alarmed the inhabitants and prob- 
ably frightened the enemy, who fled across the river towards 
Sherburne, burning the bridge behind them, thus cutting off the 
slow and clumsy pursuit of the scattered troops. The fullest 
account of this affair is given by Major Daniel Gookin in his 
" History of the Christian Indians." He says the Indians burnt 
about forty houses, near half the town, and killed and wounded 
about twenty people. Among the killed was Lieut. Henry 
Adams, the military officer of the town. After the lieutenant's 
death, his widow Elizabeth had been taken to the house of the 
minister, the Rev. Mr. Wilson, near the meeting-house, and here 
a very sad and strange accident occurred ; for Mrs. Adams, who 
had retired to the chamber, and was lying upon a bed just over 
the room below, in which Capt. Jacob and some of the officers 
and guards were gathered, was killed by the accidental discharge 
of a gun in the hand of Capt. Jacob, just as he was passing out 
of the house to his quarters, and having his gun " half-bent," i.e. 
at half-cock, the muzzle pointing upward, the bullet piercing 
through " the floor and mat through and through the body of the 
lieutenant's widow." He was with Capt. Johnson in the Narra- 
ganset campaign, and, on the Captain's death, was appointed to 
the command of the company.^ He was afterwards engaged 
during the winter, with Capt. Wadsworth, in guarding the fron- 
tiers from Milton to the Plymouth Colony bounds, Weymouth, 
Hingham and Hull being assigned in particular to Capt. Jacob, 
John, 2d, inherited his Narraganset claim. 

1 It is probable that in the " Fort Fight " Lieut. Henry Bowen, if present, took the command 
after the Captain fell, as was proper, but Capt. Jacob was appointed to fill the place afterward, 
as were other senior ofllcers, in the other companies. 



CREDITS UNDER CAPT. JOHN JACOB, OF HINGHAM. 



285 



Credited under Capt. John Jacob, of Hingham.^ 



March 24«^ 1675-6 




John Sibly 


02 


17 04 


Nathaniel Beales 


01 09 


06 


July 24"> 1676 




April 24"^ 1675 




John Taylor 


00 


16 09 


William Williams 


00 05 


00 


Ebenezer Inglesby 


00 


10 02 


James Taylor 


01 04 


00 


William Bodkin 


00 


10 02 


June 24* 167 


6 




August 24"^ 1676 




Thomas Davis 


00 09 


05 


Elisha Foster 


00 


10 02 


William Field 


00 12 


00 


Anthony Hancock 


00 


10 02 


Benjamin Bignall 


GO 09 


02 


Edward Blancher 


00 


10 02 


John Battle 


00 12 


00 


John Howen 


00 


10 03 


Jeremiah Fisher 


00 12 


00 


John Plumb 


00 


10 02 


Benjamin Wight 


00 12 


00 


Samuel Paule 


00 


15 02 


Ephraim Wilson 


00 12 


00 


David Fawkner 


00 


10 02 


John Thurston 


00 12 


00 


John Wells, Jr. 


00 


10 02 


Nathaniel Farrington 


00 12 


00 


Henry Bowen 


00 


15 00 


Edward Segwell 


00 12 


00 


John Jacobs 


09 


17 00 


John Gray 


00 12 


00 


William Paine 


00 


10 02 


John Cuckow 


00 04 


02 


Thomas Hoppin 


02 


18 02 


John Herring 


00 05 


00 


Gilbert Endicott 


00 


10 02 


John Richardson 


03 07 


08 


Joseph Swady 


00 


10 02 


Alexander Mecanny 


04 16 


00 


September 2S 


M676 




John Nowell 


00 09 


02 


Isaac Jones 


00 


10 02 


Humphrey Richards 


00 12 


00 









CAPT. JOHN CUTLER AND HIS MEN. 

Capt. John Cutler was the son of Robert (of Charlestown in 
1637, freeman 1638) and Rebecca his wife. John was probably- 
born in England about 1628. He married, first, Anna Wood- 
mansey, daughter of Robert and Anna. She died August 20, 
1683, in her 57th year, and he married, second, Mehitable Hilton, 
October 29, 1684. She died September 29, 1711, having survived 
the captain, who died September 12th, 1694, in his 66th year. 
His children, all by his first wife, were — John ; Timothy ; Sarah, 
born October 20, 1655, married Eleazer Phillips, 1695-6 ; Samuel, 
born March 6, 1658 ; Hannah, married Daniel Willard, 1683 ; 
Robert, born November 15, 1663, died in Barbadoes August 30, 
1683 ; Rebecca, born November 5, 1666, married Josiah Bennett ; 
Mary, born November 20, 1669, died 1703. 

Capt. Cutler was engaged during the war, on various occasions, 
in conducting supply trains to the garrisons, and at the time of 
Capt. Wadsworth's destruction at Sudbury, April 21, 1676, nar- 
rowly escaped being cut off with his company returning from 
Marlborough. He was in command of a company under Capt. 
Henchman the next month at Hassanamesit. 

^ See also credite of March and April, 1676, under Capt. Johnson. 



286 



KING PHILIP S WAR. 



Credited under Capt. John Cutler. 



June 24 1676 
Zachariah Feres 
William Green 
John Wilson 
Joseph Pratt 
Daniel Edmunds 
John Watson 
Josiah Wood 
John Dows 
William Whiting 
Samuel Blancher 
Timothy Philips 
Giles Fifield 
John Fosdicke 
Samuel Peirce 
Samuel Cutler 
Joshuah als. Josiah Ben^ 

jamin 
Daniel Baldwin 
John Cutler, Leiut. 
Nathaniel Rand 
Matthew Griffin 
Samuel Frothingham 
Nathaniel Douse 
Thomas Rand 
George Polly 
Edward Wilson 
Josiah Smith 
James Smith 
John Smith 
William Clough 
Nathaniel Frothingham 
John Call (2 credits) 
Munning Sawin 
Eleazer Beares 
Joseph Parker 
John Barrett 

July 24 1676 
John Begello 
Isaac Fowl 
John Dickson 
Robert Robin 
Stephen Coolidg 
John Edes 
Phillip Russell 
Daniel Warren 
John Jones 
Nathaniel Kittle 
Samuel Gibson 



00 


09 


04 


00 


12 


00 


00 


14 


00 


00 


15 


04 


02 


06 


08 


00 


14 


00 


01 


07 


04 


00 


14 


00 


01 


07 


04 


00 


12 


10 


01 


14 


10 


00 


04 


00 


00 


12 


10 


00 


09 


04 


01 


04 


10 


00 


12 


00 


00 


03 


04 


03 


15 


00 


01 


03 


04 


00 


15 


04 


00 


16 


02 


01 


07 


04 


01 


04 


10 


00 


09 


04 


00 


09 


00 


00 


12 


10 


00 


18 08 1 


00 


03 


04 


00 


14 


00 


00 02 


06 


00 


19 


00 


00 


12 


00 


00 


12 


00 


00 


08 


00 


00 


06 


06 


00 


09 


00 


00 


12 


00 


01 


01 


04 


00 


09 


04 


00 


02 


06 


00 


09 


08 


02 


06 


00 


00 


09 


08 


00 09 


04 


00 


11 


00 


00 


03 04 



Thomas Micheson 01 

Henry Philips 01 

Thomas White 00 

William Browne 00 
Christopher Goodwin 00 

Zeckeriah Johnson 00 

Isaac Johnson 00 

Joseph Frost 00 

Samuel Hayward 00 

John Martin 00 

Robert Carter 00 

James Nichols 00 

John Winslade 00 

William Laroby 00 

Jonathan Stimpson 00 

George Woodward 00 

Thomas Whitney 00 

William Goddard 00 

Samuel Prentice 00 

Joshuah Edmands 00 
August 24"^ 1676 

Edward Smith 00 

John Lee 00 

Edward Goff 01 

Hugh Taylor 00 

Isaac Beech 00 

David Mead 00 

John Dowgin 00 

John Whitney 00 

Nathaniel Fisk 00 

Ephraim Phillips 00 

William Rider 00 

Daniel Willard 00 

Christopher Muschin 00 

Samuel Cooper 00 

William Price 00 
September 23'^ 1676 



Aaron Cleaveland 
Thomas Hammond 
John Kemball 
John Stedman 
David Alexander 
Alexander Wait 
John Melvin 
Thomas Fiske 
Samuel Peirce 
John Brookes 
John Walker 
Jonathan Smith 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 



04 10 

04 00 

14 00 

15 04 

16 02 
18 10 

05 02 
10 00 
09 04 
09 04 
09 04 

08 06 

09 04 
09 04 
02 06 
07 08 
02 06 
09 04 
09 04 

06 10 

06 10 
02 06 

13 04 
18 00 
09 04 
09 04 
09 04 
02 06 
02 06 

09 04 

10 02 

14 06 
09 04 
12 00 

09 04 

02 06 

10 02 

02 06 

03 09 
10 02 

09 04 

10 02 
10 02 
12 00 

15 06 
09 04 
09 04 



FEOM LIEUT. UPHAM TO THE COUNCIL. 287 



LIEUT. PHINEAS UPHAM AND HIS COMMAND. 

Lieut. Phineas Upham was the son of John Upham, who, 
about the year 1635, settled in Weymouth, having wife Elizabeth 
and several children. Phineas was born in 1635 or 1636. About 
1648 his father removed to Maiden, and there the son grew up ; 
and there he married, April 14, 1658, Ruth Wood ; and they had 
children : Phineas, Nathaniel, Ruth, John, Elizabeth and prob- 
ably Richard and Thomas. Lieut. Upham was a man of more 
than ordinary ability and influence, as the records, and references 
to his public services in places of trust, prove. At the breaking 
out of the war he held the rank of Lieutenant in the local com- 
pany. 

He was in command of men, and in service during the latter 
part of the summer; and in September, 1675, led a company of 
thirty-eight men out to Mendon to meet Capt. John Gorham of 
Plymouth Colony, and the account of their service on that 
occasion is explained in the following letters : 

Letter of Lt. Phineas Upham to the Governer and Council. 

From Mendum, y« 1»': Octob': 1675. 
Honer^ Gou''ne' & Counsill. 

These are to certify your worships that Cap*. Gorum with myselfe 
«&; our Souldiers of both Company' are in good health at pres" through 
mercy ; 

And to give your honer an account of our seaverell marches ; first we 
Came to Mendum one the 25*'' day of the weeke at nightt being the 
24"* day of September and one the 25"* day we marched from Mendum 
unto Hassanemisett hoping there to have had an Indian for our guide ; 
butt the Indians were all gone from thence ; and were thereby dis- 
apoynted of our expecttation & one the next day we marched unto 
Packachoug where we found a f eild of good corn and well fenced : 
which we did think convenient not to destroy : Concluding that for 
ought we Knew Sum of the neeriest of our Inhabitance would be will- 
ing to save itt ; butt we could not finde any Indians neither the signe 
of any being there of late and we marched from thence unto Manchoag 
and Chobanamagungamung where we found sum cornfeilds and sum 
wigwams, which Corn and wigwams we burnt and destroyed butt (we 
did not) finde any of our enimies which was a greate discouragement 
to us, having taken soe much paynes to finde them ; then we Returned 
and marched to an Indian Plantation called Shockebogue where we 
Could not finde any Indians butt found a Considerable quantity of 
Good Corne which we did not destroy butt Reserved itt at the Request 
of Sum of Mendum who thinke to fetch itt home for there use ; and 
from thence we Came to Mendum one the 30* of Sept'"': now seeing 
in all our marches we finde noe Indians verily thinke thatt thay are 
drawne together into greate bodyes far Remote from those partes : 

If your boners please to send us one any further Service I hope we 
shall nott be unwilling butt forwarde to doe our uttermost Indeavours 
with all desiring that you would be pleased to add unto our number 



288 KING Philip's war. 

seeing that besides the Garrison men which must be left heere in 
garrison we have butt 30 men besides my Selfe, Capt. Gorum being 
now in his march to Mounthope and If we goe further we desir thatt 
we may have a Surgeon and some other thatt may be acquainted with 
the woodes where you Sende us the want of w*^'' hath beene a dis- 
couragement to our men: And as for the town of Mendum I am 
desired to Commend the desolate condition of y™ unto you^ honers : 
Severall of there Inhabitance being removed from them : and those in 
garrison being butt poore helps in divers respects and in number but 
12 men, with theire amies very defecttive. 

The plantation is very Remotte & therefore soe much the more 
stands in neede of helpe ; itt is very Likely to be a prosperous place if 
itt please God to putt an Ishue to thes troubles and therefore it is the 
more pitty to have itt deserted by there people : who think it must be 
If they have nott sum assistance they hope : 20 : men well fitted with 
this one Returned might be suflshent If your honers se Causs ; and 
further they desired to acquainte your honers that y^ Indians of 
Hassanamisett which your honers apoynted to set down with them 
have desertted there one town and come nott to that at Mendum And 
soe nott havening any more to troublee your honers with 

I Rest your Hon" 

To Command 

Phinehas Upham, 

Mass. Archives, vol. 67, p. 275. Liftenantt. 

Letter of Gapt John Gorum to Oov'" & Councill. 

Mendum Octob : th : 1 : 1675. 

Much Hon'" my servis with all due Respeckts humbly presented to 
yourselfe and the rest of the Counsill hoping of your helths I have 
made bold to troble you with these few lines to give your honnors an 
account of our progress in your Jurisdiction : According unto your 
honers order and detirmination I arived at Mendum with fifty men and 
the next day Lef tennant Upham arived with thirty-eight men and the 
day following wee joyned our forces together and marched in pesuite 
to ffind our Ennimy ; but God hath bin pleased to deuigh us any op- 
pertunity tharein ; though with much Labor and travill we have indeav- 
ored to find them out which Left. Upham hath given you a more 
particular acount : our Solders being much worne out having bin in the 
ffeeld this foretene weeks and little hoops of finding the Enimy, we 
are this day Returning towards our Genrall : but as for my one part I 
shall be Redy to sarve God and the Country in this just warr soe long 
as I have life and helth. Not Else to troble you I Rest yours to Sarve 
in what I am able. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 67. John Gorum. 

From Mendon Lieut. Upham marched his company to Brook- 
field, towards Springfield, where he was ordered by the Court to 
report to Capt. Wayte, who was expected to command a com- 
pany in the service under Major John Pynchon, and that arrange- 
ment failing, he was assigned to the command of Capt. Jonathan 



FATALLY WOUNDED. 289 

Poole, with whom he joined forces and marched to Hadley be- 
fore October 12th. He was formally placed under command of 
Capt. Poole in the organization of the army under Major Apple- 
ton, and served thus, in the stirring events of the weeks following. 
November 20th, he was credited as Lieutenant under Capt. 
Poole, .£06. 19. 04. He returned home when the army withdrew 
from the west ; but joined the forces at Narraganset, probably 
after the muster at Dedham, December 10th. He was assigned 
to Capt. Johnson's company, and after that gallant officer's fall, 
was himself fatally wounded, at the head of the company, inside 
the fort. He was among the wounded at Rhode Island, January 
6, 1675-6. He died at Boston, October, 1676, and October 12, 
1676, the court issued the following order: 

Order of the General Court. 
October 12, 1676. In answer to the peticon of Ruth Upham, wid- 
dow & relict of the late Left. Phineas Upham, the Court Judgeth it 
meet to order, that the bills of charges to chirurgeons, doct" & diet, 
mentioned in sajd peticon, be p*^ by the Treasurer of the country ; and 
in consideration of the long and good service hir husband did for the 
country, & the greate losse the widdow susteynes in his death, being 
left with seven small children, & not able to carry on their affaires for 
the support of hirself & family, doe further order the Treasurer to pay 
unto the sajd widdow tenn pounds in or as money. 

Items, Treasurer to pay, £ s d 

Mr. Chickering bill 2 14 08 

Edward EUis, Chir 2 10 00 

Mr. Addington 1 03 05 

Dr. Cooke 1 05 00 

Mrs. Peirc for diet 4 18 00 

To y^ Widdow 10 00 00 

Secretary Allowance 40 00 00 
Col. Records, Vol. V. p. 122. 

Credited under Lieut. Upham. 



December 20"' 1675 
Robert Skelton 01 01 04 

Robert Bardall 02 02 00 

John Shaw 00 10 02 



June 24^^ 1676 
John Hall 01 00 00 

August 24'^ 1676 
Thomas Hoppin 00 07 08 



I have found that the men who served under him were mostly 
paid off under the vouchers of Capt Poole ; and after the fight at 
Narraganset he was never again able to take command. 



CAPT. SAMUEL HUNTING. 



He was the son of John Hunting of Dedham, and was born 
July 22, 1640. He settled first at Chelmsford and later at 
Charlestown. Married Hannah Hackburne of Roxbury Dec. 24, 
1662. They had ten children born at Charlestown between 1662 



290 KING Philip's war. 

and 1687, of whom all but three died in childhood. Those who 
lived were Samuel, born July 15, 1666, married, and settled in 
Charlestown and had a family ; Mercy, baptized March 13, 
1681-2, married Benjamin Frothingham, 1704 ; Hannah, baptized 
Dec. 3, 1682, married Samuel Frothingham, 1704. Captain 
Hunting was killed by the accidental discharge of his gun August 
19, 1701, aged sixty years. 

We have seen that there was in the Massachusetts Colony great 
opposition to the employment of friendly Indians in the war, 
while Connecticut, constantly making use of them, had been 
spared the terrible losses which liad befallen the others. 

At last, grown wise by bitter experience, the Massachusetts 
Council determined to stem the tide of popular opposition, and 
equip and send forth a company of Christian Indians, to try if 
the devastations of the enemy along the frontiers could be 
checked. In pursuance of this order, April 21, 1676, Capt. 
Samuel Hunting and Lieut. James Richardson drew up and fur- 
nished their company of forty Indians at Charlestown. They 
were ordered first to march up the Merrimac to near Chelms- 
ford, and there to build a fort and settle a garrison at the great 
falls, which was a famous fishing-place : they were to scout and 
guard, etc. ; but before they marched, and about mid-day, came 
the news of the attack of the great body of Indians upon Sud- 
bury. Captain Hunting with his company marched away to 
Sudbury and rendered service, as has been related in the chapter 
relating to the Sudbury fight. The service here rendered did 
much to abate the hostility against the Christian Indians, and 
they were thenceforward in constant service in all the expeditions 
while the war lasted, and Captain Hunting's company was soon 
made up to eighty men, who were furnished with arms sent over 
from England. 

From the time that Captain Hunting's company took the field, 
the enemy lost heart, evidently fearing them more than the whole 
armies of English, which they could easily elude, or ambush 
or mislead. In the summer of 1676 this company took captive or 
killed about four hundred of the enemy, and did nearly all the 
effective work against the enemy in the closing operations of 
tiie war. The services of Cajjtain Hunting and his company at 
the eastward and elsewhere have been incidentally related. 

Credited under Capt. Hunting. 

Samuel Hunting, Capt. 21 00 00 | William Browne 01 05 08 

Andrew Robinson 02 15 06 

Thomas Frost 03 01 08 

Jacob Farar 02 18 00 

Thomas Peach 02 07 00 



James Richeson, Lieut. 10 10 00 

Nathaniel Dunklin 05 05 00 

Sept. 23, 1676 

Benjamin Collins 01 08 06 

John Devericks 01 08 06 



111 general, accounts were not kept with the Indians. 



CAPT. GEORGE CORWIN. 291 



LIEUT. EDWARD CEEEKE. 



Lieut. Creeke was of Boston, of the Artillery Co., 1674, 
Served with Capt. Turner in the west, and led home the remnant 
of his company after that officer's death. 

In October, 1676, he was in command of a force of thirty-four 
men at a garrison in Wells. No credit is found for these, but 
one of the soldiers in the western campaign secured his credit 
under Lieut. Creeke, viz. : 

August 24, 1676 
John Gilbert 05 09 08 

CAPT. GEORGE GORWEN", OR CURWEN. 

Capt. Corwin came from England with wife Elizabeth (White, 
widow of John), and settled at Salem in 1638. Their children 
were : Abigail, b. Aug. 1, 1637 ; John, b. July 25, 1638 ; Jonathan, 
b. Nov. 14, 1640; Abigail 2d, b. Nov. 30, 1643; Hannah, 
bapt. Jan. 4, 1646; and Elizabeth, July 2, 1648. This wife 
Elizabeth died July 15, 1668, and he married, 2d, July 22, 1669, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Brooks, widow of Robert, of Plymouth, and 
daughter of Gov. Edward Winslow, and by her had : Penelope, 
b. Aug. 7, 1670 ; Susannah, b. Oct. 10, 1672 ; George, b. 1674. 
Capt. Corwin was a deputy from Salem many times, was a man 
of ability and influence, and was very popular. He was chosen 
to the command of the troop raised at Salem and Lynn, and 
was commissioned October 8, 1662. 

In Philip's war, the only active service which I have found 
referred to him appears in the Colonial Records, Vol. V. p. 90. 
At the session of the Court May 5, 1676, Capt. Corwin was 
presented for the " evil example of his demeanor and carriage " 
towards Capt. Henchman, under whose command he was serving, 
with his troop, in the spring of 1677. He was reduced from his 
command with a severe reprimand, and fined one hundred 
pounds. The following September he was, upon the petition 
of his troopers, reinstated in his command ; and in 1679-80 the 
court remitted his fuie. He died in Salem, January 3, 1684-5. 

Credited under Capt. George Corwin. 

July 24, 1676 j Sept. 23, 1676. 

John Dodge 00 10 00 ' Benjamin Collms 00 11 05 

William Dodge OU K) Of) | John Putnam 01 08 07 

Zechariah Henrick 00 10 00 i Henry Kenney 00 11 05 

1 Geo. Corwin, Capt. 02 05 00 

Capt. EzEKiEL GrLMAN of Boston, 1675, served under Capt. 
Oliver as Sergt. in the Narraganset campaign ; was wounded at 
the fight ; was at Rhode Island January 6th, 1675-6. He was 



292 KING Philip's wae. 

out again under Capt. Turner in the spring, serving as Sergt. 
In the Settlement he is styled " Capt." 

Credits under Capt. Gilman. 

June 24, 1676 

Amos Singleterry 00 05 00 

Nathaniel Lad 00 05 00 

George Brown 00 13 00 

Capt. Aaron Cooke, of Hadley, was left in command of some 
of the men taken out of Mosely's, Poole's and Upham's com- 
panies, at Westfield, November, 1675. He married. May 30, 
1661, Sarah Westwood, and had a large family. A man of in- 
fluence ; Capt. of the militia for thirty-five years. Died in 1716. 

Credited under Capt. Aaron Cooke. 



John Johnson 


00 02 06 


Robert Swann 


00 11 10 


Daniel Lad, Jr. 


06 05 00 



August 24, 1676 
John Stedman 01 17 00 

John Parneer 01 00 06 



Sept. 23, 1676 
Thomas Hart 01 02 02 



Edward Cowell, of Boston, was employed in the war in various 
ways ; was in command of a small body of horsemen on the day 
of the Sudbury fight, as we have seen. He furnished supplies 
of various kinds to the Colony in the war ; but one credit is 
given under him, viz. : 

August 24, 1676 
John Scant 00 16 00 

Some miscellaneous credits follow : 

August 24, 1676 
Benjamin Switzer, under Lieut. (John) Floyd 00 04 02 
Ephraim Fowlsham Capt. (Benj.) Gillam 00 19 08 

The two following were credited without oJBficer or place 



March 24, 1675-6 
Ehas Peckworth 04 02 00 | Thomas North 02 12 00 



XXI. 

MAJOR RICHARD WALDERNE AND HIS MEN. 



THE Walderne * family, to which the subject of this chapter, 
Richard Walderne, belonged, is of ancient lineage, as seen 
in the Pedigree, found by H. G. Somerby in England, and 
published by him in the New England Historical and Genealogi- 
cal Register, vol. viii. p. 78. This shows descent from Edward 
Walderne and Joan his wife, of Alcester, in Warwickshire, 
through George Walderne and Joan Shallarde, married July 8, 
1576, who had William, baptized July 25, 1577, married Catherine 
Raven at Alcester, November 26, 1600, and had nine sons and two 
daughters. The seventh son was Richard, baptized January 6, 
1615. 

This Richard f Walderne came to America, it is said, in 1635, 
" to See the Country. He stayed about two Years and returned 
to England and there Marryed a Gentlewoman of a very good 
family (whose parents were very unwilling She Should come 
away) her names are not remembered nor of w' place." 

The matter above quoted is from the fragment of a letter from 
James Jeffrey to Councillor Richard ^ Waldron, the Major's 
grandson. 

Major Walderne came to America with his young wife about 
1637. After her death he married Anne Scammon, sister of 
Richard. His children were — Paul,* who died in Algiers about 
1669 (probably on board one of his father's vessels). Timothy ,2 
who died while a student in Harvard College. Richard,^ born 
1650. Anna,2 married Rev. Joseph Gerrish. Elnathan,^ born 
July 6, 1659, in Boston, died Dec. 10, 1659. Esther,2 born Dec. 
1, 1660, in Boston; married (1) Henry Elkins, (2) Abraham 

Lee, June 21, 1686, (3) Richard Jose, and (4) . She 

died in the Isle of Jersey. Mary,2 born Sept. 14, 1663, in Boston, 
died young. Eleazer,^ born May 1, 1665. Elizabeth,^ born Oct. 

* I have thought best, In this present chapter, to adopt the spelling of the Major's own signature, 
which agrees with his English ancestors and was used by his contemporaries. His son Richard 
changed it in his own signature, and wrote of his father as Waldron, and all historians since have 
referred to the family by that name. 

fRev. A.H. Quint, D.D., the eminent antiquarian, has furnished an account of the Waldron 
(Walderne) family in America, and that account is here followed. See N. E. Hist, and Gen. 
Register, vol. ix. p. 55, and Historical Memoranda in " Dover Enquirer," Nos. 104 to 111, April 19 
to June 7, 1853; and Nos. 175 to 178, Aug. 6 to Aug. 22, 1857. 



294 KING Philip's war. 

8, 1666 ; married John Gerrish, of Dover. Maria,^ born July 17, 
1668 ; died about the age of fourteen. 

Richard,^ the son of Major Walderne, changed the surname to 
Waldron, and the family has since been known as Waldron. He 
married (1) Hannah Cutt, Feb. 16, 1681, who died Feb. 14,1682, 
at the birth of her first child ; (2) Eleanor Vaughan, who died 
September, 1727. He died Nov. 3, 1730. His children (by his 
first wife) were Richard,^ born 1682, who died aged about 
eleven months ; Richard ^ (2d), born Feb. 21, 1693-4 ; Margaret,^ 
born Nov. 16, 1695; William,^ born 1697; Annie,^ born 1699; 
Abigail,^ born 1702; Eleanor,^ born 1704. 

It is supposed that Major Walderne was a man of some property 
when he came to this country, as he purchased a large tract of 
land at Cocheco (Dover, N.H.), where he settled about 1640, 
erected saw-mills, established his business, and made his home. 
He was a man of remarkable enterprise and ability, and by wise 
investment and diligent use of his opportunities acquired a large 
property for his time. He established a truck-house for the ac- 
commodation of the Indians and his own gain at Pennacook, in 
1668 ; and it was there that an Englishman, Thomas Dickinson, 
was killed by an Indian who was drunk, and whom the Indians 
immediately punished with death. An investigation ensued, and 
Major Walderne was accused of selling or furnishing liquors at 
his truck-house, which made the Indian drunk, contrary to the 
laws and the special terms of the treaty. The papers in this case 
are preserved in the Mass. Archives, vol. 30, pp. 154—161. The 
liquors were said to be sold by the hand of Paul Walderne, son 
of the Major, and Peter Coffin. During the investigation, the 
Major was suspended from his office by his brother magistrates, 
but upon his own oath as to his entire innocence of complicity, 
either direct or indirect, in the affair, and upon the evidence, he 
was acquitted as well as his son, and was restored to his office 
and power, while Peter Coffin was convicted and fined fifty 
pounds. He was much in public life, and exerted a wide influence 
in various ways. He was representative to the General Court for 
thirteen years, and was Speaker of the House for seven years ; 
was appointed to be a magistrate for the North Circuit of old 
Norfolk County, consisting of Portsmouth and Dover, and also 
of the County of York. 

Major Walderne seems to have been in full sympathy with the 
strictest Puritans of Massachusetts Colony, and a sturdy champion 
of colonial rights and ecclesiastical authority, if we regard his 
severe treatment of the Quakers within his jurisdiction, as zeal for 
the church. His wide influence among the people is seen to have 
been due to general popularity, by his large vote at elections in 
the times when people dared to put their will, and meant to put 
their conscience, into their votes. In his extensive trade with the 
Indians and in constant communication with them, he seemed to 



MAJOR WALDERNE's COMMISSION. 295 

have kept their confidence, and to have had very little trouble 
with them in the thirty-five years that he had lived near them. 
There had been provocations doubtless on the part of the English 
as well as the Indians, and the Major, in common with other 
magistrates, was obstinate and stupidly severe in the administra- 
tion of English law upon a wild, heathen people, who had no 
more idea of its meaning than of Sanskrit. The Indians knew 
the meaning of gratitude as well as vengeance ; the}'- could bide 
their time and dissemble submission, but they did not forget. 
Dover was a frontier town, and, several years before the war, 
houses had been fortified and a stockade set up about the meet- 
ing-house to prevent a surprise. Large numbers of Indians were 
coming and going among the settlers, were received and enter- 
tained in their houses, were well acquainted with the habits and 
peculiarities of their home-life and ways of business and worship, 
and it is probable that there was no other place in the Colony 
where the relations of settlers and Indians were more free and 
kindly than in this settlement at Dover. At the same time, here 
as elsewhere, the English regarded the Indians with ill-concealed 
contempt as inferior beings, and not really worth conciliating in 
permanent friendship, but to be tolerated till such time as they 
could be conveniently driven away. 

It is probable that in military matters, as in all others, the 
direction had been in the hands of Major Walderne. The first 
record I have found relating to this is the following commission 
from the General Court, Oct. 7, 1674 : 

Capt. Richard Walderne having had the command of the militia in 
Yorkshire, by authority from this Court, for the last two yeares past, & 
hath this summer draune forth the regiment of foote & troope of horse 
there, exercised them in military discipline, this Court doth heereby 
appoint him, the said Richard Walderne, to be the sarjant majo'' of 
the forces in Yorkshire, and doe order, that he have commission as 
other major's have for authorizing him to that service. 

Col. Rec, vol. V. p. 22. 

When the alarm of the attack upon Swansea reached the people, 
measures were at once taken to secure these frontier towns, and 
the colonial authorities took steps to assist the more exposed and 
weaker settlements. The following letter will show the Council 
alert also to secure active cooperation of forces all along the lines : 

ffor Maj^ Rich'^ Waldem. 
Having Acquainted the Council what I advised you the fifteenth 
Inst. I am commanded by them to order you forthwith w'** 50 or 60 
souldiers under your owne or Mr. Plaisteds or some other sufficient 
conduct you march to Pennicooke supposed to be y^ great Randevous 
of y^ enemy, where you may expect to meet Capt. Mosely, who is 
ordered thither and hath sufficient commission, to pursue kill & destroy 



296 KING Philip's war. 

them w*^"^ also you must attend as y"" work unless such as shall willingly 
deliver up their armes & themselves or sufficient hostages to secure 
their peaceable behaviour you had need to take along with you a Chi- 
rurgeon & make all possible expedition. A great part of our forces are 
at present at Hadley. 

Daniel Denison, Maj' Gen'. 
Boston, August 17, 1675. 

By order of y^ Council. 
Mass. Archives, vol. 67, p. 241. 

An account of the expedition referred to in the letter, has been 
given in a former chapter relating to Capt. Mosely. The Penna- 
cooks and their allied families took no part in the war, but they 
did not, and perhaps could not, prevent the hostile or " strange " 
Indians from passing from tribe to tribe ; and occasionally small 
war parties, going back and forth from the East to the West, 
found entertainment in these tribes, but were not joined by them 
in their hostile movements, though some of their young men may 
have been enticed to join the hostiles on occasions. 

In the beginning, the Indians, bent mostly upon plunder, seem 
to have broken up into small parties, which could easily find out 
and strike exposed points here and there, and, when necessary 
for some large enterprise, could swiftly concentrate their forces 
at any given time and place. 

The first depredations of these Indians upon these Northeastern 
frontiers, began in September, 1675, at Oyster River (now Dur- 
ham, N.H.) ; they burnt two houses of " the Cheslies," killed 
two men in a canoe upon the river, captured an old Irishman and 
a young man, both of whom escaped in a few weeks by the help 
of a friendly Indian. Three Indians, viz., John Sampson, Crom- 
wel and John Linde, waylaid Goodman Robinson and his son, of 
Exeter, on their way to Hampton, and killed the father, the 
young man escaping to Hampton. These same Indians captured 
Charles Randlet, of Exeter, who soon after escaped. The house 
of Richard Tozer at Salmon Falls, wherein were fifteen women 
and children, was attacked by two Indians, "Andrew" and 
" Hope-Hood," but was valiantly defended by a young woman, 
who held fast the door till all the others escaped, and till it was 
hewn in pieces by the Indians, who then entering, struck her 
down, leaving her for dead, while they followed the others to the 
next house, which, being better fortified, the Indians did not 
attack. Two children were captured who were of this company, 
and could not keep up with the others ; one of three years 
was killed, the other of seven was carried into captivity, but 
afterwards was returned. The brave girl who defended the 
house revived after the Indians left her, and escaped to her 
friends and was restored to perfect health ; and it is to be 
regretted that Mr. Hubbard, who relates this, did not record the 
name of the heroine, as he doubtless could have easily done. 



WAR AT THE EASTWARD. 297 

Small parties prowled in the woods in every direction, burning 
and shooting. Six more houses were burned at Oyster River, 
and William Roberts and his son-in-law were killed. Under 
these provocations the English were goaded almost to despera- 
tion, and yet, if they drew out in force to pursue, the Indians 
easily escaped to the woods and could not be overtaken. Several 
parties of volunteers went out from the garrisons in pursuit, but 
without avail, except that one party discovered five Indians, 
three gathering corn in a field, while two were building a fire to 
roast it. Two of the English crept up to these latter, and sud- 
denly rushing to close quarters killed them both, knocking them 
on the head with the butts of their muskets. The rest escaped. 

Capt. John Wincoll, who lived at Berwick, seems to have been 
in active service under Major Walderne, and was absent upon 
some service when his house and barn, with several of his 
neighbors' buildings, were burned by the Indians. It is possible 
that he was with Major Walderne at the Eastward when this took 
place. The following letter takes us further to the Eastward, 
and gives a glimpse of what was going on there, while towns 
upon the Connecticut were battling for life with the allies of 
PhiUp. 

Douer 25"^ September 1675 
Much Hon^ 

My Absence from home (being this "Week at Eastw^"*) hath Ocation'd 
yo'' hearing nothing from mee Soe long but being Just now returned 
this evening thought it my Duty w* all expedition to giue Ace" of the 
state of y*" Place Since I sent away Cap Dauis w* about 50 men at 
y^ enemies ffirst Assault of those places (haueing fifurther Information 
of their killing & Burning) According to yo'' direction raised a p*y of 
Souldiers out of Douer and Portsmo"" & w"^ an Addition of Some from 
Kittery I did my selfe Aduance eastw^ for y® ffurther Succour of those 
places but before I came Soe ffarr as Sawco Capt Dauis being gone to 
Falm"' where the first damage was done by the enemy I had Aduice of 
y* enemies Marching Westward ffalling upon Scarbrough & Sawco 
killing and burning on Saturday and Sabbath day last at Scarbrough 
they killed an old man and Woman & burnt their house & at M"" Fox- 
wells two young men were killed being att y^ barn about y"" Cattle The 
enemy y" Aduanced tow*^ Sawco riuer w'^'^ is nott aboue 4 miles distant 
from y' Part of Scarbrough & there fell to burning of houses y* People 
before haueing Intelligence ffrom an Indian called Scossaway of y" time 
w° they Would come deserted their houses most of y" repairing to 
Maj' Pendletons but M' Bonighten <fe some other ffamilies to Maj"" 
Phillips on Saturday Morning y* Indipas rifled and burnt Seuerall houses 
on y"" north Side y^ riuer & among w"^^ M'' Bonightens was one he being 
the night before fled to Maj"" Phillips while said houses were burning a 
pty of y™ Judged about 36 Ind°' came ouer y* riuer in english canooes 
& w° come Ashore cutt holes in y"" and turned y"" Adrift but all this 
time finding noe men they went to Maj' Phillips Saw mill & 1" Set it 
goeing then on fire & burnt it & afterwards did y'= like to his corn mill 
it being Judged to be their design thereby to draw y™ out of y® house, 



298 KING Philip's war. 

and soe to Surprise both y™ & itt but Maj^ Phillips being fforwarned 
of their comiug made Some Small defense about his house haueing w"* 
him of his own ffamilies & neighbors to y*^ number of 15 men besides 
women & Children in all about 50 the bushes being thick within shott 
of his house could not att ffirst See an Ind° but one of y^ men Per- 
ceiueing a Stirring Among y*^ ffearnes Maj'' Phillips looked out of his 
Chamber Window y' Way and ffrom y"*^" was Imediately shott att 
and slightly \\ ounded in y'' should"" (2 more were alsoe Wounded 
Afterwar'' y' being all the harm done there) Afterw**" y'= Shott came 
thick w'''' was Accordingly Answered ffrom within Butt noe Indians as 
yet apeared but onely Creeping deckt with ft'earns and boughs till 
some time after they gott a p"" of old truck wheels and ffitted y'" up w* 
boards and Slabs ftor a barricadoe to Safe guard y^ Driuers thereby 
Endeavouring to burn y*" house haueing prepared combustible matter 
as bu'ch rinds pitchwood Turpentine and powd' ffor y' end but they in 
y*' house pceiueing their Intention Plyed their shott against itt and 
ffound Afterw*^' their shott went through A little before they Came at 
y'' house thi're was a little wett ground into w*^*^ y^ Wheels Sunk and y' 
obstructed their driueing it ft'orw'' they Endeauouring to gett it out of 
y" dirt again by turning a little on one Side thereby layeing y"^selues 
open to y'" in y'' house w*^'' oportunity they improued & made y™ quitt 
their work and ffly but Continued fireing at y*" house all night till Sabbath 
day morning about 9 a clock and then they saw y*' Indians at a distance 
March away they Judged between 20 & ;10 & some of y'" w* 2 guns 
but before they went they set fire on a little out house & in itt burnt 
seuerall hogs Since w*"^' Maj'' Phillips is remoued down to Winter harbour 
to Maj"" Pendletons where I found him — After this y*^ Same or another 
Party of Indians went to Scaibrough to a Place called Dunstan where 
L' Alger being abroad w"' 6 men more well arm'd being about their 
Ocations mett 14 Ind"' compleat in Amies in 2 ranks He retreating a 
little towar'^' his house y"" Ind" Aduanced and ffollowed whereupon he 
faced y'" y*" P' rank of y*" Ind"^ fired & orderly fell in y^ rear of y* 
others Lt Alger w"" his (i m'jn fired & Primed they Struck some of y" 
whereupon they Imediately ffied they being at a Considerable Distance 
none of y™ Rec"^ any harm but notw"'standing all this neither my Selfe 
nor Cap' Dauis nor any pty I sent out tho I had y" in those pts 120 
souldiers could euer see an Ind""" Therefore Considering y^ Weaknesse 
I left our pts in nearer homew*^ by takeing soe many thence & the little 
hopes wee had of meeting w"" y*^ enemy who As soon as euer they dis- 
couered a pty of Souldiers in one place fled to another & by Reason of 
y*' Vast Inconueniences Attending a March in y' Country ocationed by 
many riuers Marshes &c. I thought it most prudente to Contract y' 
people into as small a Compasse as may be in those towns & there 
make some fortifications to defend y"'selves haueing left about 60 
Souldiers in garrison at Sawco Scarbrough and F'alm"' ffor y*" defence 
of those places & ffor their help in gathering their corn & Secureing 
their prouitions bringing y'^ Remaining forces back w"^ mee to their 
seuerall towns again haueing likewise ordered Wells York & Kittery to 
garrison y"'selues for y"" own defence y" Distractions of those places by 
Reason of psons being fforced to fforsake y"" Plantations & leaue their 
Corn & Cattle to y^ enemy doth portend Ineuitable want &c to ensue 
unlesse god by his extraordinary prouidence doe preuent their case 



PENNACOOKS AND PEQUAKETS. 299 

being Considered beg yo'' Thoughts & direction aboutt it w'^'' w° Rec^ 
shall be readily Attended l)y 

Hon''' s"" yo' Humble Seru" Richard Walderne 

Mass. Archives, vol. 67, p. 26-7. 

The above letter of Major Walderne sufiBciently explains the 
situation of affairs at the Eastward. The entire population with- 
drew into their fortified houses, which were garrisoned as well as 
possible with the inhabitants of the towns, Major Walderne hold- 
ing a small reserve force at Portsmouth and Dover to assist 
whenever one settlement was more threatened than another. 
The great tribes which confronted the Eastward settlements and 
had the controlling influence in the war in these parts were the 
Ammoscoggins, who lived upon what is now called the Andros- 
coggin River; the Pequakets, whose chief rendezvous was at the 
head waters of the Saco in the present town of Fryeburg ; the 
Ossipees, near the lake of that name ; the Pennacooks, who held 
a large tract of country in the vicinity of Concord, N.H. These 
larger tribes had gathered the remnants of several once powerful 
tribes which had held the lands along the coast from Kennebec to 
the Piscataqua, but which had been almost annihilated by the inter- 
nal wars which raged after the overthrow of the great " Bashaba," 
who had lived on the Penobscot, and had held all these eastern 
tribes in subjection. In the struggle for supremacy which suc- 
ceeded, a great part of the fighting men in all the tribes were 
destroyed. This was at its height when Sir Richard Hawkins 
visited the coast in 1615. A great plague followed this war, 
which nearly depopulated the whole region along the shores 
before the Pilgrims came to Plymouth in 1620. The Ammos- 
coggins and Pequakets were hostile to the English, and it was 
their depredations, assisted by the restless tribes on the Kennebec 
and beyond, that so troubled this eastern frontier in the war of 
1675-7. 

The Pennacooks had always been peaceful towards the English 
since the first settlement. Passaconoway was their chief at the 
earhest mention we have of them, and was still alive and active 
for the welfare of his tribe in 1663, though at great age, for it 
was probably about this time that Major Gookin saw him (as he 
writes in 1677) " alive at Pawtucket when he was about a hun- 
dred and twenty years old." He seems to have been a chief of 
remarkable ability and wisdom, and had some sort of dominion 
over many tribes, and there is some evidence that he bore the 
sway of a " Bashaba," or Great Sagamore. He was reputed by 
the Indians to be a great " Powow " and to possess supernatural 
powers, and was held to be a " sorcerer " by the English, and 
doubtless had some arts of the juggler by which he gained this 
renown. 

He had several sons and daughters, one of whom married Win- 



300 KING Philip's war. 

nepurkitt, sachem of Saugus, whom the English called George 
Rumneymarsh, upon the story of whose marriage, found in Mor- 
ton's " New Canaan," the poet Whittier based the legend of his 
poem, "The Bridal of Pennacook." There is evidence that 
another of his daughters married "Numphow," ruler of the 
Wamesits and father of "Sam" Numphow." 

A petition to the General Court, October 10, 1665, shows the 
names of those who petitioned several years before for permission 
" to redeeme our pore brother and cuntryman" "out of prison 
and bondage, whose Name is Nanamocomuck the eldest son of 
Passaconewa." He is said to have gone to the Ammoscoggins 
soon after, and it is probable that he died there. The celebrated 
Kankamagus was, it is supposed, his son, and was sachem of the 
Pennacooks after Wannalancet retired ; he will be mentioned 
later on. The English called him John Hogkins. 

It is said that near the close of his life Passaconaway called 
his people together and gave them his farewell charge, recount- 
ing his own early struggles against the English, which had proved 
in vain, and, showing the steady increase of the white people 
everywhere in spite of all opposition, he urged upon them their 
only safe policy, peaceful submission to and friendship with the 
English. 

Upon Wannalancet's succession to his father's title and station, 
he kept faith with the English as his father had done and advised, 
and notwithstanding the many wrongs and provocations received 
by his people, and the urgent appeals of hostile tribes, he 
remained true, and was held in high esteem by the authorities of 
the colony. It is probable, however, that most of the power 
of his father over other tribes fell away from him, for he seems to 
have had little influence with the Ammoscoggins or Pequakets 
when war was once begun. 

When he saw that it was to become a general war, and foresaw 
that, remaining in the vicinity of the English settlements, his 
people could hardly fail to be drawn into some active participa- 
tion in it, either for or against the English, he prudently with- 
drew to safe retreats whenever the hostile forces approached his 
country ; and he displayed not only prudence, but, in the case 
when Capt. Mosely marched to Pennacook and burnt his village 
and destroyed the property and stored food of his people, great 
patience and power ; for he restrained his warriors, who pressed 
him earnestly for permission to ambush and cut off Mosely's 
company, which they were in capacity, both of numbers and 
opportunity, to do. 

To the friendly intercourse which Dover kept up with Wan- 
nalancet was due, probably in some measure, its immunity from 
repeated assults. The Wamesits, living at what is now Lowell, 
formerly Chelmsford, were under the supervision of Lieut. Rich- 
ardson of that town, and were a quiet, reputable " praying 



SQUANDO OF SACO. 301 

village " under the immediate rule of " Numphow," who, as has 
been intimated, was probably the brother-in-law of Wannalancet. 
These Indians suffered a great outrage at the hands of some 
English Indian-haters, who upon the burning of a barn of Lieut. 
Richardson at Chelmsford by some skulking hostile Indians, im- 
mediately and without authority assaulted these helpless Wame- 
sits, wounding five women and children, and killing outright a 
lad, wounding his mother, daughter of Sagamore John and widow 
of another sagamore, " Tohatoonee," a tried friend of the English. 
Numphow, with his praying village, fled to Pennacook to Wanna- 
lancet, and wrote to Lieut. Henchman, commanding at Chelmsford 
garrison, a letter explaining their flight. 

It was by such outrages as these that those Indians who 
inclined to peace were alienated, and those already inclined to 
war embittered, and many of the young men of the Wamesits 
undoubtedly joined the hostile Indians, and passed to the East- 
ward to swell the ranks and increase the efficiency of those bands 
of Ammoscoggins and Pequakets, who, with the "strange 
Indians " from the Nipmucks and western tribes, were carrying 
destruction to the Eastward settlements. The Indians were said 
to be led in general by " Squando," sagamore of Saco, formerly 
a great friend of the English, but, outraged by the treatment of 
his wife and child by some English sailors, became filled with 
vengeful hatred towards all the English. These sailors, it is said, 
seeking to test the common report that Indian children could 
swim naturally, like the young of beasts, maliciously upset the 
canoe containing the woman and child; the child sank in the 
river, but the mother diving to the bottom saved it, which, how- 
ever, soon after dying, its death was imputed to this treatment. 
Squando was said to be a great powow or wizard, and was 
probably the most influential chief from the Penobscot to the 
Piscataqua. It was not Philip's, but his own war that he was 
fighting against these eastern settlements. Major Walderne's 
letter and Gen. Denison's appeals seem to have moved the United 
Commissioners to the following action : 

Boston Octob: 1^' 1675 
The Commissioners understanding that the Inhabitants of Pasca- 
taque, and so Eastward, are under great Distress, by Reason of the 
Rage of the Common Enemy, Doe commend it to the honourable Gov- 
ernor and Councill of the Mattachusets, that some present Releife may 
be sent unto them according to the present Exigent ; the charges 
whereof shaU be allowed in the general Account of the Colonyes. 

Thomas Danforth, Presid'. 
In the name and by the order of the Commissioners. 

As the people gathered more and more into the garrisons, the 
Indians gathered into larger bodies, with the evident design to 
reduce these garrisons one by one, while they warily watched to 



302 KING Philip's war. 

cut off all stragglers who attempted to pass from one to another. 
October 7th was observed as a day of public humiliation, and on 
that day three men were killed near Newichewannock, and soon 
after a garrison was assaulted and an old man named Beard was 
killed just outside the house, and other houses were burnt. On 
October 16th a large body of Indians, said to be a hundred, 
gathered towards the settlement of Salmon Falls, and surprising 
Richard Tozer at his house half a mile from the garrison, killed 
him and captured his son. Lieut. Roger Plaisted, who was in 
command at the garrison, hearing the guns of this attack, imme- 
diately sent seven men to find out the cause, when they were 
ambushed, and two or three were killed, and the others barely 
escaped back to their garrison. Lieut. Plaisted at once despatched 
a messenger with the following letter to Major Walderne, which 
Mr. Hubbard, believing it to have been "the last Time that ever 
that good and useful Man set Pen to Paper," inserted in his 
history, and probably obtained the letter for that purpose from 
Major Walderne. 

Salmon Falls October 16, 1675. 
Mr. Richard Waldern and Lieut. Coffin, These are to inform you, 
that just now the Indians are engaging us with at least one hundred 
Men, and have slain four of our men already, Richard Tozer, James 
Barney, Isaack Bottes, and Tozer's son and burnt Benoni Hodsden's 
House ; Sir, if ever you have any love for us, and the Country, now 
shew yourself with Men to help us, or else we are all in great Danger 
to be slain, unless our God wonderfully appear for our Deliverance. 
They that cannot fight, let them pray ; Nought else, but I rest, 
Yours to serve you 

Signed by Roger Plaisted, 

George Broughton. 

Major Walderne was in no condition now to weaken his own 
garrisons, and had not the valor of Lieut. Plaisted outrun his 
discretion, his garrison as well as himself and family would have 
been safe in their defence ; but venturing out with an ox-team 
guarded by twenty men, to bring in their dead for burial, they 
fell into an ambush after they had recovered the body of Tozer, 
and had returned to the swamp near the garrison where the others 
lay dead. It was the old story, a total surprise, a brave but vain 
defence, a sullen retreat, and Lieut. Plaisted with his sons, bravely 
covering the retreat, was surrounded and overwhelmed, but with 
proud defiance choosing death rather than capture, was at last 
overpowered by numbers and slain. His eldest son was also 
killed in this retreat, and another younger son wounded so that 
he died within a few weeks. The desperate fighting of the Plais- 
teds probably cost the Indians quite dearly, as they did not appear 
the next day when Capt. Charles Frost came up from his garri- 
son at Sturgeon Creek (now Eliot, Me.) and buried the dead. 
Within a few weeks, however, they returned and began depreda- 



OPERATIONS IN YORK COUNTY. 303 

tions in the same places, and ventured as far as Sturgeon Creek, 
where Capt. Frost had relaxed his vigilance and was working on 
his farm near his house, in which it is probable his boys were set 
to watch. The Indians crept up and fired a volley at him before 
he was aware of their presence ; but he escaped unharmed to his 
own house, where he began to issue orders in a loud voice as 
though he had a large company of soldiers, which so frightened 
the Indians that they passed on and left him unmolested, though 
his entire force was but three boys, possibly his sons. The Indians 
then passed down on the Kittery side of the river, killed one man 
and burnt his house, " just over against Portsmouth ; " but when 
a small cannon was fired thence and the shot fell not far from 
them, they were so frightened thereat that they fled, leaving 
much of their plunder. They were pursued by the English at 
this time and tracked far into the woods by means of a light snow, 
but finally escaped into a swamp. This latter service was prob- 
ably under the direction of Major Walderne, although we have 
no record of its details. For some time after this they continued 
to harass the settlements, but near the end of November, when it 
is said that they had kiUed or captured one hundred and fifty 
people from the Kennebec to the Piscataqua, they withdrew to 
their winter quarters, mostly at Ossipee and Pequaket. Gen. 
Denison designed, and had given orders to the officers in those 
parts to draw out all available men in their command to pursue 
the enemy to their homes and there attack and destroy them. 
This design fell through on account of the early and severe set- 
ting in of winter and the lack of proper snow-shoes in sufficient 
numbers. But the fierceness of the season, and the unusual num- 
bers huddled together, with the probable neglect to secure their 
usual supply of food from harvests, hunting and fishing, so pinched 
them by famine, that they were forced to attempt a reconciliation, 
and came to Major Walderne and expressed sorrow for all the evil 
that had been done, and with him concluded a treaty ^ of peace, 
early in January, which remained unbroken until August, 1676. 
Before June, 1676, the southern Indians, scattered and pursued 
from their tribes and homes, and fearing extermination, had 
hidden themselves amongst these Eastern Indians, and hoped to 
escape thus the vengeance of the English. In the mean time the 
Eastern tribes themselves, through the mediation of Wannalancet 
and Major Walderne, were trying in various ways to atone for 
past crimes. June 3, 1676, Wannalancet came in with several 
others of his sachems and brought some English captives, and 
also the Indians who had been engaged in the killing of Thomas 
Kembal of Bradford, a month before, and the capture of his 
family. This Indian was called " Symon " in the petition of 
Kembal's widow for redress, August 1, 1676. Two others were 
taken and delivered up at this time, " Andrew " who was implicated 

1 See Council Minutes. Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 122. 



304 KING Philip's war. 

with Symon, and Peter, engaged in another crime ; these were 
delivered by Wannalancet and his chiefs, and the captives, among 
them Kembal's family, were offered as a token of their repentance 
and as an atonement for their crime. But our magistrates, a 
little doubtful that the price was sufficient, threw these three 
Indians into prison at Dover for the time, from which they soon 
escaped, and going to the Eastward joined the Kennebec and 
Ammoscoggins in the renewed hostilities later on. 
The following is the treaty of July 3d, 1676 : 

Pascataqua River, Cochecho 3: July [1676] 

At a meeting of y*" Committee appointed by y* Hono'*^ Gen' Court for 
to treat y* Indians of the Eastern Parts in order for y^ procuring an 
Hon'''* Peace with them, Wee w"" y* mutuall consent of y* Sagamores 
Underwritten in behalf e of themselves & the Men — Indians belonging 
to them being about 300 in Number, have agreed as foUoweth : 

I'y That heuceforwards none of y** said Indians shall offer any 
Violence to y* persons of any English, nor doe any Damage to theyr 
Estates in any kind whatsoever. And if any Indian or Indians shall 
offend herein they shall bring or cause to bee brought y* offender to 
some English authority, there to be prosecuted by y* English Lawes 
according to y* Nature of y* Offence. 

2'y That none of said Indians shall entertain at any Time any of 
our Enemies, but shall give psent notice to y* Comittee when any come 
among them, Ingaging to goe forth w"^ y* English against them (if 
desired) in order to y*^ seizing of them. And if any of s'' Indians 
shall themselves at any time bring such o'' Enemies unto us, they shall 
for their Reward have £3, for each they shall so bring in. 

3'y The Indians performing on theyr part, as is before expressed, 
wee y* Committee doe ingage in y^ behalfe of y* English not to offer 
any Violence to any of their persons or estates, and if any injury be 
offered to said Indians by any English, they complaini"^ to Authority, 
y* offender shall be prosecuted by English Lawes according to y* nature 
of y^ offence. In witnes to each & all y* pmises we have mutually 
shaken hands and subscribed o"" Names. 

The mark -|- Wannalanset ' Sagam' 

i Richard Waldern The mark -f- Sampson Aboquacemoka 
Nic: Shapleigh The mark -j- Mr. W*" Sagamore 
Tho: Daniel The mark -j- Squando, Sagamore 

The mark -j- Dony 
The mark -|- Serogumba 

Sam*-^ Numphow 
The mark -\- Warockomee 
Mass. Arch., vol. 30, p. 206. 

It is not known how much influence the captive Indians, who 

1 Each of these made his own mark before his name, which was written by a clerk. The orig- 
inal paper is preserved in Mass. Archives, vol. 30. Of the Indians here signing, except Wanna- 
lanset and Squando, not much is known. Sampson is supposed to have been from the East as far 
as Kennebec. Mr. W"" Sagamore was probably a teacher of the "Praying Indians." Dony was 
of the Ammoscoggins ; Serogumba perhaps of the Ossipees, and Warockomee of the Pequakets, 
though the assignment of these two last is scarcely more than a gueea. Sam" Numphow wae a 
ruler of the Wamesits, a Christian Indian. 



THE " CONTRIVEMENT " AT DOVER, 305 

escaped from Dover, exercised on the Kennebec Indians in the 
renewal of hostilities, but it is certain that " Simon " was at the 
head of those who struck the first blow at Casco (now Portland, 
Me.), in which attack the Brackets and others to the number of 
thirty-four were killed or captured. And this party immediately 
after joined those who had surprised Arrowsick and the settle- 
ments adjoining ; and subsequent events showed that both parties 
were acting in conjunction. 

These hostilities were renewed August 11th, 1676, a little more 
than a month after the treaty at Cocheco, which had included all 
the tribes as far as the Kennebec. None of the tribes whose 
representatives signed that treaty were implicated in these attacks 
upon Casco and Arrowsick, and therefore considered themselves 
upon a peace footing ; so that, when at the beginning of Septem- 
ber some four hundred of these, the men of the tribes, came in to 
Major Walderne's at Dover, under the leadership of Wannalancet, 
it was, perhaps, to prove themselves not engaged in the hostilities 
at the eastward, since they were present now with the Penna- 
cooks and the others who had kept the peace since the winter 
before. It was known, however, to the General Court that many 
of the Indians of the south and west who had been engaged with 
Philip formerly had now found a retreat with these peaceful 
tribes. It is not probable that Wannalancet and his chiefs under- 
stood the treaty to impose upon them the duty of investigating 
the previous career of those Indians who might wish to join them- 
selves to his tribe, nor to have considered themselves responsible 
for hostile acts done at Narraganset or on the Connecticut River. 
But the authorities determined upon the immediate suppression 
of these Eastern Indians, and sent Capts. Sill and Hathorne, as 
related in a previous chapter, with two companies and full com- 
mission to " kill and destroy " all hostile Indians wherever found. 
These companies, as above related, came to Dover in September, 
and there found the great gathering of Indians at Major Wal- 
derne's house. I have not found aijy where any attempt at an 
explanation of the presence of so many Indians at Dover, other 
than that which has been intimated above. It was known to all 
the Indians that the English had made overtures to the Mohawks 
to make war upon the Eastern and other hostile Indians. The 
Mohawks were regarded by all the Indians of the New England 
colonies with a dread which was almost insane ; there seems to 
have been no thought of resistance to these dreaded foes. Many 
tribes and remnants of tribes began to sue for terms of peace ; and 
a general proclamation was issued about this time in answer : 

That treacherous Persons who began the War and those that have 
been barbourously bloody must not expect to have their lives spared ; 
but others that have been drawn into the War, and acting only as 
Souldiers, submitting to be without Arms, and to live quietly and 
peaceably for the Future, shall have their Lives spared. 



306 KING PHILIP'S WAR. 

A contemporary writer of a pamphlet (written in Boston and 
published in London, 1676), who signs himself " R. H. " (perhaps 
Richard Hutchinson), and gives a " True Account of the most con- 
siderable occurrences " in the war, from May 5th to August 4th, 
1676, publishes the above decree of the Council, and evidently 
confounds the treaty of July 3d with the affair of September 7th ; 
as he says, that " upon the 10th day of July there were about 300 
Indians at the Eastward, that surrendered themselves to the Eng- 
lish and their sachems with them." He mentions Wannalancet 
and Squando, and says the dread of the Mohawks drove them in. 
He says nothing of a " sham-fight," or of a capture. Mr. Hub- 
bard is silent as to the "sham-fight; " but says that the Indians, 
" hoping to shrowd themselves under the Wings of some honester 
Indians about Quechecho, under Pretence of a Declaration sent 
out by the Governour and Council of the Massachusetts in July 
last ; " and in this mention relates that our forces under Capts. 
Hathorne and Sill, with the help of Major Walderne and Capt. 
Frost, and others residing in those parts " being then in Readi- 
ness," separated the vile and wicked from the rest and sent them 
down to the Governour at Boston. And in the other mention, 
in the account of the war with these Eastern Indians, he says 
that these oificers mentioned above mutually agree to seize upon 
all those Indians that were gathered " about Major Waldern's 
Dwelling in Quechecho," and that " the contrivement suc- 
ceeded." 

Lacking proof contrary, it would seem that the Indians were 
gathered, through the influence of Major Walderne and Wanna- 
lancet, to accept the terms of the General Court's proclamation 
of amnesty. The forcible capture of four hundred Indians even 
by the stratagem of a sham-fight seems highly improbable ; and 
it is far likelier that the surrender was full and entirely peaceful, 
while the separation of the bad from the good was made after all 
were quietly surrounded by the English, possibly under the pre- 
tence of a " training," Mr. Belknap, the eminent historian of 
New Hampshire, many years minister at Dover, gives some detail 
of the sham-fight, and says that Major Walderne planned this 
method to secure the " bad " Indians without bloodshed. The 
Indians were set on one side the field and the English on the 
other, and after considerable manoeuvring, the Indians were in- 
duced to fire the first volley, after which the four companies of 
Walderne, Sill, Hathorne, Frost, and probably Capt. Hunting's 
company of friendly Indians, surrounded and disarmed them. 
Whatever the method, it is certain that the Indians captured on 
September 6th, to the number of some two hundred, were sent 
down to Boston in vessels. September 10th a letter was sent 
by Major Walderne, Nicholas Shapleigh and Thomas Daniel, 
containing some explanations in regard to the prisoners and the 
charges against certain of them. The following is the letter : 



THE CAPTIVE INDIANS. 307 

Dover, 10* Septemb"" 1676 
Much Hon'* 

The Ind°' being now on board & Comeing towards you Wee y' 
have been Soe far Improv'd about y" Thought it Convenient to Inform 
how ffar they have kept the Pease made with us & who of those are 
Concerned therein viz' Penicooks Wonolansets Waymesits & Piscataq 
Ind°' there being not any belonging further Eastw'^ come in nor any 
other of those belonging to y*= South Side of Mirimack ever Included 
in our Pease ; those of y'" y' had made y^ Pease comeing in to Comply 
w"" y' the others to get Shelter under y"" but y' they should be all 
treated alike as here they were wee humbly Conceived no Reason wee 
not being able to Charge those that had made y^ Pease w"" any breach 
of Articles Save only y' of entertaining our Southern Enemies but by 
y' meanes wee came to Surprise Soe many of y™ There are Several of 
Piscataq Ind°' here who before y'' Pease had been very Active Against 
us but since have lived quietly & Attended Order but yo' Pleasures 
being to have all sent down to determine their Case at Boston, hath 
been Attended keeping here about 10 young men of y"' to Sei-ve in y" 
Army with their families & Some old men and theirs with "Wonolansets 
Relations. Yesterday came in 2 Squawes informing y' one eyed Jn° & 
Jethro were designing y* Surprizing of Canonicus & bringing in desire- 
ing Some of our old Men to come to Advise with him about it. I 
forthwith sent out there to further y^ design. Wee have information 
from Jewels Island y' the former newes is not Soe bad being not above 
10 in all killed and wounded being unexpectedly surprised If y' be 
Any obstruction in y* flfurther Prosecution of y* enemy now by y* 
Army, our People will quickly desert their Country, Shall Add no more 
at P'sent but Remain in much Hon"" Yo'' Humble Serv°" 

Richard Waldern 
Nic: Shapleigh 
Mass. Archives, vol. 30, p. 218. Tho: Daniel 

This letter shows that orders had come from the Council for 
all the Indians taken to be sent to Boston. There is no doubt 
that very many of those sent down considered themselves, 
and were considered by the above committee, as having accepted 
and fulfilled the terms of peace agreed upon in the treaty with 
Major Walderne the winter before. The Pennacooks and 
the Wamesits were the only tribes mentioned as included in 
the treaty, south of the Merrimac. It is evident that some 
of the " Praying " Indians were sent down also, as we find Mr. 
Eliot and Major Gookin at once advocating their cause and the 
claims of those who had accepted the terms of the treaty and 
supposed it covered and condoned past offences. 

A good view of the condition of affairs at this Eastern part, 
where the war was now being waged, is gained from this 
letter from the chief citizens of " Northfolk and Yorkshire " 
Counties. 



308 KING Philip's war. 

Portsm": 19: 8"^: 1676 
Much Hotf^ 

Being upon occasion of y'' Alarms lately rec*^ fro y^ Enemy mett 
togeth"" at Portsm° thought meet to give yo"" Hon" our sense of Matt" in 
y' p' of y*" Country in y*" best Mann' y' upon y'' place in y*' p'^sent Hurry 
we are able to get. How things are now at Wells & York wee know 
not, but p'"sume yo'selves will be informed ere y^ comes to yo"" hand p 
ye Post sent fro: y*^ Comand"^ in cheefe w*^^ (as wee understand) went 
thro, y^ Towne y' Morning. Only thus m'^'' we have learnt y' y*" Enemy 
is Numerous & about those p'% having carried all clear before him so 
far as Wells. That hee is pceeding towards us & so on toward yo"" 
Selves y^ Enemy intimates & y* thing itself speaks. What is meet to 
be now don is w* yo''selves to say rather than for us to suggest, how- 
ever being so deeply and nextly concerned humbly crave leave to offer 
to Consider" whether y*" securing of what is left Ijee not o"" next Work 
rather than -y^ Attempting to regain what is lost unless there were 
strength enough to doe both. It seemes little available to endeavor 
ought in y* More Eastern places y* are already conquered unless there 
bee several Garrisons made & kept with provision & Amunition & what 
may be suitable for a Recruit upon all Occasions, w'''' to do (at least y' 
Winter) cannot say y* y^ profit will make amends for y*" charge. Sure 
wee are y' o'^selves (y' is y® County of Northfolk with Dover & Portsm") 
are so far from being capeable of Spareing any fforces for y' Expedi- 
tion y' we find o""selves so thinned and weakened by those y' are out 
already y' there is nothing but y'' singular Providence of Ood hath pre- 
vented our being utterly run down. The Enemy observes o' motions 
& knows o'' strength (weaknes rather) bett y° wee are willing hee 
should & pbably had been with us ere this had not y'' Highest Power 
overruled him. And that Haver-hill, Extt% &c. are in like P''dicam' 
w"" Dover, &c. seems apparent, & hence as uncapeable of spareing 
Men. In true [sic] there is an Army out in Yorkshire w'^'^ will doubtle' 
doe what may be done, yet there is room enough for y^ Enemy to slipp 
by them unobserved & if so what a Condition we are in is evident. 
Our own men are not enough to maintain o"" own places if any Assault 
be made & yet many of o" are now on the other side of the Pascataq'' 
River. Wee expect an Onsett in one place or other every day, & can 
expect no Relief e fro those that are so far fro home. If it should bee 
thought meet y' all y^ Men y' are come to us & other parts of y' Juris- 
diction from y*" deserted & conquered Eastern Country should be 
ordered to y"" Places y' are left on theyr own side of y*^ River, y' so o" 
may be recalled to theyr severall towns, it might possibly bee not una- 
vailable to ye Ends ; Especially if w"" all some Indians might be ordered 
to these parts to bee upon a perpetuall scout fro place to place. 
We design not a lessening or discouragm' of y*^ Army who rather need 
strengthening & Incouragm', for we verily think y' if by y'^ Good Hand 
of Providence y" Army had not been thei'e all y^ Parts on y^ other side 
of y'' River had been possest by the Enemy & perhaps ©'selves too ere 
y" Time. But what we aim at is that o'selves also may be put into 
Capacity to defend o'selves. Wee are apt to fear we have been too 
bold with your Honors, but wee are sure our Intentions are good, & 
o' Condition very bad except y^ Lord of Hosts appear for us speedily, 
& wee would be found m y^ Use of Meanes, commending o'" case to him 



REPORT FROM THE EASTWARD TOWNS. 309 

y' is able to protect us and direct yo'^selves in order thereunto, & 
remain 

M'''* Uon^ Yo' Humble Serv" 

Rob'' Pike, Richard Walderne, 

Richard Martyn, John Cutt, 

W** Vaughan, Tho: Daniel. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 71. 

A reference in Major Gookin's history of the "Praying 
Indians " proves the intimation in the following letter that a sec- 
ond company of Indians was sent down, including those who 
came in after the army had passed to the Eastward, and also that 
Major Walderne himself went to Boston to assist in the " dis- 
posal," and sold some of them ; and probably Wannalancet and 
his men, and the Wamesits, went with the Major, by the require- 
ment of the General Court. Major Gookin complains that some 
of his most trusted praying Indians, and especially Sam Num- 
phow, with difficulty cleared themselves from the accusations of 
English who had been captives and swore against them, when, he 
says, it is not easy to identify Indians under even the most favor- 
able conditions. 

Cochecha, 2. g"-^' 1676 
Maj' Gookin, 

Hon'i Sr. 

I rec"* yo" of 25"" 8*"" concerning Some Ind°' w""" you Say it is 
Alledged I promised life & liberty to ; time pmits mee not at p''sent to 
inlarge but for Answer in Short yo" may Please to know I Promised 
neither Peter Jethro nor any other of y' comp* life or liberty it not 
being in my Power to doe it ; all y' I promised was to Peter Jethro 
viz* that if he would use his Endeavo'' & be Instrumental ffor y" bring- 
ing in one eyed Jn° &c. I would acquaint y* Gov'n"" w"" w' service 
he had done & Improve my Interest in his behalfe this I Acquainted 
y^ Hon"* Council w"" if it had been their Pleasures to have Saved more 
of y™ it would not have troubled mee, as to y^ Squaw^ you Mention 
belonging to one of Capt. Hunting's Souldiers, there was Such a one 
left of y'^ first Great Comp'' of Ind°' 1^' [sent] down w"^ Capt. Hunting 
desired might Stay here til himselfe & her husband Came back from 
Eastw** w*=^ I consented to & how she came among y' comp'' I know not 
I requiring none to goe y° to Boston but those that came in after y^ 
Armies departure neither Knew I a word of it at Boston w" I disposed 
of y" soe twas her own fanlt in not Acquainting mee with it but if Said 
Squaw be not sent of I shall be freely willing to reimburse those Gen' 
w' they gave mee for her y' she may be sett at liberty being wholy ino- 
cent as to w' I'me charged w'*" I intend ere long to be at Boston w° I 
doubt not but shall give you full satisfaction thereabout. 

I am S'' yo'' Humble Serv" Richard Waldern. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 30, p. 226. 

^ The Indian woman referred to in Major Waldeme's letter was Mary Nemasit, wife of John, 
■who had been in the army with the English under Capt. Hunting during the summer, and now 
comes armed with a letter from Major Gookin and demands his wife and child, who were in 
Boston Prison . and had been bought by Messrs. Tho: Deane and James Whetcomb. Nov. 23d, 
1676, the Council gives order to the prison-keeper to deliver the woman and child to her husband. 
See Mass. Archives, vol. 30, p. 228. 



310 



KING PHILIP'S WAK. 



There is no doubt that the general voice of the colony highly 
applauded the action of Major Walderne, and gave him the credit 
of the capture, while Major Gookin questioned the method 
sharply. 

The following list of credits is all that appears in Hull's Treas- 
ury accounts ; and these men were those who served under him 
personally, the others being credited under their respective 
captains, and those after August 24th placed in a later journal 
now lost. 



Credited under Major Walderne. 


January 25 1675 


Joseph Pillsbery 01 12 06 


Lawrence CUnton 02 15 08 


Richard Jones 02 02 00 


James Ford 02 15 00 


Thomas Baker 02 02 00 


William Delamore 02 02 00 


John Smith 02 02 90 


February 29, 1675 


Edward Fuller 02 02 00 


Thomas Rowlinson 02 02 00 


March 24"' 1675-6 


Joseph Fowler 03 12 00 


Daniel Tenney 01 19 04 


Henry Ducker 03 12 00 


April 24"^ 1676 


Jeremiah Neale 01 13 09 


Richard Freind 01 12 06 


John Line 03 06 00 


June 24'^ 1676 


Samuel Stanwood 02 02 00 


Mark Hascall 02 14 00 


Nathaniel Bray 02 02 00 


August 24'*^ 1676 


George Cross 02 02 00 


Edmund Henfield 01 12 00 



THE WINTER EXPEDITION OF MAJOR WALDERNE TO THE 
EASTWARD. 

In following the career of Major Walderne, it will be necessary 
to pass over a detailed account of affairs at the Eastward, in 
which, however, he bore no small part, being magistrate as well 
as military commander of this quarter of the colony. All the 
Eastern settlements were broken up, and the people who were 
neither killed nor made captive fled to the Westward towns for 
safety. Desolation lay over all, from Pemaquid as far as Wells. 
Capt. Hathorne's forces availed but little except to keep the 
Indians from any general gathering and organized attack. Small 
parties of the enemy were scattered along the frontiers, ready to 
fall upon any exposed settlement. The alarms, attacks and use- 
less pursuits were many ; till at last, about the middle of October, 
the celebrated " Mog," or " Mugg," came in to Major Walderne 
and announced himself as empowered to negotiate peace with the 
English on behalf of " Madockawando and Cheberrina, Sachems 
of Penobscot." Mog came to Boston under safe conduct from 
the governor, and between Nov. 6th and 13th a treaty was con- 
cluded between the colony and the Eastward Indians, not includ- 
ing the " Ammoscoggins " and " Pequakets." During this time 
Capt. Hathorne, upon information received of Mog, marched his 
troops up to Ossipee, expecting to find there a large body of 



MAJOR WALDERNE VISITS MADOCKAWANDO. 311 

Indians and English captives, but found nothing but the empty- 
fort, which they burnt, and returned to Berwick on November 
9th. Upon the issue of the treaty the Council sent vessels to the 
Penobscot with Mog, held as voluntary hostage, to act as agent 
and interpreter. Madockawando was found and confirmed the 
treaty made with Mog, and delivered the few prisoners which he 
held. Mog himself was permitted to go up into the woods to 
another plantation to persuade other Indians to join in the treaty, 
and to bring in some captives which they held ; but not returning, 
they supposed he was either killed or detained as prisoner by the 
Indians, as he told them when he left them might be the result. 
They waited more than a week, and then came home, amving at 
Boston December 25th, 1676. Nothing more was heard of the 
captives at the Eastward or of Mog until January 5th, when one 
Francis Card, a captive, escaped, and made his way to Blackpoint 
and thence to Boston, where he made an interesting statement of 
the condition of things at the Eastward ; told the story of his 
escape, stated the location and strength of the enemy, putting 
their entire fighting force at not above one hundred and fifty 
fighting men ; he described the country and explained the best 
places to land a force, and urged that an expedition be sent at 
once before they removed higher up the river. The details of 
all the matters referred to above are to be given in another 
chapter. The statement made by Card, and especially his im- 
plication of Mog as a " Rogue " who came back among the 
Indians, and laughed at the English and their " kinde Entertain- 
ment," and saying he had found a way to burn Boston, seems to 
have renewed the determination of the Council to send an expe- 
dition immediately to attempt the recovery of their forts and the 
captive English. Other things also moved them, such as the dis- 
covery that the Narraganset Indians were abroad in these East- 
ward parts, three being captured by Major Walderne's Indians 
in the woods near Dover ; and when several of the chief men 
about Portsmouth, etc., came to Boston advising the expedition, 
it was determined, and Major Walderne was made commander-in- 
chief. 

The expedition consisted of two companies of sixty men from 
Boston and Salem ; the first, sixty Natick Indians under Capt. 
Samuel Hunting ; the second, sixty men under Lieut. Thomas 
Fiske of Wenham, whose commission for this service is preserved 
in the Massachusetts Archives, vol. 69, p. 106, and is dated Feb- 
ruary 5th, 1676. These sailed from Salem the first week in Feb- 
ruary, directly to Blackpoint, where Major Walderne met them 
with the forces raised by him and Capt. Frost in their parts. The 
Council gave Major Walderne instruction and commission as 
follows : 



312 KING Philip's war. 

Instructions for Major Rich. Walderne. 

You shal repaire to Blacke point w"" the 60 souldiers under capt. 
frost that you are authorized by y^ Council to raise in Dover Ports- 
mouth & yorkshire by y" 8 of feb'^ where you are to take under your 
command the other forces from Boston & Salem under the command 
of Capt. Hunting & Leiftenant Fiske & other sea officers, from whence 
w"^ all expedition w"^ the advice of your commanders you shall advance 
towards the enemy at Kinnebeck or elsewhere, & according to the pro- 
posed designe, endeavour w* all silence & secresy to surprize them in 
their quarters wherein if it please God to succeed you, you shall do 
your utmost endeavour to save and secure the English prisoners. If 
you fail in this designe you shall assay by alle means in your power to 
disturb & destroy the enemy unless you have such overtures from them 
as may give some competent assurance that an honorable and safe 
peace may be concluded with them wherein you must avoyd all trifling 
& delayes & w"' all possible speed make despatch of the affaire not 
trusting them without first delivery of all the Captives & vessels in 
their hands. If you should in conclusion find it necessary to leave a 
garrison in Kinnebeck, wee must leave it to your discretion. You 
shall use utmost expedition as winds & other advantages will permit 
lest y* season be lost and charges seem without profitt. 

Praying God to be with you E. R. S. 

24 Janu'y 1676 

Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 101. 

The commission of Major Walderne : 

J. L. G. W'^ the Consent of the Council. 
To Major Richard Walden. 

whereas you are apoynted Cor-in-chief of the forces Now to be 
raised ag' the enemy the pagans in the East for the assaulting them at 
Kinnebeck, we have ordered the rendevous of the S'^ forces at Black 
point the 8 "^feb next doe hereby order & authorize you to take under 
your command and conduct the S** forces w'^'' you are to require to 
obey & attend your orders & Commands as their Commander-in-chiefe 
& you to leade conduct & order the S^ forces for the best service of 
the country against the Common enemy whom you are to endeavour to 
surprize kill & destroy by all means in your power & al Com'd", 
Officers & soulders under you are required to yeild obedience to 
endeavour to recover the English prisoners from out of their possession, 
you are also to govern the forces under your Command according to 
the laws enacted by the Gener^'^ C to attend to all such orders & com- 
mands as you shall receive from time to time from the general Court 
Councill or other Superior authority. 

Given in Boston 29 jan, 1676. Past E. R. S. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 101. 

A journal account of this expedition was kept by Major Wal- 
derne, which Mr. Hubbard published in his History, from the 
original copy. Only an abstract can find place here. 



ON THE KENNEBEC. 313 

On February 17th Major Walderne, with his whole command, 
sailed from Blackpoint for " Portland." ^ On the east side of 
Cape Elizabeth one of their scouts, John Pain (former keeper of 
the Major's Pennacook truck-house, probably), appeared and re- 
ported the way clear of ice and Indians. They sailed across to 
" Mary Point " (Mare-point), arriving late at night. On the 18th 
the scouts found a birch canoe and the tracks of three Indians at 
" Muckquet " (Maquoit). Just as the companies were drawn up 
for the march, five canoes of Indians landed on an island opposite 
(probably Birch Island) and signalled for a parley ; John Pain 
was sent, and they promised to bring the captives in the morning. 
Pain returned to the Indians, and " Simon," one of their leaders, 
came as a hostage in his place, who being questioned by the 
Major, declared that " Blind Will " stirred up late trouble ; that 
they desired peace ; that Squando was over at the island and 
would return the captives to Major Walderne. Squando was 
summoned, and replied that he would meet the Major if he would 
come half way alone in a canoe. Major Walderne refused, and 
the Indian promised to come in the morning. On the 19th they 
appeared in fourteen canoes. They landed upon a point where 
there was a house which was set on fire, and their scouts seemed 
to challenge our men to fight, upon which our troops marched 
against them as secretly as possible, when they fled, but Capt. 
Frost came upon their main body and had a sharp skirmish, kill- 
ing and wounding several without any loss to his own. But 
anxious for the captives, the Major immediately hung out a flag 
of truce, which was immediately answered with one by them. 
John Pain and " Simon " therefore met and had an explanation 
half way between the hues. The house was fired accidentally, 
and their scouts did not mean to challenge ours, but hailed them 
according to their custom ; said the captives were a great way off 
and had not yet arrived, but promised them next day. On the 
20th they were weather-bound. On the 21st they sailed for 
Arrowsick. On the 22d they sailed up the river till stopped by 
the ice, and then landed their forces about twelve miles from 
Abbigadassit Fort, at which they arrived after a six-hours' march, 
and found the fort empty. On the 23d, at a council-of-war, it was 
decided that Major Walderne should sail with some part of his 
forces for the Penobscot, while the rest should remain and build 
a garrison. On the 24th the Major located a site opposite the 
lower end of Arrowsick Island, "at John Baker's house." Sun- 
day, February 25th, they rested at this place. On the 26th Major 
Walderne with sixty men in two vessels sailed for Penobscot 
River. On the way two Indians signalled them from a canoe off 
" Gyobscot Point," and John Pain and Walt. Gendal were sent 
to speak with them, and were told that many Indians and some 
English captives were at Pemaquid. The whole force immediately 

1 Falmouth, this probably the first mention as " Portland." 



314 KING PHILIP'S WAR. 

set sail and came to that place about four o'clock that same day, 
and were immediately hailed by Indians from " Mr. Gardner's 
Fort." John Pain was sent ashore to them and found the chief 
sagamore Mattahando with other sachems and " sundry sorts of 
Indians." The chief wished to speak with Capt. Davis, and was 
very desirous of peace, promising to deliver the captives then at 
Penobscot next morning. Capt. Davis with John Pain went 
ashore and stayed, while three sagamores went aboard to talk 
with Major Walderne, who soon after went ashore with six men 
unarmed, and was promised that the captives should be delivered 
next morning. On the 27th, after a long negotiation and a ran- 
som of twelve skins to each captive, they delivered William Chad- 
burne, John Whin nick (Winnock) and John Wormwood, these 
being all they would own that they had, or that it could be proved 
that they had. Some of the old sagamores seemed to be sincere, 
and declared that they were against the war, but could not rule 
their young men. Our officers, however, had little confidence in 
them, and in council decided to get all the captives and then to 
try to surprise their whole company. In pursuance of this design 
the Major with five others went ashore bearing a part of the 
ransom and carefully providing against surprise. While looking 
about to discover if the Indians were as wiseh' provided against 
Christian treachery as they against heathen treachery, he found 
a lance-head partly concealed under a board, seizing which he 
immediately advanced upon the Indians, charging them with 
treachery, swung his cap above his head as a signal to his men to 
come ashore, as was agreed, while those who were with the Major 
immediately rallied about to defend him from the Indians who 
advanced to seize him, and also to secure the goods which he had 
brought ashore. Some squaws seized a bundle of muskets that 
were hidden close by, and fled with them. Capt. Frost and Lieut. 
Nutter captured Megunnaway, " a notorious rogue," and carried 
him on board their vessel. As soon as the English got on shore 
they pursued the Indians to their canoes so closely that they were 
able to kill seven before they reached their boats, and as many 
more probably afterwards. Four were taken prisoners, of whom 
one was the sister of Madockawando. The old chief Mattahando 
was among the killed. Not more than twenty-five warriors were 
present in this engagement. The English secured a large amount 
of plunder, about a thousand pounds of dried beef with the rest. 
Megunnaway was next day executed by shooting, it being de- 
clared by witnesses that he was concerned in the killing of Thomas 
Bracket at Falmouth. On February 28th they sailed back to 
Kennebec, where Lieut. Fiske with a party of forty men secured 
some forty bushels of wheat, several cannon, some anchors, and a 
great quantity of boards from Arrowsick, a part of which they 
loaded upon their vessels. They killed two Indians upon Arrow- 
sick Island, where they discovered the body of the lamented 



AFTER THE WAR. 315 

Capt. Lake, which was wonderfully preserved. This was brought 
home to Boston, where they arrived March 11th, 1676-7. 

This expedition was the closing active military service of Major 
Walderne, although he still retained his office as Major, and was 
constantly concerned as such, and held his place as magistrate 
and leading citizen during his life. In the spring of 1678 this 
war with the Indians closed. Major Walderne, however, became 
involved in the strife of the factions that claimed the government 
of New Hampshire, and his Itfe thus continued in turbulence, 
even to its tragic close, the manner of which requires here some 
notice, even though many years had passed after Philip's War. 

For about eleven years there had been peace with the Indians. 
The Pennacooks had long ago returned, and Kankamagus above 
mentioned had by his energy and wisdom restored them to some- 
thing of their former prosperity. But this chief was somewhat 
impatient under the constant unjust encroachments and wrongs 
of the English, and their constant threats that they would bring 
the Mohawks upon them, and at last, involved in some new 
occasion of complaint, he fled to his relatives among the Andros- 
coggins some time in the year 1686, where, finding some others 
with like wrongs and resentments, he became ^ nucleus of dis- 
content. There were many also scattered among the Eastern 
tribes who had been captured at Dover in 1676 and sold into 
slavery, and had made their way back to find their tribes scat- 
tered, their families broken up and lost. To many of these 
nothing was left but hate and vengeance upon the English, and 
especially against the one man whom they believed responsible 
for the transaction ; the man was Major Walderne. Other causes 
were doubtless at work at the Eastward by the designs of the 
French and the Jesuit missionaries in the zeal for their religion ; 
but the resentment seems to have centred upon Cocheco and Major 
Walderne. In June, 1689, the people began to be aware of large 
numbers of strange Indians among those who came in to trade, 
and many did not seem to come for that purpose, but were ob- 
served carefully scrutinizing the defences and approaches. The 
people became alarmed, and one after another many came and 
urged Major Walderne to take some precautions of defence. He, 
however, would not hearken, laughed at their fears, and told them 
to " go and plant their pumpkins," and he would tell them when 
the Indians should attack them. There were many old friends 
of the Major and of the English of Dover among the neighboring 
Indians, and some of these tried to warn them of their danger. 
A squaw came through the town, and here and there significantly 
recited the words which have been handed down in the rhyme, 

" O Major Waldron, you great sagamore, 
What will you do, Indians at your door." 

Capt. Thomas Henchman of Chelmsford also was apprized of 



316 KING Philip's wak. 

the plot against Dover, and sent down a letter of warning to 
the Council at Boston, as follows : 

Hon'^ Sir 

This day 2 Indians came from Pennacook, viz. Job Maramasquand 
and Peter Muckamug, who report y' damage will undoubtedly be done 
within a few days at Piscataqua, and y' Major Waldrons, in particular, 
is threatened ; and Intimates fears y' mischief quickly will be done at 
Dunstable. The Indians can give a more particular account to your 
honor. They say iff damage be done, the blame shall not be on them, 
having given a faithful account of what they hear ; and are upon that 
report moved to leave y' habitation and corn at Pennacook. 8% I was 
verry loth to trouble you and to expose myself to the Censure and de- 
rision of some of the confident people, that ware pleased to make sport 
of what I sent down by Capt. Tom. I am constrained from a sense of 
my duty and from love of my countrymen to give the acct. as above. 
So with my humble service to your Honor, and prayers for the safety 
of an Indangered people, 

I am, S', your humble servant Tho: Hinchman. 

June 22 [1689] 

Mass. Archives, vol. 107, p. 139. 

This letter was received by Mr. Danforth, and on the 27th laid 
before Gov. Bradstreet and the Council, and a messenger was 
sent to Dover the same day with this warning to Major Wal- 
derne : 

Boston: 27. : June: 1689 
Honor** Sir 

The Governor and Councill haveing this day received a Letter 
from Major Henchman of Chelmsford, that some Indians are come 
unto them, who report that there is a gathering of some Indians in or 
about Penecooke with designe of mischiefe to the English, amongst 
the said Indians is one Hawkins [Hogkins or Kankamagus] is said to 
be a principle designer, and that they have a particular designe against 
yourselfe and Mr. Peter Coffin which the Councill thought it necessary 
presently to dispatch Advice thereof to give you notice that you take 
care of yo"' own Safeguard, they intending endeavour to to betray you 
on a pretention of Trade. Please forthwith to Signify import hereof 
to Mr. Coffin and others as you shall think necessary, and Advise of 
what Information you may receive at any time of the Indians motions. 
By Order in Councill, 

Isa: Addington, Sec'y. 
For Major Rich"* Walden and Mr. Peter Coffin 
or either of them at Cocheca with all 
possible [haste] 
Mass. Archives, vol. 107, p. 144. 

The messengers made all possible speed for Dover, but were 
detained at the Ferry at Newbury, and did not arrive until June 
28th, the day after the blow had fallen. On the evening of the 
27th two squaws applied at each of the garrison houses for per- 
mission to sleep inside, as was often done, and two were admitted 
into each of the garrisons, Walderne's, Heard's and Otis's, and 



DEATH OF MAJOR WALDERNE. 317 

were shown how to unfasten the gates if they wished to go away 
during the night. There was a report of a great number of 
Indians coining to trade next day, and the sachem Wesaudowit, 
who had taken supper at the Major's, asked him pointedly, 
" Brother Waldron, what would you do if the strange Indians 
should come ? " "I could assemble a hundi'ed men by lifting up 
my finger," replied the Major, in careless indifference. And thus 
all retired to rest ; no watch was placed and no precautions taken. 

After midnight the gates were opened by the squaws. The 
Indians waiting outside rushed in and took possession without 
any alarm and rushed into the Major's rooms. Aroused from 
sleep, the old man sprang up, seized his sword, and despite his 
eighty years, drove them before him through several rooms, but 
turning to secure other arms, they sprang upon him from behind 
and struck him down with a hatchet ; they bound him into his 
arm-chair and placed him upon a long table ; they mocked him, 
and asked, " Who shall judge Indians now?" They compelled 
the family of the Major to prepare them supper, after which they 
drew their knives, and slashed the helpless old man across the 
breast, saying " I cross out my account." They then cut off his 
ears and nose and forced them into his mouth, till at last, when 
fainting with the loss of blood he was about to fall, one of them 
held his sword beneath him, upon which faUing he expired. 

The following letter was written by his son, who was then at 
Portsmouth, as is seen ; 

Portsm": 28*: June 1689 ab' 8 a clock morning 
Just now came ashore here From Cocheca Jn° Ham & his wife who 
went hence last night home wo'' (they Uving w*in a mUe of Maj'' Waldron) 
& ab' break of the day goeing up the river in a cannoo they heard guns 
fired but notw'^standing proceeded to Land at Maj"" Waldrons landing 
place by w''*' time it began to be light & then they Saw ab' twenty 
Ind°' near Mr. Coffins Garrison Shooting & Shouting as many more 
about Richard Otis's & Tiio: Pains but Saw their way clear to Maj' 
"Waldrons where they Intended Imediately to secure themsc4ves but 
comeing to the gate & calling & knocking could receive noe answer yet 
saw a light in one of y'' Chambers & one of y™ say (looking through a 
crack of the gate) that he saw Sundry Ind°^ w'^'in y* Garrison w'^'' sup- 
pose had murther'd Maj'^ Waldron & his Familie & thereupon they 
betook y'^selves to make an escape w*''' they did & mett w* one of Otis 
sons who alsoe escaped from his Fathers garrison Informing y' his 
Father and y'^ rest of the Family were killed. Quickly after [they] 
set sundry houses afire this is all the Ace" wee have at p'"seut w'^'^ being 
given in a Surprize may admitt of some alteration but Doubtlesse the 
most of those Families at or ab' Cochecha are destroyed. 

The above Ace" was related to mee. Richard Waldron, jun^ 
Mass. Archives, Hutchinson Papers, vol. 3, p. 376. 

Thus tragically closed the eventful life of Major Richard Wal- 
derne, in the opinion of many the most notable of the early 
settlers of New Hampshire. 



xxn. 

CAPTAIN WILLIAM HATHORNE. 



TirriLLIAM HATHORNE, the father of Captain William 
T T Hathorne, was the son of William and Sara, of Binfield, 
Berkshire Co., England, born about 1607, and came to 
this country with Winthrop, in the Arbella, in 1630, and settled 
first at Dorchester, where he was a land holder, and appears 
prominently in affairs in the earliest days of the settlement, and 
until 1636, when he removed to Salem. He was admitted free- 
man in 1634, and was chosen deputy in 1635 and 1637, and from 
Salem many times afterwards ; and when, in 1644, the " House 
of Deputies " elected a Speaker for the first time, he was elected, 
and served in that position for several years afterwards. He was 
elected Assistant in 1662, which office he retained until 1679, and 
the history of the times in which he lived shows him to have been 
one of the most able, energetic, and widely influential men in 
New England, in his day. He was mentioned as present at the 
great " training " at Boston, 1639 ; was commissioned Captain of 
the company at Salem, May 1, 1646, and Major before 1656. 
See also " Wonder-working Providence," p. 109. While he was 
evidently narrow and bigoted in his religious theories, and arbi- 
trary and intolerant in the administration of affairs, both of 
church and state, he was the zealous and fearless advocate of the 
personal rights of freemen as against royal emissaries and agents. 

The investigations of our Mr. Waters, in the English Archives, 
have revealed the Hathorne ancestry in England as given above, 
and from additional data gathered by him and others, we have 
room for the following brief statement, tracing the descent of the 
distinguished Nathaniel Hawthorne of our own day from this 
eminent ancestor. 

William ^ Hathorne brought with him to this country his wife 
Anne, by whom he had children : 

1. A daughter.^ 

ii. Sarah,- b. March 11, 1634-5; m. Joseph Coker, of Newbury, 

iii. Eleazer,^ b. Aug. 1, 1637 ; m. Abigail, dau. of George Curwen. 

iv. Nathauiel,2 b. Aug. 11, 1639. 

V. JoHN,^ b. Aug. 5, 1641 ; m. Ruth Gardner, dau. of George. 



THE HATHORNE FAMILY. 319 

vi. Anna,^ b. Dec. 12, 1643; m. Joseph Porter. 

vii. "William,^ b. April 1, 1645; m. Sarah . 

vlii. Elizabeth,^ b. 1649 ; m. Israel Porter. 

Major William Hathorne died in 1681, in his 74th year. Will 
probated June 28, 1681 ; mentions son William lately deceased, 
and Sarah the widow of the same, and her heirs ; appoints wife 
Anne sole executrix. 

John ^ Hathorne, distinguished both in civil and military af- 
fairs, serving as Captain in the war with the Eastern Indians, 
the Colonel of a regiment, and in the expedition of 1696 chief 
commander ; admitted freeman 1677 ; Deputy, 1683 ; Assistant, 
1684-1711 (except in Andros's brief rule), and is remembered 
unhappily as the most intolerant and cruel of the judges in the 
witchcraft delusion. He had, by his wife Ruth (Gardner) ; 

i. John.^ ii. Nathaniel.^ iii. Ebenezer.^ 

iv. Joseph,^ bapt. June, 1691 ; m. Sarah, dau. of William Bowditch. 
V. Ruth.^ vi. Benjamin.^ 

Joseph^ and Sarah (Bowditch) had children: — 1. William.^ 
2. Joseph.* 3. John.* 4. Sarah.* 5. Ebenezer.* 6. Daniel.* 
7. Ruth.* 

Daniel,* m. Rachel Phelps, and had children: — 1. Daniel,^ 
died soon. 2. Sarah.^ 3. Eunice.^ 4. Daniel,^ 2d. 5. Judith.* 
6. Nathaniel,* b. May 19, 1775; he was a sea captain and 
died in Surinam in 1808 ; married Elizabeth Clark Man- 
ning and had two children: — 1. Ehzabeth Manning,^ b. 
Mar. 7, 1802. 2. Nathaniel,® b. July 4, 1804 ; m. Sophia 
Peabody, at Salem, July, 1842, and died at Plymouth, N. 
H., May 19, 1864. He changed the old surname to Haw- 
thorne, and by his genius placed it in the front rank of the 
world's great authors. The apology for this digression is 
the eminence of this Nathaniel Hawthorne. 

Other descendants of Major William,^ through other lines of 
descent than John and William, Jr., are scattered over the whole 
country, and bear both forms of the surname, 

Capt. William ^ Hathorne, son of Major William, and the 
subject of this sketch, has, in all published accounts known to me, 
been very strangely overlooked by being identified as one with 
his father. My attention was first called to the error of that sup- 
position by the mention of his " father " in his letter from Casco, 
Sept. 22, 1676. I found that he was engaged at the Eastward 
from September 6th up to November 10th, and that his father. 
Major William, Assistant, was present in his place in the General 
Court at Boston most of that time ; that administration upon the 
estate of Capt. William was granted to his widow Sarah, February 
4, 1678-9, Daniel Gookin and William Hathorne (Major) being 
the Magistrates. Major William died 1681, and in his will men- 



320 KING Philip's war. 

tions having given his son William land at Groton which he 
confirms to his widow Sarah and her heirs. 

In the expedition of December, 1675, against the Narragansets, 
as has been previously noted, Capt. Hathorne was appointed lieu- 
tenant of the company under Capt. Joseph Gardiner, and when 
that brave officer fell, at the great " Fort Fight," he succeeded to 
the command of the company, which he held during the remainder 
of that campaign, and, as we have seen in that chapter, most of 
that company were paid off as having served under him. 

In August, 1676, Capt. Hathorne was again called into service 
(as has been noted in several previous chapters), to take com- 
mand of the forces sent to the Eastward. 

After the surrender of the great body of Indians at Cochecho 
was accomplished in September, Capt. Hathorne immediately 
pushed forward with his forces towards the East. He had a 
force of four companies besides his own, numbering, probably, in 
all, nearly four hundred men ; his own and Capt. Sill's men 
numbered one hundred and thirty, and, together with Capt. 
Hunting's company of forty Indians, made up the Massachusetts 
quota, to which Major Walderne was expected to add about as 
many more of his own men and recruits in Yorkshire, these last 
two companies to be under Capt. Charles Frost of Kittery, and 
the whole force under Capt. Hathorne as Major. This " army " 
marched from Berwick to Wells on Sept. 8th, where they prob- 
ably were delayed for a day or two, organizing for the march and 
deliberating as to the marching to Ossipee, where it was rumored 
that a large force of Indians with their women and children were 
gathered in an old fort which some traders had built them as 
against the Mohawks, and where were a good many English 
captives taken just before from the plantations, from Kennebec to 
Casco. This expedition was the plan of General Denison, but 
discretionary power had been given Capt. Hathorne, and as 
rumors of large bodies of Indians still threatened the people that 
remained shut up in their garrisons in some of the seaside towns, 
who would perhaps fall upon these nearer places if they should 
withdraw, it was finally decided to go to the relief of the threat- 
ened towns. They accordingly marched from Wells to Winter 
Harbor, and thence by water passed to Blackpoiut, and thence to 
Casco, where they arrived on the 19th, and on the 22d the Cap- 
tain sends the following letter : 

Cascho 22'! Sept. 1676. 
Hon*^ Sir Att 9 a clock at night. 

I have not had anything to wi'itte nor anythinge woorth Informa- 
tion, wee came Into these parts y'' 19'^ Instant when we catched an 
Indian ; Sagamore of Peggwakick (and took y^ gun of another) who 
informed us that Kennebec Indians were to come Into these parts that 
night or the next day he told us that y'' Indians In these parts are not 
above 30 or 40 fighting men & that these keep upp at Orsybee or Peg- 
gwackick, which is :60: myles from us, he saith he knows of no 



CAPT. HATHORNE AT CASCO BAY. 321 

French men among them as y* Inhabitants Informed us, wee found 
him in many lyes, & so ordered him to be put to death, & y* Cochecho 
Indians to be his executioners ; which was redily done by them, this 
day, going over a River wee were Ambuscaded, but soon gott over 
and putt them to flight, killed dead In y* Place but one Named Jn° 
Sampson, who was well acquainted with Maj. Waldens Indians, they 
say he was a Captaine, but such are all y^ Ennemyes they kill (he was 
double Armed which wee took) wee find itt very difficult to come neire 
them there is soe many Rivers & soe much broken land, that they soon 
Escape by canoes ; y^ country being full of them, I would Intreat your 
Hon" to Order something Concerning y"* State of affaires here. Many 
Inhabitants of y*" place being come to take off, these Come and kill 
there Cattle only they want some helpe from us, I know not whether it 
may be for y^ Interest of y'^ Country for all to stay ; & If wee goe into 
y* Country to Peggwackick we can leave none, I desire your Hon" 
Advise and commands concerning this Also, Wee have had noe bread 
these three dayes I suppose y* reason is y^ contrary Winds, because I 
have sent to Mr. Martin twice ; have had one returne but noe bread, 
wee can do well without unless we goe up into y* country while our 
people are in health as they are generally praysed be y* Lord for itt, I 
Humbly Request your Honour to Remmember my duty to my father 
& Love to Rest of Friends, If you have an opportunity & soe I Rest 

your Hon" Humble Ser^^ant 

William Hathorne. 

The Indian that was taken told us that there be 20 English Captives 
at Peggwackick 2 of them men, & that Capt. Lake was killed, they 
say that Kennebeck Indians kill all. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 61. 

I have found no reference to the place which Capt. Hathorne's 
troops occupied during their stay at Falmouth, but as it appears 
that the Neck had been .deserted, and the outlying residents 
driven away and their homes destroyed, it seems probable that 
those who had fled to Blackpoint and vicinity for safety, mostly 
returned with the troops to Munjoy's Garrison, and among these 
were probably George Felt and those others who, on Sept. 23d, 
ventured in boats upon " Munjoy's Island " (to secure some sheep 
left there in their flight), and were all cut off by the Indians who 
were concealed there, lying in wait. Felt and his companions 
made a desperate resistance, having fled to the ruins of an old 
" Stone House," but were overpowered and destroyed. This was 
in plain sight of our forces, who lacking boats sufficient, were 
entirely unable to prevent the sad issue of this attempt, against 
which Capt. Hathorne had earnestly protested, there being no 
sufficient vessel to carry over an adequate guard, and a large body 
of the enemy known to be in the vicinity. Our Indian scouts 
were out after the enemy constantly, and captured those referred 
to in the letter, and evidently did nearly all the really effective 
work, for which, however, but little credit was given them by 
the English, except suspicion of carelessness or treachery and 



322 KING Philip's wak. 

cowardice ; and yet Capt. Hathorne's next letter protests against 
the withdrawal of these same Indians. It was very hard for the 
English to learn that their unwieldy troops and clumsy methods 
were no match for the quick-moving and wary enemy, who fled 
before the advance of the troops, and then dodging around them, 
struck a blow in the rear. Two days after the tragedy at Mun- 
joy's Island, another party struck a sudden blow at Wells, and 
anon at Cape Neddick, which occasioned the immediate return 
of the forces to that place, as will appear by the following letter : 

Wells: 2:8: 1676 
Hon''* Senat" Att 9 clock morning 

I received your Ord"" of y* IQ^^ of Sept'' on y^ 25"" of y*" same. In 
Answare to w^'\ I have sent Capt. Hunting from here to Maj'' Walden; 
y^ occation of our Returne was y** sad news of y® Eniray, burning Cape 
nettick & destroying y'' people to y*" number of 6 or 7 persons besids 
those of this towne which are : 3 : two of them y* 24"" y" other :27* : 
of the mouth ; In our Returne wee mett with divers things of concern- 
ment w'^'' I Ingadged to Aquaint your Hon" with; Imp'"'% att black- 
point, the people there are in great distraction and disorder ; I know 
not of former Neglects but now they are a people ungoverned, & 
Attend little to y** Government there established soe that y" most of y^ 
towne desert y'' place, though we told them of a law they were Ignorant 
of w''*' we think we doe perfectly remember of 20"* penalty for any that 
desert y* frontiers, w*^'' we thinke is most Rationall, y^ Inhabittants 
there having little to doe ; we are ready to thinke they might better be 
Imployed there than many of ours, who have famillys att home and a 
considerable charge, to be briefe Capt. Joslin & Capt. Scottow desire 
an Expresse from your Hon" they having had noe knowledge of y* law. 

2**'^ Major Pembleton att Winter Harbour w"' Whome I would have 
left some men ; as Also w"" Mr. Warrin they made these objections ; 
The Maj" were these : That he could not subsist long, & he had as 
good remove while he had something as to stay while all was spent. 
Therefore unlesse Country sends a supply or Maintaiue y"" Garrison 
there ; he cannot hold out, Mr. Warrin is otherwise minded but I can- 
not Enlarge, supposing Maj'' Clarke can Inform your Hon'^% Since our 
Commiug Heither we have consulted y" Millitia, who Informe us that 
the mind of this towne In Gen" is to leave the place, & though y* Hon'"'* 
Court or Councell have formerly given an Ord"" concerning them ; In 
paticuF yett yy now begg that itt might be renewed & that your Hon""' 
would Ord"" as to these Numb"^' of Garrison Souldiers. Soe to maintaiu- 
ance, they being poore yet many of them willing According to Abillity, 
The next thing I shall trouble your Hon"^' w"^ is y^ disatisfaction that is 
among^' our selves, about y*^ drawing y'' Indians off, & Maj"' Waldens 
libberty to Command off Capt. Frost, w'"'' he pretends to have, the w'^'' 
are two thirds and more of y*" Army, Capt. Sells Company & myne 
being not above .9. or .10. fyles now who are judged here not more 
then is necessary to Garrison this towue & York, we would be bold to 
speak our minds further, & Crave that your Hon"^' may not be offended 
at us, or Receive from others false Infoi'mation, The Indians thus 
drawne off by themselves as long as they have only Ind"* Speritts, will 



CLOSING SERVICE OF CAPT. HATHORNE. 323 

doe little or noe service for y^ Country who In tyme of Ingadgment 
ever took y* English for there bullwark, & will not Charge to Any pur- 
pose until y*" Enimy ffly, I think some of us have had tyme to be 
Aquainted w* there manners As to my selfe I would Humbly Request 
your Hon" to call me home ; though I have An Earnest desu-e to doe 
god & y" Country service, yett there is a Straing Antypathy in me 
Against lying in Garrison, Here is many of our Company sick of 
violent distemp" one of myne is dead & two others I much feare, The 
Lord derect your Hon" & give us your servants prudence to Act by 
your Ord" According to his good will and pleasure. 

I reraaine 
Your Hon" Humble Servant 

William Hathorne. 
Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 65. 

After the return to Wells there was delay and uncertainty 
about preparations for the march to Ossipee, until the news of the 
capture of Black point and the threatened approach of the vic- 
torious Indians put the troops upon the guard of the towns near 
at hand. Capt. Hathorne and his forces remained in these parts 
in service until November 1st, when in company with Capt. Sill 
he set forth upon the long delayed march to Ossipee, where they 
arrived after a very hard march of four days, finding never an 
Indian on the way or at the Great Fort. The Captain sent a 
party of his men up some twenty miles farther, but without 
result, and having burnt the fort, the companies returned to Ber- 
wick, where they arrived on November 9th. In the meantime, 
the treaty with Sachem Mugghad been concluded, and the troops 
under Capt. Hathorne were soon dismissed. 

It will be remembered that the latest credits contained in Hull's 
accounts are September 23, 1676, so that the men serving under 
the Captain in this expedition had credit in a later Journal, which 
is now lost. For earlier credits see ante, p. 166. 

The following petition explains itself : 

To the Hon*^ Generall Court now Assembled in Boston ; 1679 ; 
The humble peticon of Sarah Hathorne widdow to Capt. William 
Hathorne deceased 
Humbly Showeth 

That your peticoners late husband, being employed in the 
Countreyes service against the Indians, was not satisfyed the arrears 
due to him for his said service ; the bill not being delivered to the 
Treasurer in time, through the negligence of the constable ; which 
caused the Treasurer to refuse payment ; and your peticoners husband, 
being deceased, hath left your peticoner in a meane condition, as to 
her outward estate, being indebted to severall persons and not in a 
capacitye to make payment, without receiving her late husbands arrears 
from the country. 

The p'^misses considered your peticoner humbly craves, this hon*^ 



324 KING Philip's war. 

Court would be pleased to order speedy payment of the arrears due to 
her late husband, in such proportion as yo' hon°" in wisdom shall judge 
convenient. 

And yo' petieoner (as in duty bound) shall pray 
for you' Hono" prosperity. 

Sarah Hathorne. 
Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 237. 

This was granted. See also Coll. Records, Vol. V., p. 282. 



XXIII. 
CAPT. JOSHUA SCOTTOW AND HIS MEN. 



JOSHUA SCOTTOW came to Boston with his mother Thoma- 
sine, who joined the church September 21, 1634. He with 
his brother Thomas joined the church May 19, 1639. He 

married Lydia , and had Joshua, b. Sept. 30, 1641, and 

died soon ; Joshua, b. Aug. 12, 1643 ; Lydia, bapt. June 29, 1645 ; 
Elizabeth, b. July 29, 1647 ; Rebecca, b. October 10, 1652 ; Mary, 
b. May 11, 1656 ; Thomas, June 30, 1659, grad. H. C. 1677. 
Capt. Scottow was of the Artillery Company in 1645, Ensign in 
1656, and Captain afterwards. Elizabeth Scottow m. Thomas, son 
of Major Thomas Savage, and had a large family. Rebecca m. 
Benjamin Blackman, April 1, 1675, and Mary m. Samuel Checkley. 

Capt. Scottow was a very energetic man, an enterprising and 
eminently prosperous merchant. He was largely engaged in 
foreign commercial transactions, and from 1654-7 was the con- 
fidential agent of La Tour in his business with our colony. 

In 1660 Mr. Scottow bought of Abraham Jocelyn, of Black- 
point, two hundred acres of land, including the hill since known 
as " Scottoway's Hill ; " and in 1666 he purchased of Henry 
Jocelyn the " Cammock Patent," which at the granting to 
Thomas Cammock in 1631 consisted of fifteen hundred acres of 
land lying between the Blackpoint and Spurwink rivers. Cam- 
mock left his entire estate to his friend Henry Jocelyn, with the 
care of his widow during her life. Jocelyn married the widow 
Margaret, and some twenty years afterwards conveyed the 
property as above, together with seven hundred and fifty acres 
outside the Patent, remaining upon it, however, as agent for Mr. 
Scottow. Capt. Scottow removed to Blackpoint settlement about 
1670, and engaged with great energy in improving his property 
there, and in his fishing and commercial transactions. 

The first mention I have found connecting Capt. Scottow with 
the Indian war is in the Colonial Records, vol. V., p. 57, at the 
session of the Court convened October 13, 1675, as follows : 

Upon the sad intelligence from Saco & the great danger of all those 
parts, it is ordered, that there be 50 soldiers immediately from Boston 
and Charls Toune sent away in some vessel or vessells for the releif e 



326 KING Philip's war. 

of those parts, and that they be under the command of Leiftenn' Scot- 
toway, and that Major Clarke take care that this order be effected as 
to the dispatch of the men, & furnishing aromunition and prouission 
for the voyage. 

The " sad intelligence " was connected with the attack upon 
Saco, the details of which are in Major Walderne's letter of Sep- 
tember 25, 1675, given heretofore ; Robert Nichols and his wife 
were killed just before this by the Indians who had made an 
unsuccessful assault upon Major Phillips's garrison at Saco. 

But previous to these occurrences, Capt. Scottow had fortified 
and provisioned his house and gathered into it as many of the 
people as would come. His garrison was the Jocelyn House on 
the " Neck," distant from the farms of many of the inhabitants, 
who reluctantly abandoned their homes, cattle and crops to the 
ruin which was daily threatened. It seems evident that Capt. 
Scottow, with the small number of undisciplined men under his 
command, mostly inhabitants, and those employed by him, was 
in no capacity to send out a relief party to other parts of the 
town ; and when the Indians attacked some of these still remain- 
ing on their farms, it was plainly imprudent to risk any small 
party such only as he could have sent, to the almost certain 
ambushment and destruction, to which the burning, and firing of 
guns seemed to invite them. His enemies sometime afterwards 
sought to injure him by bringing charges of neglect to help his 
neighbors, among other charges preferred against him. The 
Alger brothers, Andrew and Arthur, had a large estate at that 
part of Scarborough known as Dunstan, and so named by them 
for their old English home, and they had there a fortified house, 
but upon the opening of hostilities evidently withdrew their 
families into Sheldon's garrison at Blackpoint. When Major 
Walderne had returned home he left sixty of his soldiers to gar- 
rison the different settlements, Saco, Falmouth and Scarborough, 
and these were distributed according to the need, at Scottow's, 
Sheldon's and Foxwell's garrison-houses. Capt. John WincoU 
was posted at Foxwell's with a company of soldiers, and in Octo- 
ber was assisting the settlers to harvest their corn. One of Capt. 
Wincoll's soldiers, Peter Witham, was detailed to help the Algers 
get their grain, and said that a few days after, as they with some 
of their relations were getting their goods from their houses, they 
were attacked by the Indians, when Andrew was killed and 
Arthur mortally wounded ; and the said Witham, fifty-three years 
afterwards, being then seventy-two years old, testified that he 
helped to bury both the Algers. Mr. Hubbard gives the date 
of the attack upon the Algers October 9th, 1675. 

The events of the war in Scarborough immediately following 
the above, are shown in the following letter from Capt. Scottow : 



CAPT. SCOTTOW AT BLACKPOINT. 327 

Honoured S'. 

After all due submission to y"" self w* the Honoured Councill, these 
are to declare y*" state of y"" affaires at p'sent, since y' sent by Jo: Short 
o' men being sent up y^ riv' to secure those barnes of corne left w'='' 
accordingly they applyed y™ selves to doe and to repaire o' water-mill 
(being o" onely relief for grinding) they met w**" no opposition nor 
could have sight for 3 daies of above one Indian upon the 3'^ of this 
curr' they haviug finished one mans corne & upon landing of it in 
canoes 19 of o"" p'tie being there were assaulted and surrounded by at 
least 60 or 80 Indians & had bin all cut of had not S" Tippet come in 
with his p'^tie to their timous relief who was on y*" other side river to 
help wheat &c. out of another barne whereupon the enimy retreated 
into the bushes it being a foggy day could not soe well discerne w' ex- 
ecution they did upon y'" disinabling one Indian soe as to leave his 
speare behind him, much firing on both sides, one of us w<;unded one 
drowned by hasting into a cano, next day a country souldier of his own 
accord went downe y'' marsh & hollowed & an Indian came up to him 
being of Piscataquay & his acquaintance they p''lied and smok' a pipe 
of tobacco together y*" Indian having laid down his gun & he seemingly 
did y^ same, a small riv'' p'"ting y'". 

(y'^ larger narrative C. Winkall & myself have sent to Maj' Walden 
to be conveyed unto y*" Maj' Gen" I refer y'' Honours unto) y^ sub- 
stance of y*" discourse was they willingly would have peace, & kept 2 
women two casco children, foure men prisoners to dd''' up if it might be 
&c. if not let time and place be appointed & they would fight y^ euglish 
& as it was misreported to C. WinkoU & myself they would stay 48 
hours for an answer but it seeme it was y*" next day the Indian put his 
signall next day but none haviug an order to treat him, o"" men there- 
fore secure the wheat threshed out & a shallop being there to fetch it 
of they sent none to discourse him, upon w*"*" they y^ enemy as they had 
done y^ day before & y' during the parlee fired stacks of hay and some 
houses ; o'' men y' afternoon being pinched for want of bread and of 
victualls, could not be prevailed with by their officers to continue in y® 
f arme house which they had fortified until further order w'^'' was designed 
a retreating place upon fighting y"' though a small rev' pted y" & y"" 
Indians rendezvouze, in order to fighting y"" I had visited y"" next gar- 
rison and drawn of w' I durst to assist o'' soldiers up y^ riv'', but 
towards y'' evening understanding o'' mens resolves, sent y'" up bread 
&c. with an express charge not to desert y*" place w^'out further order, 
but it could not come to y'" soe as to hinder their moving downe w'''' was 
upon the o"' day cuit' in the night next morning we designed y*" sending 
y™ all up as soone as y*" tide would p'mit, & had ordered all to y' end 
but upon y*' sight of theire enemies burning of y' house w'='' they had 
fortified & of my barne of corne which was left unburnt there w"" ad- 
vice of Cap"*^ Winkoll & the rest of y'' officers, we altered o"' designe & 
this day purpose w* all o"" strength to fetch in the inhabitants corne left 
in their deserted houses, the enemy firing all before y'" in w''' doing an 
opportunity of fighting y" may also psent w'^'^ o'' souldiers long for but 
we want fixed armes divers of these sent, not servicable & two or three 
disenabled in o"^ last ingagement, please to dispatch o"' supply of flints 
&c. sent for in my last to Maj"^ Clark we are in distress for want of 
y"", especially bread not having but two dayes bread left at a cake a 



328 KING Philip's war. 

day w"^ y* allowance I reduced o'' souldiers unto at first coming, w'** 
bread is borrowed from fishermen and myself we have no grinding 
nearer than Piscataquay, not else but begging prayers and y* y* deluge 
of sin w*^*^ I grieve is among o'' souldiers as well as inhabitants may be 
stopped by reason whereof this overflowing scourge pursueth us (this 
place being now y* seat & center of y*' Eastward war) Casco & Kenebec 
being all quiet & peace as by yesterdies intelligence I understand, 

I humbly subscribe myself 
ffrom y^ Head quarters at Blackpoint y" & y^ Countries 

at 3 : o :clock in y"" morning this 6"^ most humble serv* 

gbr 1675 Josh: Scottow. 

(Postscript.) 

May it please you to take notice that instead of the 50 designed here 
are but 38 sent div"'"'' of y" insufl3cient for service & some soe mutinous 
that we cant with safety inflict y* punishment they deserve, for the 
pursue ing of my comition here is need of 100 men completely armed 
and bread sent, for flesh I hope we have enough. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 68, pp. 44-5. 

The following letter is evidently in answer to the above from 
Capt. Scottow : 

council's letter to capt. scottow. 
Capt. Scottow. We received yo' lett" & saw another sent by you to 
Maj' Walderne ; we gceive y* Indians do sometimes allarum you and 
obstruct y^ getting in of provisions & corne if such another overture as 
that Indian made y' met y^ soldier in y^ marsh for a treaty of peace to 
deliver y® english prisoners should be made againe wee advise order & 
som of you there to treat w**" y"" & see what termes you can come to & 
Apoint a cessation of armes untill their offers may be considered by us 
& endeavour to procure y^ delivery of prisoners & wee will deliver as 
many of theirs y' are at Boston, peace is better if it can be obtained 
upon good termes & som pledges or hostages given ; for security ; as 
for a supply of more men we cannot comply w* you therein ; wee have 
so many places to strengthen y' wee cannot doe alle ; wee are sure you 
have as great a proportion as most places of y^ like concernement, we 
here you want neither corne, flesh nor fish & so long you be in straits & 
though yo'' mills ly at a distance yet a samp morter or two will make a 
supply to pvent any great sufferings as for sending of Bisket we dare 
not give y* p'sedent, for all other places garrisoned by the country 
soldiers are p'vided for with victualls by y* people they secure ; it is 
enough for y* Country to pay wages & find ammunition ; our armies y' 
are in motion require more y" the Country is well able to beare especilly 
yo"" easterne parts are concerned to ease the publicke purse what they 
may because they know of nothing y* was ever put into it from thense. 
Therefore wee desire you to make the best Improvement you can w"" 
the strength you have fo"^ your owne deffense & offense of the enimy 
until God send beter times ; wee have inclosed the printed laws to 
restrayne mutinous soldiers let y" be read to y^ soldiers. And notice 
taken of y" y' transgresse ; & if you find yourself too weeke to deale 
w"" them let y^ ringleaders bee sent to prison w"" evidense of y^ fact ; 



CAPT. SCOTTOW'S JOURNAL. 329 

wee have not more at psent but desire the Lords psence blessing & 
protection to be w"' & over you 

alle remaine your loving friends 

postscript if you find our soldiers any Burden or inconvenience to 
you you are Authorized hereby to dismise y" or any of y"" either thither 
or to Maj'' Walderne Past this letter by the councill the IS"' 

of 

Endorsed — " Councills letter to Capt. Scottow 16 : 9 mo. 1675." 

Mass. Archives, vol. 68, p. 59. 

Details of the service from October 25, 1675, to May 1676, are 
given in the following Journal which is preserved in manuscript 
in the Library of the Massachusetts Historical Society. The 
manuscript is evidently a copy, made probably in 1676, when his 
use of the troops was called in question. This shows that much 
of the damage done in Scarborough was effected either before he 
had men or means to prevent it, and afterwards in spite of his 
best endeavors. These extracts contain the substance of the 
journal. 

EXTRACTS FROM A MANUSCRIPT JOURNAL OF CAPT. SCOTTOW. 

Narrative of a JournaU of the diverse marches & improvement of 
Boston souldiers sent to Black Point. 

1676.1 (^8) 25. Siev^ Serg' landed 15 men. I disposed 6 of y"* to 
flfoxwell's garrison at Bluepoint, 6 to Sheldon's garrison, and retayned 
3 of y™, received a P^ from Major Pendleton and answered it. 

26 and 27, no disturbance. I went and viewed the fortifications at 
the several garrisons, and discharged Mr. ffoxwell from his charge at 
Bluepoint, being a quarreling, discontented p'°°. 

29, Tho: Michell arrived with 23 soldiers who landed two houres 
before day. 

30, sent y^ 6 scouts up y^ river to discover y® enemy and view a 
house w'^'^ y" enemy ordinarily possessed, returned seeing 3 Indians. 

31, that night two hours before day sent up 60 men under the con- 
duct of Capt. Winkall who landed before day to save w' corne they 
could of our Inhabit" & fight y" enemy if found, they having appeared 
not long before at ffoxwell's Garrison and shot a scout as appe"' pr C. 
Winkolls P" No. 2. Answered Maj. Pendleton's F^ No. 3. 

(9) ] ,[dispatched a shallop to Boston w"" 1'^" to Hon: Gou' and coun- 
cil for flints, bread &c. 

2, . . . . In the afternoon about 29 inhabitants were set upon by 
70 or 80 Indians and had almost surrounded y™ had they not been 
timously relieved by Serg* Tipping who came to their relief, beat y™ 
into y* swampes and gagned an Indian Speare. 

3, Serg' Tipping sent down for recruit of powder &c. w'^'^ I sent up by 

y^ two carpenters and others who were come down I sent up 

28 lbs of powder in a box and 90 lbs shot &c. that day there fell out 
a parlee betweene a country soldier & an Indian 

1 This date is plainly a mistake made at the time of copying, in the summer of 1676. The Jour- 
nal itself was kept in 1675. 



330 KING Philip's war. 

Cap"* Winkoll came down y' night, we gave advice of the whole to 
Maj. Walden and y' we intended to fight y*" Indians. 

4, they fell firing barnes of neer houses, haystacks and all 

before y". Y* souldiers having got about 100 bush : wheat and other 
graine, and a shallop sent to bring it downe they could not be prevailed 
upon w"* all by their Serg' (as I was informed) to continue any longer 
being pinched for want of bread by an unworthy planter, though they 
wanted no flesh. 

5, As soon as I heard of their intention I sent up ^ of all the biskit 
I had with tobacco and rum for their incouragem', and an expresse 
charge to fight y* enemy as appe"'' by the witnes of John Libby, Bouden 
and Howell No. 1 and the order delivered ffoxwell to carry up ; but no 
Cano could be got though I used my utmost indeav"", they came down 
about 10 o'clock in the night 

6, o'' men went up headed by Cap"*^ Winkoll to secure what corne of 
o'' inhabitants was left in the N. East side in the deserted houses, and 
of barnes, hoping to meet y^ enemy in y'^ march, w''*' accordingly fell 
out, dividing themselves into 2 parties one of them was first ingaged 
by a party of Indians, not above 12 shewing themselves, and the other 
by about 16, they were engaged also and had 2 skulking skirmishes, 
beat y" into y^ swampes. One of the Boston souldiers was mortally 
wounded in y^ breast. O"" men retreated carrying off their wounded 
man 

November 7, Being Lord's day, the enemy, early in the morning burnt 
those houses and barnes our Cap"*' saved the day before — they burnt 
also 8 or 9 deserted houses belonging to Jo : Libby and children. As 
soon as these fires were discovered all the souldiers and Inhabitants 
hasted to next garrison which was little above musket shot of them : 
the tyde being up and spryng tyde the bridge was overflowed which 
obstructed their passage witness Willet and Tydy &c. As soon as 
they could pass being headed by Cap"'= Winkoll and Topping they scour 
the round of the towne on the N. East supposing y^ enemy was gone 
that way to fire those houses they being only left unburut, they 
met with no Indians in the march the wholeday ; met Lieut. Ingersoll 
and 1 2 Casco men who came to joyn with our men to search out and 
fight the Indians — that night there fell a small fiight of snow. 

8, We staid in our quarter till midnight got 2 shallops. 

9, Landed 70 men 3 hours before day at Blue Point to find out y^ 
enemy, they had a tedious march the whole day through swampes 
marshes and creeks sometimes to the knees, others to the waist in snow 
and salt-water — saw some Indian tracts but could find no Indians ; 
Lieut. Ingersoll and all his men returned discouraged home. 

10, Our men returned to their quarters. 

11, A mysty wet day, no handling arms nor marching. 

12, Much wind at N. West, no gitting over rivers, y^ canos on y* 
other side im ployed to git in Cummins corne of Sacho to Bluepoint. 

13, Cap°^ Winkoll, Sg' Tipping and our company got over y^ river 
and marched to find Indians and drive cattell; the enemy fired two 
deserted houses at Sacho while o"" men were on this side and bro* home 
between 20 and 30 head of Sacho cattell. 

14, Sabbath day — no disturbance — bury*^ Sam: Ryall wounded a 
week before. 15, no mocion. 16, marched to drive in cattell, were 



THE GARRISON AT BLACKPOINT. 331 

disappointed by a Quaker who drove them into the woods from us. 
17, Indians came — from across y" water. 18, Cap°^ Winkoll and the 
country souldiers w'^'' was attending drove cattell for Cummins and 
Rogers inhabitants of Sacho. 19, drove cattell for Macshawin, inhab- 
itant of Sachc. 20, I received orders from Maj'' Walden to fit out 
Lieut. Ingersol to Maj"' Pendleton w*^** I wrote to him I was upon 
doing. 21, No disturbance being Sabbath day. 22, Serg' Topping 
and o' men went to Dunsten to drive in cattell. 23, Lieut. IngersoU 
came to y^ head quarters with 12 men and w**^ orders from o"" Major 
to make them up to 60 or 70. 

24, I made up his number to 60 men, supplying them with 8 biskit 
cake a man of mine own store . . . . L' IngersoU went up in the 
night to Bluepoint, landed before day with 2 shallopes, marched up the 
country to the head of Sacho Falls. 

25-27, Continued out one night, returned to y^ headquarters and he 
dismissed our souldiers ; L' IngersoU returning to Casco ; sent me a 
P^, to send him up 45 souldiers &c. towards his towne of Casco it 
being alarumed in his absence by one house burning and a man 
wounded. L' IngersoU came himself to our headquarters to demand 
the p^y .... he was satisfied with 20 men, and I made up Maj. 
Pendletons relief 20 w'^'' were dispatched with all speed — great wind 
at N. West. 28, Mr. Neales house burnt at Casco. 30, Serg' and 
his compy returned from Casco. 

(10) 5, Tho: Michell arrived from Boston with a license to myself 
to come to Boston, and order to send y*" Boston souldiers home if care 
was not taken to provide for y™. 

The rest of the Journal gives account of his arrangement to 
leave home for Boston, taking one half the Boston soldiers with 
him, and disposing the remainder, numbering nineteen, at various 
fortified houses where needed: seven at William Sheldon's; six 
at Mr. Foxwell's ; four at Scottow's, being " the Serg', Steward, 
drum and a cooke to provide for them when they should all draw 
up to their head-quarters." Capt. Scottow sailed with the 
soldiers, from Blackpoint, on January 8th, and arrived in Boston 
on the 11th. 

He returned to his charge at Blackpoint April 9th, 1676, and a 
treaty being in progress by Major Walderne, with the Indians, 
he arranged with liis soldiers to go into his woods and cut 
" palisado pines," for fortifying his garrison house. 

There can be no doubt that Capt. Scottow was of great help in 
promoting the interests and assuring the safety of the people at 
Blackpoint ; and yet he experienced the most bitter hostility and 
opposition from many of the inhabitants, among whom were some 
of the most reliable and respectable. Richard Foxwell was 
doubtless jealous of the large interest and influence which his 
extensive property gave him, as well as his loyal adhesion to the 
Massachusetts Court. In common with many others of the early 
settlers, Foxwell looked upon Scottow as a new comer, who with 
his Boston ideas and manners came to usurp the rightful position 



332 KING Philip's wak. 

of those who had held the settlement from the beginning ; and it 
is probable that jealousy and envy largely induced the bitter 
hostility and the very serious charges that were preferred against 
Capt. Scottow. 

No further trouble with the Indians seems to have disturbed 
Blackpoint until August, 16T6. Capt. Scottow busied himself 
settling his accounts and strengthening his garrison ; but upon 
presenting his accounts for settlement by the court, he found 
that several of his enemies had presented complaints against 
his management, and a remonstrance against the payment of his 
accounts, as follows : 

PETITION AGAINST CAPT. SCOTTOW. 

Wee whose names wee have underwritten, doe declare that we were 
never in y^ least privie to y*^ sending for y^ souldiers which came from 
Boston to Blackpoint, neither during y'' time of their stay did we in any 
sort receive advantage by them ; but y' they were maintained upon y** 
acct. of Mr. Scottow : for all the while his fishermen were thereby capa- 
citated to keep at sea for the whole season ; and much worke was done 
by them which was greatlie turned to his profit ; as removing of a great 
barn, paving before his house and cutting of Palisado stuff for a pre- 
tended fortification where there is no occasion nor need. And many 
more such courtesies Mr. Scottow (got) by the soldiers. And that 
other men should pay for his work, done under pretence of defending 
y^ country, wee hope in behalf of the rest of y^ sufferers in these sad 
times, you will please to take it into your serious consideration, and 
heape no more upon us than wee are able to beare, but where the 
benefit has been received, there order y^ charge to be levied. 

Richard Foxwell, Giles Barge, 

Rol: AUanson, Joseph Oliver, 

WiUiam Sheldon, John Cocke, 

John Tinney. 

Upon the above representations, several of the prominent men 
of York County carried the matter to the General Court ; among 
these Major Pendleton, Mr. Munjoy and Mr. Foxwell were the 
chief complainants, and their complaints were submitted, by the 
auditors of York County, to the General Court August 9th, 1676 
(see Colonial Records, Vol. V. p. 102). The auditing committee 
were Nicholas Shapleigh, Edward Rishworth, Samuel Wheel- 
wright. 

The complaints were : 

1st, That Mr. Scottow got the soldiers from Boston upon his own 
responsibility. 

2nd, That he refused to use or have others use the soldiers to pre- 
serve the lives and estates of others. 

3d, That he used the soldiers mostly for his own particular security 
and advantage ; attending and strengthening his garrison, paving his 
yard, moving his barn, ' ' cleaving " his wood, &c. 



CAPT. SCOTTOW ACCUSED. 333 

A note of Mr. Drake's in his edition (1865) of Mr. Hubbard's 
history, cites original papers, then in his possession, as testimony 
against Capt. Scottow. The deposition of Michael Edgecombe, 
aged about 25 years, declares that he was at Blackpoint when the 
" nine Winter-harbour men were fighting the Indians upon the 
Sands opposite said Place, and saw sundrie men come to Mr. Scot- 
tow importuning that he would send some Ayde over to those poore 
distressed men," etc., and that Capt. Scottow, though seeing the 
English were far outnumbered by the Indians, and must be over- 
come soon without releif, yet would not suffer a man to go to 
help them ; and one John Lux came and reproached the Captain 
and offered to take men in his shallop across the river and land 
them "on shoare in Little River," near where the men were 
fighting, and where all were found slain next day. This was 
sworn to before Brian Pendleton, July 20th, 1676. Lux declared 
that nothing would move Capt. Scottow, although he could see 
the men being overpowered by greatly outnumbering savages. 

Mr. Foxwell also deposed against Capt. Scottow's inhumanity 
in the affair of the burning of Dunstan, etc. Walter Gendall, 
who served as Sergeant under Capt. Scottow, and had charge of a 
body of soldiers at Spurwink in 1675, made a similar deposition. 

The Court referred this case to the October session, and 
then gave judgment, that. 

This Court, having heard the complaint of M^ Rishworth exhibbeted 
against Captaine Scottow, &c. . . . uppon a full hearing of both par- 
ties, see no reason for the aforesaid complaint, and doe judge that the 
said Capt. Scottow (for aught doth appeare) hath faithfully dischardged 
his trust, and is therefore acquitted from the chardge endeavo''d to be 
put on him, but that the same be borne by the county and that Mr. 
Rushworth do pay Capt. Scottow his costs and damage. The Comi; 
granted and determined the costs to be nine pounds, thirteen shillings 
& eight pence. 

In the evidence favorable to this decision, the following paper, 
found in the old files of Suffolk County Court, was probably 
offered : 

PETITION OF INHABITANTS OF SCAEBOROUGH. 

The humble Petition of the Inhabitants of Scarborough. "Whereas 
Mr. Scottow of Boston Stood by us in all our streights and distresses 
during the late Warr with the Indians and not only encouraged us with 
his presence from April until January last, but alsoe releived us with a 
barrel! of powder and all sorts of ammunition as it cost him in Boston 
near to twenty pounds for which he is not yet paid, yea, then when as 
there was no town Stock nor a pound of powder in the Town that we 
know of without which supply we and our familyes must either have 
been destroyed or our town deserted as Casco and Saco were, we being 
then for divers months the seat of war and having more houses than 
one of the Townes and above double the other burnt and consumed : 



334 KING Philip's wab. 

and to keep us together since he hath this Spring helped us more with 
nere two hundred bushells of Indian and other Grain without which 
some of us could neither have planted nor sowne, some had ben pincht 
and others might have starved, in all things to our weak understanding 
he hath can-yed it faithfully and carefully to the publicke interest, he 
being now unjustly and as far as we can deserne maliciously perse- 
cuted by some especially one Mr. Foxwell a man noted for contention 
and whereas there be diverse oaths taken against s*^ 8cottow some of 
them to the knowledge of some of us false, and others covered with 
fraude and fallacy we being much troubled that for his good he should 
receive a bill humbly crave that he may have all right and due encour- 
agement and vindication, and your petitioners shall further humblie 
pray for your honors peace and prosperity. 

Henry Jocelyn Richard X Willing Thomas X Wasgate 

Ambrose Bouden Francis X White John X Makenny 

John X Libby, senior, John X Picket Edward X Hounsell 

Sam X Oakman Richard X Bassen Richard X Barret 

John X Libby jun"" Richard Moore Christopher X Picket 

Anthony Row Peter X Hinxen Thomas Cleverly 

Thomas X Bigford Henry X Elkins John X Vicars 

John Howell Henry X Brookins Dunken X Teshmond 

William X Champlin William X Burrage John X Simson 

ADDITIONAL FAVOURABLE TESTIMONY. 

These are to testifie before whom it may concern, that M'. Scottow 

of Boston, being w"^ us when y^ men were killed upon Sacho Sands 

at the first heering of the guns fired there w*"" consent of M^ Josselin 
gave y* Alarum all over garrison to y* whole town, drew up such of us 
on our amies as were at home, dispatcht our Corporall to call in such 
as were abroad, as also the said Scottow was very Angry with Mack- 
shawine for saying that Captaine Wincoll and his Company were all 
cut off, telling him though some might be killed and the rest ffled yett 
it might be to gain y^ advantage of ground as it proved, as also at the 
same time Scottow seartcht the armes and ammunition of us which 
were drawne up exchanging y'' armes which were insufficient for his 
owne fflxed armes, and that hee supplied every man of all those that 
were sent forth, and wanted, both with powder, buletts, swan shott, 
biskett, and a dram of y*^ bottle out of his owne store, there not being 
at the same time one pound of powder in y'' town, that wee know of 
but what they rec"""^ from Scottow & that the said Scottow, upon the 
first alarum enquire whether some of us might not bee sent in a shallop 
or in Canows to goe to y^ releif of those men, it was answered that 
they could not be sent with safety neither for the men nor for their 
armes because of the gulf of y^ sea, the wind blowing ffresh upon the 
shore. The said Scottow with the consent of Mr. Heuery Josselin, did 
with as much possible speed as they could, dispatch away about twenty 
men over our fferry to march by land to the relief of that pty under y^ 
charge of Serjeant OUiver, yea so many men did they send away that 
some of us complained against them saying they did not doe well to 
send out so many of their husbands and children, supposeing that if 
they should have been cutt off wee had not strength left at the garrison 



CAPT. SCOTTOW VINDICATED. 335 

sufficient to defend o""'selves if assaulted, Yea, wee doe farther testifie 
that the said Scottow Acted therein to the utmost of his power soe that 
when some of the company manifested a backwardness to the relief 
above in vexation hee through his Kane upon the ground saying he 
would through up his Commission and never meddle more with it, and 
alsoe that wee could not answer to god, men, nor our owne consciences 
unless wee used the utmost of our endeavour to relieve those men, in 
testimony of the truth of what is above written we have hereunto signed 
and shall to the substance of the whole depose if called thereunto by 
lawfull Authority. 

Blackpoint, July yMS*" 1676. The pmises above written, I 

John X Libby Sen"" Rich. Willing attest to be truth given under 
Tomas X Bigford Andrew Browne my hand this 18 July 1676 

Anthony row fifrancis X White Henry Joceltn. 

Thomas Cleverly Peter X Hinxen 

Hen: X Elkins Henry X Nookins 

Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 28. 

During August of 1676, Capt. Scottowwas evidently at Boston, 
leaving the conduct of affairs to Jocelyn and Tippen with Walter 
Gendal as a third on the " committee of the militia." Sergeant 
Tippen, who appears to have been a very efficient officer, being 
called away also, the others found themselves unable to control 
the inhabitants who were acting as garrison soldiers, and they 
wrote this letter to Capt. Scottow : 

Capt. Joshua Scottow. 
We underwritten being of y* committee with serjeant Tippen, and 
both of you now being absent, shall desire you to acquaint y* Governor 
& Councill of y^ averseness of the generality of y*^ Inhabitants to obey 
Military orders ; y' they would be pleased to direct some especial order 
to such in this town as may bring y*" Inhabitants to y*" obedience of y** 
Militai-y Laws of the Government y' we may be in some capacity to 
defend ourselves against y*^ common enemy ; and we shall remain, 
y friends to serve you 
Black Point, Aug. 9«^, 1676. Henry Jocelyn, 

Walter Gendall. 

The Blackpoint garrison was recognized by the Indians as the 
strongest fortification in the Eastern Towns, and it had therefore 
escaped any assault in the general destruction which fell upon 
Casco and the Kennebec towns. In the letter of Capt. Hathorne 
in the last chapter, we find some account of the discontent of 
the people at Blackpoint and their determination to abandon the 
garrison and betake themselves to the safer towns to the West. 
The letter indicates also that Capt. Scottow was there when 
Capt. Hathorne visited the place, but evidently withdrew soon 
after ; as upon October 12th the Indians appeared at the garri- 
son, a hundred strong, with the chief " Mugg " (or Mog Hegon, 
Whittier's Mog Megone) at their head ; they found the inhabi- 
tants all within the fort and Mr. Jocelyn in command. The 



336 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



Indians did not attack, knowing that even a small number could 
hold it against any assault they could make. Mugg was well 
acquainted with all the affairs of the English, and immediately 
sought a parley with Mr. Jocelyn, which lasted a long time. In 
the meantime all the inhabitants had taken the opportunity to 
get out of the house and to their boats and away to the West- 
ward towns, — Wells, Portsmouth, etc. How they could have 
thus effected their escape in the presence of so large a body of 
the enemy must be explained by the advantageous position of 
the garrison, and the overconfidence of the Indians. Mr. Jocelyn 
and his family were taken with the house and its contents, which 
was at once surrendered, when Mr. Jocelyn found only his own 
family left within. Mugg was highly elated with this great and 
easy success, and Jocelyn was treated kindly, and with his family 
soon restored to their friends. It is said that he afterwarcis 
removed to Plymouth, where he spent the rest of his days. Black- 
point garrison was not destroyed, perhaps because Mugg, in the 
flush of his success, believed the English would soon be driven from 
the country, and this would serve the Indians as a stronghold. 
The following paper, the original of which is preserved among 
the papers of the late Mr. Lemuel Shattuck, gives the list of those 
who were at Blackpoint just before the surrender : 



A list of y' names of y* Inhabitants at Blackpoint Garison 
Octo: 12"^ 1676. 



In y» GariBon. 



Iny«hntt8 w"> 
out ye Q-ari- 
BonbutJoyn- 
ing to it. 



Daniell Moore 
John Tenney 
Henry Brookin 
Nathaniell WUlett 
Charles Browne 
Edward Hounsell 

Hampton and Sals- 
be ry Soldiers 
ffrancis Sholet 
Anthony Roe 
Thomas Bickford 
Robert Tydey 
Richard Moore 
James Lybbey 
John Lybbey 
Samuell Lybbey 
Anthony Lybbey 
George Taylor 
James Ogleby 
Dunken Chessom 
WUliam Sheildin 
John Vickers 
R^^ Basson 



Living muB- 
ket Bhott 
fr. ye Gar- 
ison. 



Ro" Eliott 
ffrancis White 
Richard Honywell 
John Howell 
Ralphe Heison 
Matthew Heyson 
Joseph Oliver 
Christopher Edgecome 
John Edgecome 
Micael Edgecome 
Robert Edgecome 
Living three Henry Elkins 

ZSye John Ashden 

Garison. Johne Warrick 

Goodman Luscome 
Tymothy Collins 
Andrew Browne, Senior 
Andrew Browne 
John Browne 
Joseph Browne 
William Burrage 
Ambrose Bouden, Con- 
stable 
Tho: Camming 



BLACKPOINT REOARRISONED. 337 



John Herman 

Samuell Okeman, Senior 

Samuell Okeman 

John Elson 

Peter Hincson 

Symond Hincson 

Ri'='i Willin 

John Symson 

Tho: Cleauerly 

John Cocke 

R"^"^ Burrough 



A liBt of y« names of those y* ware preet by 
Vertue of Capt. Harthomes order to be for 
ye service of ye Garison of ye Inhabitants 
afforesaid. 

ffrancis Shealett 
Edward Hounslow 
James Oglebey 
John Cocke 
Daniell Moore 
Dunken Chesson 
Richard Burrough 
William Burrage 



It is probable that the surrender of the fort at Blackpoint was 
a great surprise to Capt. Scottow, as it was considered by all 
absolutely secure, and was at the time well supplied and amply 
garrisoned ; doubtless the cause of the desertion was the long- 
suppressed discontent of the people, and their panic at the 
approach of the large body of Indians which their fears magnified 
to an army. Capt. Scottow did not rest content with his defeat, 
however, as we see by the following item at the session of the 
General Court, October 25, 1676, some twelve days after the 
disaster. 



Whereas Joshua Scottow is now sending forth a smale vessell or two 
w'^ company for the discovery of the state of the fort at Black Point, 
and transport of what may be there recoverable either of his or any 
of the inhabitants, it is ordered, that the said vessells and persons by 
him sent shall be & hereby are exempted from impresse upon any of 
the country' imploy ; and Bartholomew Tipping being commended as a 
fitt person to take the chai-ge of such as are to land, in case he shall 
judge the place tenable, he shallbe & hereby is impowered to impresse 
the company now sent, and any other of the inhabitants, or any other 
persons which maybe there found, to looke after plunder or their owne 
estates, and to defend & keepe the place from the enemy untill further 
order ; and the said Scottow hath liberty to impresse some inhabitants 
of Black Point who lye latent, he, the said Scottow, carrying it on at 
his oune charge. 

Sometime in November, Mugg having surrendered himself and 
the Indians having withdrawn, Capt. Scottow regained his fort, 
and Sergt. Bartholomew Tippen and soldiers, and many of the 
inhabitants, remained there, and more returned in the Spring. 
While our eastern towns from Portsmouth to Saco were kept in 
constant fear by frequent attacks by skulking bands, Blackpoint 
was not troubled until May 13th, 1677, when a great body of the 
enemy appeared before the garrison, and at once made a resolute 
onset upon it, apparently feeling assured of victory. But they 
had now to deal with a different man than before ; Sergt. Barthol- 



338 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



omew Tippen was now in command, and conducted a gallant de- 
fence during three days, in which time but three of his soldiers 
were killed ; on the 16th the Sergeant himself made a fine shot, by 
which one of the leaders (supposed, at the time, to be " Simon, " 
but afterwards found to be the celebrated " Mugg ") fell, by 
which loss of their chief they were so disheartened that they 
withdrew, part towards the Kennebec, the rest toward Piscataqua 
and York, where they did some injury, of which and their next 
attack upon Blackpoint, the next chapter, taking up the opera- 
tions of Capt. Benjamin Swett, will give some account. 



Credited under Capt. Scottow. 



January 25 1675-6 






Timothy Cunnell 


02 08 00 


Samuel Ryall 


01 


01 


04 


John LoweU 


02 08 00 


Daniel Lancton, Corp" I 


04 


04 


00 


Ezekiel Hamlin 


02 08 00 


Eben Ingolsby 


03 


12 


00 


Peter Mallandy 


02 08 00 


George Gregory 


03 


12 


00 


Thomas Maddis 


02 08 00 


Moses Richardson 


03 


12 


00 


James Ogleby 


02 08 00 


John Newman 


03 


12 


00 


James Barber 


02 08 00 


Henry Berrisford 


03 


12 00 


Richard Huneywell 


02 08 00 


Roger Jones 


03 


12 


00 


William Darby 


02 08 00 


Charles Duckworth 


03 


12 


00 


Samuel Baker 


02 08 00 


Andrew Cload 


03 


12 


00 


March 24«> 1675-6 


Owen Jones 


03 


12 


00 


Samuel Johnson 


02 14 00 


Thomas Hobson 


03 


12 


00 


April 24, 1676 


"WiUiam Howard 


03 


12 


00 


Thomas Barber 


03 18 00 


John Slead 


03 


12 


00 


Peter Malardino 


03 09 04 


Benjamin WardaU 


03 


12 


00 


June 24, 1676 




Thomas Skellito 


03 


12 


00 


John Baker 


04 16 00 


Thomas Hawes 


03 


12 


00 


Bartholomew Tippin 


09 09 00 


John Newton 


03 


12 


00 


Thomas Barber 


02 02 00 


Samuel Walker 


03 


12 


00 


Peter Odrego 


01 04 00 


Alexander Johnson 


03 


12 


00 


Francis Sholett 


06 00 00 


February 19, 1675-6 






Timothy Conhill 


06 00 00 


Bartholomew Tippin 


03 


12 


00 


Nathaniel Willet 


06 00 00 


Thomas Barber 


02 


08 


00 


Edward Milton 


02 03 08 


Nathaniel Willett 


02 


08 


00 


James Barber 


06 00 00 


Edward Milton 


02 


08 


00 


Peter Odrego 


05 12 00 


Robert Tydye 


02 


08 


00 


James Ogleby 


06 00 00 


Ebenezer Winter 


02 


08 


00 


Thomas Maddis 


06 06 00 


Peter Odrigoe 


02 


08 


00 


William Darby 


06 00 00 


Samuel Johnson 


02 


08 


00 


Robert Tidy 


06 00 00 


John Baker 


02 


08 


00 


Ebenezer Wmter 


06 06 00 



There were doubtless many names credited during the autumn 
and winter of 1676-7, but the accounts covering that period are 
now lost. It will be noted, however, that many of the same 
names appear in this following list from a later book that are in 
the former. The accounts between these dates are lost. 



CAPT. SCOTTOW S SOLDIERS. 



339 



July 24, 1677. 
Edward Cowle 
Sam. Libby 
John Starts 

August 1=* 1677 
Henry Libby 

September 
John Gibson 
Will: Burridg 
Nath' Willet 
John Robin 
John Starts 
James Ogleby 
Richard Barrett 
Christopher Edgecomb 
Robert Edgecomb 
Sam* Jordan 
John Markany 
John Churchill 



Michael Edgecomb 
Thos: Cummings 
Thos: Irons 
Anthony Libby 
October. 
John Courser 
Lewis Price 
Andrew Brown 
John Brown 
John Augur 
John Lewis 
Thos: Rogers 
John Bezoon 

November. 
Edward Hounsel 

December. 
Job Tooky 
Joseph Hide 



January 1677-8 
David Middle ton 
Andrew Johnson 

February 1677-8 
William Milles 
Henery Libby 

March 1677-8 
Thos: Bull 
Sam* Jordan 
Richard Honywell 
Nathaniell Willitt 
John Browne 
Stephen Wolfe 
Ambross Bowden 
Michael Edgecomb 
John Tinuey 
Rich** Honywell 
WiU: Smith 



In October, 1677, upon the petition of Capt. Scottow and 
others of his townsmen, all the arms and ammunition then in the 
fort at Blackpoint were granted them for their proper defence, 
the same or like amount to be returned upon the order of the 
Court, and the inhabitants, while engaged in the defence of the 
garrison, were freed from all country rates. 

After the close of the war Capt. Scottow returned and engaged 
in the development of his estate, and in building up the interests 
of the settlement. In 1679 he was chosen an Associate for York 
County. In 1681 the inhabitants at Blackpoint accepted his 
offer to give the town a hundred acres of land " upon the Plains 
between Moors Brook and the South East end of the Great Pond," 
as a site for the building of a fortification for the defence of the 
town. The land about this fort was to be laid out in lots con- 
venient for the most compact settlement of the people, all of 
whom were to build upon these and pay to Capt. Scottow one 
shilling yearly for ever as being their " demesne Lord." The 
people took hold with a will, and all working together soon 
erected a very large and strong fortification. Here the people lived, 
apparently in harmony, until 1686, when for some reason they 
declared their agreement with Capt. Scottow " null and void," 
but at the same time were ready enough to use the protection of 
his garrison in times of danger ; and their opposition to him, on 
this as well as former occasions, is strange from our standpoint, 
and must probably remain unaccounted for, except for the reasons 
above noted, and perhaps arbitrary and eccentric manners, of 
which some intimations may be gathered from the petitions of his 
friends noted above, as well as from his writings. The people 
never forgot the old charge of his being the indirect cause of the 



340 KING Philip's war. 

death of the Nicholses in 1675 ; and in 1681 he was accused of 
the murder of one Nathan Bedford, who was shown at the inquest 
to have been drowned, and the charge was probably due to the 
hostility of his enemies. He still held his leading position at 
Blackpoint until the evacuation in May, 1690, when he retired 
to Boston where he probably spent the rest of his daj^s. He died 
January 20th, 1698, aged 83 years. His gravestone was found, 
October, 1850, in the tower of " The Old South Church," by 
workmen making repairs upon the wall under the north dial, 
some fifty feet from the ground. How it came there is not, I be- 
lieve, yet explained. Another stone, that of William Middleton, 
died 1699, was found at the same time and place. Mr. Sewall, in 
his Journal, Jan. 21^* and 22S 1697-8, writes: 

' ' It seems Capt Scottow died last night. Thus the New England 
men drop away." Jan. 22; "Capt Joshua Scottow is buried in the 
old burying place : Bearers Maj""^ Gen' Winthrop, Mr. Cook, Col. 
Hutchinson, Sewall, Sergeant, Walley : 'Extream Cold. No Minister at 
Capt. Scottow's Funeral nor wife nor daughter." 

Capt. Scottow was the author of two very curious tracts, one 
in 1691, entitled, " Old Men's Tears for their oum Declensions 
mixed with Fears of their and posterities further falling off from 
New England's Primitive Constitution. Published by some of Bos- 
ton's Old Planters and some others."" Another tract, published in 
1694, has a title similar in character, but too long for insertion 
here except the first part, " A Narrative of the Planting of the 
Massachusetts Colony Anno 1628," etc. Besides these tracts there 
are many intimations of eccentricity in the character of Mr. 
Scottow. See " Memoir of Joshua Scottow," by Hon. Hamilton 
A. Hill, A.M. Also Sibley's " Harvard Graduates." 

The accounts of Capt. Scottow for disbursements during the 
war were still unsettled in 1685, when the amount claimed was 
over two hundred pounds ; the Court that year voted him a grant 
of five hundred acres of land in the " Province of Mayne in any 
free place ; " and in 1686, some delay and trouble about this 
former grant having arisen, he was granted five hundred acres in 
addition in same place and under the same conditions. 

Capt. Scottow left numerous descendants, by his daughters ; in 
his will, probated March 3d, 1698, he mentions sixteen grand- 
children. Thomas Scottow, only surviving son of the Captain, 
after graduating at Harvard in 1677, seems to have associated 
himself with his father ; he was Recorder of York County in 
1686, and signs as Deputy Register, after that until 1688. In his 
father's will he is bequeathed a double portion, which, if he dies 
without issue, shall go to his sister Elizabeth Savage. In Mr. 
Waters's " Genealogical Gleanings," Part I., page 210, is found 
Thomas Scottow's will, which declares him to be " of Boston, 



THOMAS SCOTTOW, 341 

Chirurgeon, now bound forth to sea in the Ship Gerrard of Lon- 
don, Capt. William Dennis, commander, 14 November 1698," 
proved 4 September, 1699. Gives his sister, Elizabeth Savage, 
of New England, all his real and personal estate in New Eng- 
o. o To his "loving friend Margaret Softley of the Parish of 
bt. Paul, Shadwell, in the County of Middlesex, widow," all his 
goods and chattels and estate in the said ship, and all wages that 
may be due him for service on the said ship at the time of his 
death, in satisfaction of what he shall owe her, at his death. He 
appoints her executrix. 



XXIV. 

CAPT. BENJAMIN SWETT AND HIS MEN, AND CAPT. 
MICHAEL PEIRSE OF PLYMOUTH COLONY. 



JOHN 1 SWETT, admitted freeman of Massachusetts Colony 
May 18, 1642, was one of the ninety-one freeholders who 
were declared to be the proprietors of all commons, waste- 
lands and rivers undisposed of in the town of Newbury. 

Capt. Benjaivien ^ SwETT, son of John,i was born in England 
about 1626 ; came to Newbury with his father ; married there, 
November, 1647, Hester, daughter of Peter Weare. They settled 
first in Newbury, and from 1655 to 1662, in company with 
his brother-in-law, Nathaniel Weare, he carried on the farm of 
Mr. John Woodbridge of Newbury. His children, born in New- 
bury, were Hester,^ 7 June, 1648, m. Abin Greene, 1668 ; Sarah,^ 
7 November, 1650, m. Morris Hobbs, 1678 ; Mary ,3 7 January, 
1652, died soon ; Mary ,3 2 May, 1654 ; Benjamin,^ 5 August, 1656 ; 
Joseph,^ 21 January, 1659 ; Moses,^ 16 September, 1661. And in 
Hampton, whither he removed about 1663, were born, Hannah,^ 
16 May, 1664 ; Elizabeth,^ 2 July, 1667 ; John,^ 17 May, 1670 ; 
Stephen,^ 13 September, 1672 ; and perhaps another. 

Capt. Swett was active and energetic. He was early chosen 
to fill places of trust in town and county. But he was inclined 
to military exercises, and was chosen Ensign of the military com- 
pany in Newbury as early as 1651. 

After removing to Hampton, he became prominent and influ- 
ential in both civil and military affairs in Old Norfolk County ; 
and in the well preserved and finely written document (Mass. 
Archives, vol. 67, p. 57) presented to the General Court, May 
31, 1671, remonstrating against the Court's appointment of 
Robert Pike, as Sergeant-Major of Norfolk County, — instead of 
leaving the choice to the people, — we doubtless see Capt. Swett's 
elegant handwriting ; and he seems to be the recognized leader 
among the prominent men of the various towns of Norfolk. 

In 1675 he held the rank of Lieutenant, and is mentioned thus 
by Mr. Hubbard, as marching up with a small company into the 
woods to recover the body of Goodman Robinson of Exeter, 
killed by the Indians. And the first official notice I have found 
is the order of Council, January 17, 1675-6, mentioned hereto- 



CAPT. swett's commission. 343 

fore, showing that he was in charge of recruits then being sent 
out to Narraganset. February 1, 1675-6, the Council by special 
order granted him three pounds for the time he had been in the 
service ; this was probably for his services in recruiting. Feb- 
ruary 29, 1675-6, he was credited under Capt. Gardiner with 
X3. 00s. OOd. on the treasurer's book, possibly the same item. 

More than half the men credited under him assigned their 
credits to the town of Haverhill, and I find were nearly all in- 
habitants of that town. The service for which these credits are 
given was probably rendered in the spring of 1676, upon the 
Frontier towns of Essex County. Captain Swett was then en- 
gaged at home, and was in command of the military at Hampton 
and vicinity until the next year, when he was called into the 
public service at the Eastward, which the following Order and 
Commission of the Council will explain : 

Ordered that Leif tenant Benjamin Swett have a Commission for a 
Captains place & that he be the Conduct & chiefe of Commanders of 
the English & Indian forces now raysed & to Coe forth on the Service 
of the Country ag' the Eastern Indian Ennemy as also to order and 
dispose of the masters & marines & vessels now Going to said service 
for the better management of that affayre. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 132. 

CAPT. swett's commission. 

Capt. Swett, You are ordered with the forces now raysed & by your 
Commission put under your Command to repayr to Blackpoynt & there 
use all possible diligence by searching & otherwise to understand the 
state & motions of the enemy & with your force to assayle & annoy 
them as much as in you lyeth. If y'^ Headquarters of the Enemy by 
advice of Major Clark & those upon the place be possible to be 
assaulted you are ordered to march thither with all your force ; if any 
other small quarter of the enemy lye near & your force be in any 
Measure Capable in a short time to visit and fall upon them you are 
accordingly with all y* force Indians & English to make yom- march 
thither & assalt them ; if otherwise no service against the enemy offer 
advising with Major Clark to whom the Councill doth refer you for 
advice, you shall with your whole force march down towards Pascataq, 
on the Backside of winter Harbor, Wels, york &c, if possible to dis- 
cover the lurking places of y'^ enemy & fall upon them after which you 
shall supply, out of your company y® places of y^ old garrison soldiers 
which went out under C. Swayne or other dismissing them home & 
lodge y'' remayners in most convenient and necessary places for the 
Countryes Service & in such Companyes that upon prime exigent or 
order you may call y™ again forth on further excursion or expedition 
keeping good correspondence giving account to ye Governor & Council 
of all occurrences. 

Dated at Charlestown y" 22"^ of June, 1677 
pr. Council. E. R. S'^. 

To be released, Sam". Clark, Isaak How, W". Hopkins, W". 
Stanley, Moses Whitney. 



344 KING Philip's wab. 

This final service of Capt. Swett is best told by Mr. Hubbard, 
the historian of the war, who, after telling of the late depreda- 
tions which had been made at York, Wells and Hampton, where 
Edward Colcord, Jr., and three others (probably Abraham Per- 
kins, Jr., Benjamin Hillard and Caleb Towle) were killed, con- 
tinues : 

The Indians thus making daily Inroads upon these weak, unfenced 
places, the Governor and Council resolved to raise new Forces, and 
having had good Experience of the Faithfulness and Valor of the 
Christian Indians about Natick, armed two hundred of them and sent 
them together with forty English, to prosecute the Quarrel against 
those Eastward Indians to the full; but not judging aright of the 
Number of the Enemy, they much underdid their Business, for besides 
that the Number they sent of the English was a great deal too small, 
those that were chosen this Bout to take their Turns in the Service 
Abroad, were many of them young, raw, and unexperienced Soldiers, 
who were not able to look Danger, much less Death, in the Face, in 
cool Blood, by which means it came to pass that the Enterprise suc- 
ceeded so ill ; for Captain Swett with Lieutenant Richardson, that was 
sent with him to command the friendly Indians, coming to Black Point, 
June 28th, he began to try the Valor and Courage of his Company 
before he had disciplined them, or had any Experience of their Ability 
to fight. The very next morning after he had landed his men, under- 
standing by his Scouts that many of the Enemies were up and down 
upon the Place, he made too much Haste to fall upon them, and not 
mistrusting their Number, while he was marching up the Edge of an 
Hill with one Party, and his Lieutenant with another, the Indians, 
that had hid themselves in the Swamp on each Side of the Hill, suddenly 
fired upon the English on both Sides, which not a little discouraged 
his young and undisciplined Company, so as they could not, or did not 
keep their Ranks, but while some were ready to run and shift for them- 
selves, the Captain strived to keep them together, to bring off the 
dead and wounded men, so long that he brought himself and all the 
Company in Danger of an utter Overthrow, which soon after took 
place ; for the poor imskilful Soldiers, being scattered, were shifting 
for themselves, while a few resolute Men of Courage bore the Brunt 
of the Service till they were in a Manner all knocked down. The 
Lieutenant was killed soon after the first Onset ; the Captain having 
received near twenty Wounds, yet still held out defending and encourag- 
ing his Men, till he was surrounded with more of his enemies than he 
was able to grapple with, and so was at the last barbarously murdered 
by them within a little of the Garrison-house. There were slain at 
this Time somewhat above forty of the English, and twelve of the 
friendly Indians that assisted, very few escaping but were either killed 
right out or dangerously wounded. 

It is to be regretted that the names of very few of all who fell 
in this disastrous encounter have been preserved. Besides Capt. 
Swett and Lieut. Richardson, the records of Andover give the 
names of four who went from that town who were killed, John 



CAPT. SWETT AT BLACKPOINT. 345 

Parker, James Parker, John Phelps and Daniel Blanchard; and 
I have not been able to find any further names elsewhere. Mr. 
G. A. Churchill, in his researches, has found that Benjamin Rock- 
wood was of this company, and still living in 1742. The journal 
of the treasurer covering this period is lost. It seems from all 
available references that about ninety English and Indians, under 
Capt. Swett and Lieut. James Richardson, were engaged in the 
fight at Blackpoint; but the number of Indians given by Mr. 
Hubbard as in the expedition is not confirmed by other evidence. 
In Major Daniel Gookin's " History of the Christian Indians," 
he says : 

In June, 1677, another expedition into the Eastern parts, among 
whom were about 36 of our Christian Indians, who were in a fight near 
Black point ; the EngUsh lost about forty men whereof were eight of 
our friendly Indians, the greatest loss our [Christian] Indians sus- 
tained all the war. 

This seems to imply that the eight Indians are a part of the 
forty that were slain, and also that but thirty-six Indians were in 
the command. 

The instructions given in making up the force of his Lieutenant 
also give additional light. 

Order of the Council, June 15th, 1677. 

It is reffered to Major Gookin forthwith to Suply Leift. Richardson 
& his p'y at Chelmsford with provision Ammunition & app' necessary 
& to order him to scout & range y"' woods between Merrimack & Pas- 
catawq River & endeavour to kill and sease y* Lurking enemy in those 
parts for w"'' the Major is ordered to encourage y"" w* a reward of 
twenty shillings for every scalpe & forty shillings for every prisoner or 
y^ prisoner. And also to make up in number 25 men, & to order y"" 
after some time spent there, to m''ch to Blackpoint garison & Their to 
bee at y'^ ordering of Liftenaut Tipping until further order from the 
Council the time of Randevous at Blackpoint is to bee the 26 of this 
Instant June if possible. 

Past. Edwd Rawson, Secretary. 

Mass. Archives, vol. 69, p. 129. 

If these instructions were carried out,. Lieut. Richardson and 
his Indians from Chelmsford marched overland to Blackpoint, 
and evidently arrived there before the hostile Indians had come 
from the Kennebec and Androscoggin. The vessels were a day 
behind the appointed time in arriving. In making up his force 
for scouting the woods from Blackpoint to Saco, and in the 
vicinity, Capt. Swett had no thought of the large numbers 
of the enemy that were actually near them ; so that when he 
had drawn out his English to the number of forty, and his Lieu- 
tenant's force of thirty-six, and some of the Blackpoint men of 
Sergt. Tippen's command joined, he mustered in all a com- 



346 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



pany of ninety. It is said that a large decoy body of the enemy 
showed themselves and succeeded in drawing both the commands 
into an ambush contrived with their usual cunning, and blindly 
walked into, in the usual manner of the English from the first; 
and the story of " Bloody-Brook," " Beers Plain," " Brookfield " 
and " Sudbury," is again repeated, and the simple old Indian de- 
vice of decoy and ambush again overwhelms our forces and sends 
dismay through aU the colonies. But the Indians never risked a 
battle on any other chance ; and if their device had not succeeded 
here, would doubtless have disappeared, and the report would have 
been that our forces "could not come up with them." As it was, 
the Indians made no further attempt at that time, and probably 
suffered severely in the running fight, of which no details have 
been handed down. The Indians withdrew at the time, but in 
July following began the depredations upon the fishermen along 
the Eastern coast, and by midsummer had captured no less than 
thirteen vessels from Salem alone. They soon abandoned this 
enterprise, however, as they could not manage any craft that 
could not be worked with paddles. About this time, Governor 
Andros, of New York, interfered, and sent a vessel with a force 
to Pemaquid and vicinity and effected a cessation of hostilities. 
Lieut. Jajvies Richardson was first of Woburn, but in 1659 
removed to Chelmsford, and there married, November 28, 1660, 
Bridget Henchman, daughter of Thomas, and by her had eight 
children or more. He was with Capt. Wheeler in the defence of 
Brookfield, and with Simon Davis, of Concord, and John Fiske, 
was appointed by the Captain, who was disabled by his wounds, 
to manage the defence. He was afterwards active in the war ; 
removed to Charlestown, May 1, 1676, and served as Lieutenant 
with Capt. Samuel Hunting in his mixed English and Indian 
company in the summer and fall of that year at Pawtucket FaUs 
(now Lowell), where they built a fortification and maintained a 
garrison, of which Lieut. Richardson was left in charge as well as 
of the Christian Indians at Chelmsford. He was well acquainted 
with Indian ways, and had great influence with them. 



Credited under Lieut. Benjamin Swett. 



June 24'\ 1676. 


Thomas AUin 


01 17 06 


Thomas Hartshorn 


00 12 00 


Henry Kemball 


01 09 04 


Samuel Hutehins 


02 04 06 


Benjamin Greely 


01 00 06 


Nathaniel Hazeltine 


01 00 06 


Jonathan Henrick 


00 15 04 


Samuel Ahes 


00 08 06 


John Corly 


00 15 04 


John Keizer 


00 08 06 


John Roby 


00 08 06 


John Clement 


00 08 06 


Thomas Kingsby 


02 04 04 


Philip Esman 


00 15 04 


Robert Swan 


01 04 00 


Benjamin Singleterry 


00 15 04 


John Hazletine 


01 04 00 


Thomas Durston 


00 17 10 


Samuel Watts 


00 13 06 


Thomas Eastman 


01 04 00 


Joseph Bond 


00 13 06 



CAPT. MICHAEL PEIESE, OF SCITUATE. 



347 



James Smith 


05 08 00 


WUliam Burt 


00 09 04 


Denis Sihy 


04 01 00 


John Norton 


02 07 00 


John Cann 


02 14 00 


Rich. Hawkins 


02 14 10 


Benjamin Allin 


02 00 10 


John Veales 


02 01 00 


John Winslow 


02 14 10 


WiUiam PhUips 


02 14 00 


Benjamin Dyer 


02 14 00 


James Franklin 


02 14 00 


John Coarser 


02 14 00 


Thomas Davis 


02 14 00 


John Hicks 


01 00 06 


Samuel Davis 


03 03 00 


John Plimpton 


02 14 00 


James Wamsly 


02 14 00 


John Ross 


02 14 00 


Frances Burges 


02 14 00 



It will be noticed that the above credits are given a year 
before this final service, for which I have not as yet found any 
credit anywhere recorded. 



CAPT. MICHAEL PEIESE AND HIS COMPANY, OF PLYMOUTH 
COLONY. 

Michael Peirse, or Peirce, was of Hingham from 1646 to 1663, 
but removed to Scituate soon after. His children, named in his 
will of 1675, just before going to the war, were Persis, Benjamin, 
John, Ephraim, Elizabeth, Deborah, Ann, Abia and Ruth. His 
first wife died in 1662, and he married a second wife, Ann, at 
Scituate. Hon. Henry B. Peirce, late Secretary of State of Mas- 
sachusetts, is a lineal descendant of Capt. Michael Peirse. 
Michael Peirse was appointed ensign of a company raised in 
Plymouth Colony to go against the Dutch, in December, 1673, 
and captain of the company raised in the spring of 1675-6 as 
hereinafter told. It may be said here that as this was a Plymouth 
Colony Company, the lists of credits of the Treasurer, which are 
nearly complete for Massachusetts Colony, are not found as yet 
in Plymouth or Connecticut, so that we have to depend upon 
chance lists found here and there, and the lists of " Narraganset 
Grantees," published in full for the first time in this volume- 
We have learned above of the general situation of affairs in Mas- 
sachusetts Colony, in March, 1676. 

The intention of the Indians was evidently to distract the at- 
tention of the English by striking heavy blows in distant parts of 
the colonies. Connecticut was protected by the presence of the 
Mohegins and Pequods, whom the hostile Indians dreaded far 
more than the English, as they were their equals in woodcraft 
and Indian tactics. After the attack upon Medfield, the attack- 
ing party advanced into Plymouth Colony, and probably formed 
a junction with another body, doubtless with the purpose of con- 
centrating a great force upon some of the larger towns, while 
smaller bodies kept making demonstrations here and there upon 
some smaller places. On February 25th, they assaulted Wey- 
mouth, and burned seven or eight houses and barns. On March 
12th they pushed even into Plymouth town, and destroyed 



348 KING Philip's war. 

Clark's Garrison House, about two miles from Plymouth village, 
with eleven persons within it, plundered the provisions, a quan- 
tity of ammunition, and quite a sum of money, without a single 
man lost or wounded. Another party suddenly assaulted War- 
wick on March 16th or 17th, and destroyed nearly all the houses, 
though the people escaped. Nearly all the detached houses in 
the Narraganset country were attacked and destroyed within a 
few weeks, and many of the large towns were threatened. 

Plymouth Colony, on February 8, 1675-6, had ordered a com- 
pany of men to be impressed from the southern towns of the 
colony, and on the 29th the Council ordered " that the Souldiers 
now under Presse, from the Southern Towns, be at Plymouth on 
Wednesday the 8th of this Instant (March) in order unto a 
further March, and with them 20 or 30 of the Southern Indians, 
whoe together with the other whoe are under Presse to goe forth 
under the Command of Captain Michael Peirse and Lieftenant 
Samuell Fuller." The force probably got ready sometime in the 
middle of March. " Capt. Amos," a Wampanoag Indian who 
refused to follow with Philip and joined the friendly Indians, 
was in command of the Cape Indians in Capt. Peirse's company, 
and also acted as guide to the whole force. The command 
marched to Seekonk, where they arrived March 26th, and that 
day had a skirmish with a party of Indians in the vicinity, whom 
they pursued until night and supposed they had seriously dam- 
aged. Retiring to the Garrison House at Seekonk that night, 
early on the next day, Sunday, March 26th, the forces, increased 
by several from Seekonk as guides, started again in pursuit of 
the enemy ; and soon came across a few Indians who showed 
themselves in the distance and seemed to be trying to get away, 
but to be impeded by lameness. The English as usual were lured 
to rush forward, and in spite of former experiences and the 
warnings of the Indian allies, they soon found themselves in an 
ambuscade. Though not taken entirely by surprise by the old 
trick, which he believed his company was strong enough to fight 
through, Capt. Peirse was entirely deceived by the numbers of 
the Indians. He was a brave officer, and supposing he had a 
large body, perhaps twice his own number, at bay, he fearlessly 
attacked them even at great disadvantage. The Indians did not 
discover their full numbers until they had drawn the English 
across a small river, to some distance, when the attempt was 
evidently made to surround him. This forced him back upon 
the bank of the river, where he found himself attacked in the 
rear by a large party sent to cut him off. There is no doubt 
that Capt. Peirse was out-generalled, as well as vastly out- 
numbered, and, like the brave man that he was, he fought it out 
till he fell, with his brave men around him. Before leaving the 
garrison in the morning Capt. Peirse had sent a messenger to 
Capt. Edmunds of Providence, asking him to cooperate in an 



CAPT. PEIRSe's company DESTROYED. 349 

attack upon a large body of Indians then at Pawtucket Falls ; 
the messenger, however, did not deliver his message until after 
the morning service (it being Sunday), when Capt, Edmunds 
indignantly berated him, declaring that it was then too late, as it 
proved. It is doubtful if a company from Providence could have 
saved Capt. Peirse and his men after they crossed the river, as 
with their great numbers the Indians were able to beset every 
approach to the battle-field, and choose their ground. 

It is doubtful if during the war the English had come face to 
face in the open field with so large and so well-organized a force 
of the Indians. Canonchet doubtless directed the operations in 
this campaign in person, and was assisted by the ablest chiefs 
and the best warriors, picked from all the tribes. It was a signal 
victory for the Indians, and it confirmed Canonchet as the mili- 
tary leader before all others. Great stores of corn had been 
opened up and sent northward, with the plunder from the 
assaulted towns ; heavy blows had been struck against the towns ; 
the non-combatants, the infirm and helpless were safe in the vast 
forests stretching from beyond Quabaog to Canada, and were 
guarded by a strong reserve. He with his stout chiefs and their 
bands of loyal warriors were therefore free to carry the war into 
all parts of the colonies ; the great expedition under Major Savage 
against Menameset, etc., had been completely frustrated, and 
now this brilliant victory, as they counted it, had carried terror 
and dismay to the southern towns. Canonchet may well have 
dreamed of reconquering his native dominions, and doubtless 
believed that he could now reestablish his people there. Fearless 
by nature, and feeling secure from invasion, he was waiting, at 
his headquarters not far from Pawtucket, with but few guards, 
having out large scouting parties scouring the country ; and a 
very large part of his force had doubtless gone to the northward, 
with forage, plunder, and the dead and wounded from the battle 
with Capt. Peirse, of whom the number was probably more 
than one hundred. The loss on the part of the English was fifty- 
two of the English and eleven of the friendly Indians. From 
the letter of Rev. Noah Newman, of Rehoboth, written the day 
after the battle, we get the names of those killed of Capt. 
Peirse's company. 

From Scituate, 15 Slain. 
Capt. Pierce, Samuel Russell, Benjamin Chittenden, 
John Lothrope, Gershom Dodson, Samuel Pratt, 
Thomas Savery, Joseph Wade, William Wilcome, 
Jeremiah Barstow, John Ensign, Joseph Cowen, 
Joseph Perry, John Rowse, ? 

Marshfield, 9 Slain. 

Thomas Little, John Earns, Joseph White, 

John Burrows, Joseph Philhps, Samuel Bump, 

John Low, More ? John Brance. 



360 KING Philip's war. 

Duxbury, 4 Slain. 
John Sprague, Benjamin Soal, Thomas Hunt, 

Joshua Fobes. 

Sandwich, 5 Slain. 
Benjamin Nye, Daniel Bessey, Caleb Blake^ 

John Gibbs, Stephen Wing. 

Barnstable, 6 Slain. 
Lieut. Fuller, John Lewis, Eleazer Clapp, 

Samuel Linnet, Samuel Childs, Samuel Bereman. 

Yarmouth, 5 Slain. 
John Mathews, John Gage, William Gage, 

Henry Gage, Henry Gold. 

Eastham, 3 Slain. 
Joseph Nessefield, John Walker, John M . 

[Rehoboth?], 2 Slain. 
John Fitz, Jr., John Miller, Jr. 

The paper is much worn and mutilated, so that the names of 
several are lost. It is said that Miller and Fitz were of Reho- 
both, and probably others. Seven or eight names are needed, in 
addition, to make up the fifty-five. 

In a chart of the descendants of John Read of Rehoboth, pub- 
lished by Orin Read of Providence in 1859, it is stated that John 
Read's second son, John Read, Jr., was one of the Rehoboth sol- 
diers killed in this fight. 



XXV, 

BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE DESTRUCTION OF LAN- 
CASTER, AND NAMES CREDITED WITH MILITARY 
SERVICE AT THE VARIOUS OTHER GARRISONS. 



OF the many garrisons occupied by the English during the 
war, the importance varied according to the movements of 
the army. Marlborough, for instance, was, during the 
most of the war, a rendezvous and general headquarters, and 
thus it was necessary to devote an entire chapter to that, and the 
operations thereabout. Mendon, Brookfield, Hadley, Northamp- 
ton and several others later, like Scarborough and Wells, became 
prominent by their position as frontiers, or as supply and recruit- 
ing stations. It will be understood that these items of credit 
occur in the Treasurer's book mixed with other credits under the 
various officers, etc., and not consecutively, as presented here. 
These garrisons are arranged alphabetically by names of places, 
for the convenience of the reader ; and for the same reason, two 
lists already given in previous chapters are reprinted here. The 
Lancaster garrison is an exception to the above rule, as it seems 
to demand a fuller notice. 

The Nashaway Indians were the native inhabitants of the 
country bordering upon the Nashua river. The name of the 
sachem of this tribe, at the first settlement by the English, was 
Nashacowam, alias Nashoonan, alias Sholan. The bounds of his 
dominion are not exactly defined. His death is recorded in 1654. 
The first settlement by the English was begun with the estab- 
lishment of a trucking-house, in 1643, by Henry Symonds and 
Thomas King. In 1675 it was one of the most prosperous of the 
inland plantations. Up to the opening of Philip's war, there 
had never been any serious trouble with the Nashaway Indians. 
In common with other tribes they were stirred up by the agents 
of Philip, and during the fall and winter of 1675 and '76 were 
doubtless actively engaged with the hostiles. Shoshanim, whom 
the English called " Sam Sachem," was sagamore of the tribe at 
this time. The story of the attacks upon Lancaster has been told 
elsewhere, except the first, which occurred on Sunday, August 
20, 1675. This was five days after Capt. Mosely had marched 
his company into the town. This attack was a sudden raid of a 



352 KING Philip's war. 

large party of Indians, led by a Nipmuck chief named Monoco, 
or "One-eyed John." The point of attack was the house of a 
Scotch settler, Mordecai Macloud, at the North end of the town, 
near what is now the North Cemetery. Seven persons were 
killed at tliis time, viz., Mordecai Macloud and his wife Lydia, 
a daughter Hannah, aged four years, and an infant child ; also 
George Bennet, who left a widow and five small children ; Jacob 
Farrar, Jr., who left a widow and four children ; and two men, 
Joseph Wheeler and William Flagg, probably detailed as guards 
to the house. After this bloody affair, the people were gathered 
into garrison-houses, and strong guards placed about for a time. 
Several friendly Indians, in the employ of the Council at Boston, 
went among the hostile Indians about Brookfield and Wachuset 
as spies, and one of these, James Quanapohit, January 24, 1675- 
6, brought home to the Council a full and detailed report of the 
plan of the hostiles for the destruction of Lancaster, and even 
the day appointed. But the authorities paid little heed to his 
story. The Lancaster people, however, became alarmed, and 
appealed to the Council for assistance, which was being tardily 
attended to when the blow fell, just as predicted by James, and 
told by Job Kattenanit, another Christian Indian spy, who suc- 
ceeded in escaping from the hostiles at Meminimisset, and, 
travelling upon snow-shoes eighty miles, came to Major Gookin's 
house, on January 9th, in a nearly famished condition, and re- 
ported that a party of four hundred Indians were already on the 
way to destroy Lancaster. Major Gookin immediately arose upon 
this alarm, and consulting with Mr. Danforth, a member of the 
council, messengers were at once despatched to Marlborough, 
Concord and Lancaster, to fortify the town with all speed. The 
messenger reached Marlborough at daybreak, and Capt. Wads- 
worth marched away with a company of forty men. Before they 
arrived at Lancaster, the enemy had burned the bridge, by the 
regular road ; but the guides conducted them by another way so 
that they were able to escape the ambush laid for them by the 
enemy, and hastily repairing a partially burned bridge, they suc- 
ceeded in driving off a party already attacking the garrison- 
house of Mr. Cyprian Stevens, and in saving that, and a part of 
the town from destruction, as heretofore mentioned. Another 
garrison-house, that of Rev. Joseph Rowlandson, the minister, 
was assaulted and burned, and of all the thirty-seven persons with- 
in it, only one escaped death or captivity ; some authorities at the 
time gave the number as forty-two, but the most reliable says 
thirty-seven. Rev. Mr. Rowlandson was at Boston, trying to 
secure a force sufficient to protect the town from the threatened 
attack. 

From Mr. H. S. Nourse's " Early Records of Lancaster " I take 
the following list, which is probably the most complete and cor- 
rect now obtainable : 



CAPTIVES AND SLAIN AT LANCASTER. 353 

A List of those killed and made captive at the Rowlandson garrison- 
house in Lancaster, Feb'y 10, 1675-6. 

KILLED IN THE ASSAULT. 

Ensign John DivoU, Josiah Divoll, John's son, aged 7. Daniel Gains. 
Abraham Joslin, aged 26. John MacLoud. Thomas Rowlandson, 

aged 19. 
John Kettle, aged 36. John Kettle jr. Joseph Kettle, son of John, 

aged 10. 
Mrs. Elizabeth Kerley, wife of Lieut. Henry. William Kerley, son of 

Lieut. Henry, aged 17. Joseph Kerley, son of Lieut. Henry, aged 7. 
Mrs. Priscilla Roper, wife of Ephriam. Priscilla, child of Ephriam, 

aged 3. 

CARRIED AWAY CAPTIVE. 

Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, wife of the minister, ransomed. 

Mary Rowlandson, daughter of the minister, aged 10, ransomed. 

Sarah Rowlandson, " " " " " 6, wounded & died 

Feb. 18. 
Joseph Rowlandson, son " " " " 13, ransomed. 

Mrs. Hannah Divoll, wife of Ensign John, ransomed. 
John Divoll, son of Ensign John, aged 12, died in captivity? 
WiUiam Divoll, son of " " " 4, ransomed. 
Hannah Divoll, daughter of" " " 9, died in captivity? 
Mrs. Ann Joslin, wife of Abraham, killed in captivity. 
Beatrice Joslin, dau. " " " " " 

Joseph Joslin, brother of " aged 18. 

Henry Kerley, son of Lieut. Henry, aged 18. 
Hannah Kerley, dau. " " " " 13. 

Mary Kerley, " " " " " 10. 

Martha Kerley, " " " " " 4. 

A Kerley child, " " " name and age unknown. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Kettle, wife of John, ransomed. 
Sarah Kettle, daughter " " aged 14, escaped. 

Jonathan Kettle, son " " aged 5. 

A Kettle child, a daughter " " 
Ephraim Roper escaped during the assault. 

OTHERS KILLED OR TAKEN OUTSIDE THE GARRISON, IN THE SOUTH PART 
OF THE TOWN. 

John Ball, Elizabeth his wife, and their infant child. 
Jonas Fairbank, and Joshua his son, aged 15. 
Henry Farrar, Ephraim Sawyer, aged 26, and Richard Wheeler. 
A man mentioned by Mrs. Rowlandson, but no name given. 

TAKEN CAPTIVE. 

Two of the family of John Ball, names unknown. 

Mrs. Rowlandson says that " of thirty-seven persons who were 



354 KING Philip's war. 

in this one house, none escaped either present death or a bitter 
captivity, save only one." This one was Ephraim Roper, above- 
mentioned. 

Mis. Rowlandson must be considered the very highest au- 
thority, as she was a part of the story, which she afterwards 
published, and which affords almost the only reliable information 
we have of the condition, plans and movements of the hostile 
Indians, during that dreadful winter of 1675-6. Her story is 
simply, yet graphically, told, and we learn many things about 
the habits and customs of the Indians, their ways of subsisting, 
treatment of captives, manners, dress, diversions, etc., which is 
nowhere else given. 

Rev. Mr. Rowlandson sought the aid of the Council in his 
efforts to redeem the captives, many of whom were his own 
kindred. At first it was impossible to find any one of the friendly 
Indians willing to venture as messengers among the hostiles, 
mainly because they had been so cruelly and shamefully abused 
by the English and were now confined at Deer Island, where 
they could not be accused or placed under suspicion. At last, 
however, one Tom Dublet, or Nepanet, consented to go, and was 
fitted and instructed by Major Gookin, and upon April 3d started 
from Cambridge, and returned with the answer of the Sachems 
on April 12th. The correspondence between the Council and 
the Sachems is still preserved, in part, though the original 
letters are lost. The messenger brought back word from Sam 
Sachem, Kutquen and Quanohit, Samuel Uskatuhgun and Gun- 
rashit, Sagamores, and owners of the captives, that all the cap- 
tives taken at Lancaster were well except the youngest of Mr. 
Rowlandson, who was dead. At last, after many negotiations by 
the faithful Nepanet, Mr. John Hoar, of Concord, who, more 
than any man in the colony, had the confidence of the Indians, 
accompanied by Nepanet, and another friendly Indian, " Peter 
Conway," and bearing the ransom, twenty pounds in money and 
goods, raised by several gentlemen for the redemption of Mrs. 
Rowlandson, met the Sachems near Wachusett Hill, and on May 
2d received and conducted that lady to Lancaster, and the next 
day to Boston. The other captives were redeemed at various 
times and places afterwards. 

The place where Mr. Hoar met the Sachems is well identified, 
being marked by a large rock called " Redemption Rock," a noble 
landmark near the ancient Indian trail, between Lancaster and 
Mount Wachusett, and in the present town of Princeton, on 
the easterly side of a beautiful valley, across which, in the dis- 
tance, towers Mount Wachusett. The locality is known as 
" Everettville," from the name of an ancient family who have 
lived here for generations. In 1880, Hon. Geo. F. Hoar, of 
Worcester, a lineal descendant of the chief actor in this transac- 
tion, for the English, purchased the land containing this site, and 



REDEMPTION ROCK.' 



355 



set it apart for memorial purposes, and caused the following 
inscription to be placed upon the face of the rock : 

UPON THIS ROCK MAY 2d 1676 

WAS MADE THE AGREEMENT FOR THE RANSOM 

OF MRS. MARY ROWLANDSON OF LANCASTER 

BETWEEN THE INDIANS AND JOHN HOAR OF CONCORD. 

KING PHILIP WAS WITH THE INDIANS BUT 

REFUSED HIS CONSENT. 

The writer visited this rock and copied this inscription, May 
13, 1896, in company with Mr. Edward G. Davis of Leominster, 
who secured several fine photographs of the rock and sur- 
roundings. The inhabitants of Lancaster fled from their town 
after its destruction, and were scattered among their friends in 
various towns nearer to Boston, but within a few years many had 
returned and begun the resettlement. 



CREDITED AT LANCASTER GARRISON. 

October 19, 1675. 



Peter Jennings 


00 18 00 


Thomas Wenmon 


01 


04 00 


Joseph French 


01 03 03 


Richard Grotis 


01 


04 00 


Walter Da^ds 


00 18 00 


Thomas Whitney 


01 


10 00 


John Nash 


01 04 00 


Henry Elliott 


03 


00 00 


George Wiatt 


01 04 00 


Joseph Bhch 


00 


06 00 


Edward Young 


01 04 00 
November 


30, 1675. 






Michael Berstow 


01 16 00 


John Beare 


01 


16 00 


Stephen Parker 


01 14 02 


Mannings Sawyer 


01 


16 00 


Palsgrave "Wellington 


01 16 00 


George Wyatt 


01 


04 00 


Henry Salter 


01 16 00 
December 


20, 1675. 






Thomas Wenmon 


01 16 00 


Peter Jennings 


03 


07 08 


Walter Davis 


01 16 00 
January 2 


Thomas Whitney 
5, 1675-6. 


00 


12 00 


John Roberts 


03 01 08 


Francis Nichols 


01 


10 00 


Stephen Fish 


03 00 00 


Thomas Woods 


00 


18 00 


Nathaniel Hadlock 


03 01 08 


Walter Davis 


01 


03 02 


John Fitch 


03 01 08 


Henry Salter 


01 


08 02 


John Stanwood 


03 01 08 


Muiiuing Sawen 


01 


15 02 


Zacharia Eyres 


03 01 08 


Palsgrave Willington 


01 


15 02 


Stephen Parker 


03 01 08 
February ' 


Michael Bairstow 
29, 1675-6. 


00 


19 08 


Francis Nichols 


00 18 00 


Edward Young 


01 


18 06 


Thomas Marble 


01 18 06 


John Nash 


01 


18 06 



356 



KING Philip's wak. 



William Pashle 



Henry Sparkes 



John Boyd 
James Poply 
Thomas Welch 



John Gale 
John Essery 
Joseph Dowse 
Joseph Low 
James Poply 
John Boyde 
James Barnard 



April 24, 1676. 
04 16 00 

June 24, 1676. 

01 16 10 

AT THE GARRISON AT BILLERICA. 

November 30, 1675. 

03 00 00 I Joseph Dowse 
03 00 00 William Chapman 

02 14 00 I David Jones 

December 20, 1675. 

James Smith 
Daniel Baldwin 
John Fisk 
Richard Satell 
Stephen Coolidg 
Nathaniel Livermore 



03 01 


08 


03 06 00 


00 07 08 


03 01 


08 


00 06 00 1 


00 06 


00 


03 01 


08 



02 14 00 

03 06 00 
03 00 00 



00 07 08 
03 00 00 
03 06 00 
03 12 00 
03 06 00 
02 14 00 



Humphry Millard 
Daniel Baldwin 



January 25, 1675-6. 

03 18 00 I Stephen Coolidg 
01 19 04 



02 01 00 



Francis Wainwright 
Howell Davis 



Richard Sautill 
Francis Nichols 
WiUiam Chapman 



April 24, 1676. 

01 04 00 

June 24, 1676. 

02 11 04 

July 24, 1676. 



00 19 08 
04 16 00 

01 10 00 



John Fisk 
Edward Bishop 
Ephraim Jones 



01 06 06 
00 16 00 
05 14 00 



August 24, 1676. 
Francis Bond 06 11 00 | George Wyatt 05 14 00 

September 23, 1676. 
Francis Wainwright 06 12 00 

"at blackpotnt." 

July 24, 1676. 

John Lowell 06 02 06 | Ezekiell Hamlin 06 00 00 



GABBISOKS AT BROOKFIELD AND CHELMSFORD. 



357 



Edward Milton 



August 24, 1676. 
03 05 02 



AT THE GARRISON AT BROOKFIELD, OR 

February 29, 1675-6. 
John Weld 00 08 06 



QUABAUG. 



John Rayman 
James Kelling 
Ezekiel Levitt 



June 24, 1676. 



01 00 00 
05 01 00 
01 04 00 



John Norton 
John Mansell 



01 09 00 
01 18 00 



July 24, 1676. 



Joseph Hide 
Isaac Perkins 
George Norton 
Nicholas Rawlins 
Benjamin Dunnage 
John Artsell 
Benjamin Dunnage 
Thomas Scott 
Thomas Cooper 
Thomas Philips 
Joseph Garfell 
Benjamin Pickerin 
Charles Duckworth 
John Cromwell 
John Norton 
William Bodkin 



John Cromwell 
Charles Duckworth 
Edward Blancher 
David Crouch 



01 00 06 
01 01 04 
00 06 04 
00 07 00 

00 04 03 

01 08 00 
01 04 00 
01 04 00 
05 00 00 
05 03 06 

00 17 00 
04 10 00 
03 15 00 

03 15 03 

01 12 06 

04 12 06 



John Jeflery 
Joseph Swady 
Ebenezer Engellsbee 
Henry Pelllngton 
John Algar 
Thomas Stacie 
Silvester Hales 
John Simple 
John Glide 
Benjamin Bucknall 
Ephraime Savage Lt. 
Christopher Cole 
Charles Blinco 
John Mansell 
Nathaniel Partridge 
John Sargent 



August 24, 1676. 



02 


09 


09 


02 


09 


06 


05 


10 


00 


02 


06 


02 



David Jones 
Philip Sandy 
Thomas Phillips 
John Cutler 



04 19 04 
04 12 06 

04 12 06 

05 07 00 

03 02 06 
01 12 06 

04 10 00 

03 02 06 

05 08 00 

04 15 00 

04 07 09 
03 02 06 
03 13 00 
01 10 00 

05 08 00 
03 02 06 



07 06 06 
05 08 00 
00 18 00 
05 09 08 



AT THE GARRISON AT CHELMSFORD. 

November 20, 1675. 
Moses Cleaveland 02 12 08 | Samuel Parris 



02 12 08 



Zachariah Shedd 
John Ellis 
Richard Nevers 
Joseph Samson 
Thomas Sawin 
Thomas Train 



November 30 

03 00 00 

04 10 00 

03 00 00 

04 10 00 
03 00 GO 
03 00 00 



1675. 

Joseph Simons 
John Roby 
John George 
Hopewell Davis 
William Fisher 
Henry Harris 



03 00 00 
01 04 00 

04 16 00 
04 16 00 
04 16 00 
04 16 00 



358 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



December 20, 1675. 



Francis Nichols 
Hezekiah Pilsbury 
Joseph Estman 
John Martin 
Benjamin Allin 
Amos Singlater 
Nathaniel Ladd 



John Bear 
John Darling 
George Wyatt 
Samuel Parry 
Robert Shelston 
Walter Davis 
Thomas Wenmore 
Benjamin Lernett 
Moses Cleaveland 



02 11 04 
01 04 00 
01 04 00 
01 04 00 
01 04 00 
01 04 00 
01 04 00 

January 
00 09 04 
00 09 04 

00 09 04 

01 00 06 

02 09 08 
00 09 04 
00 09 04 
04 16 00 
02 08 10 



Thomas Estman 
Richard Beach 
William Foster 
Henry Harris 
Joseph Lamson 
Hopewell Davis 



25, 1675-6. 
John Eliot 
Joseph Simons 
John Salendine 
Arthure Crouch 
WiUiam Ballard 
Moses Cleaveland 
Richard Nevers 
John George 
Thomas Train 



01 04 00 
03 08 06 
00 06 00 
00 06 00 
00 12 00 
00 10 00 



01 17 08 

01 15 02 

02 14 00 
02 14 00 
02 08 00 
00 06 00 
02 08 00 
02 04 06 
02 08 00 



John Welch 



Thomas Henchman 
Joseph Parker Sen' 



Daniel Woodward 
Josiah Clarson 
Henry Harris 
Samuel Cleveland 
John Clark 
Henry Sparkes 
John Mirecke 



February 29, 1675-6. 

00 07 08 I Ephraim Matson 01 04 00 

March 24, 1675-6. 

01 10 00 I Joseph Parker Jun'. 00 12 00 
00 12 00 



June 24 
03 08 06 
03 16 02 
03 12 10 
03 07 08 
03 12 00 
03 12 00 
03 13 08 



1676. 

Robert Parker 00 10 00 

NathanielGraves, Capt. 12 01 00 

Timothy Day 04 16 00 

George Stedman 02 12 02 

John Polly 02 18 00 

George Parson 01 16 00 



John Solinden 
William Fisher 
Arthure Crouch 
John George 
Thomas Traine 
Samuel French 
John Elliot 



July 24 
06 12 00 
06 12 00 
06 12 00 
06 12 00 
06 12 00 
03 08 06 
03 18 00 



1676. 

John Priest 
George Sowder 
Samuel Damman 
Suball Stearnes 
Samuel Heberd 
George Person 
Alexander Alhort 



05 02 00 
04 03 00 
03 10 00 

03 05 00 

04 00 06 
04 00 06 
02 10 06 



Nicholas Lunn 
John Mirick 
John Barbene 
Joseph Simons 



August 24, 1676. 



03 


10 


00 


06 


00 


00 


06 


13 


08 


03 


18 00 1 



Henry Harris 
Samuel Perry 
John Polly 
John Barbene 



03 00 10 
03 18 00 
00 18 10 
05 04 06 



GARBISONS AT DUNSTABLE AND GBOTON. 



359 



John Priest 
William Peirce 



September 23, 1676. 

02 08 00 I John Bateman 
07 12 06 



07 11 00 



David Falkner Sen'. 



Andrew Lewis 



"at dedham. 
July 24, 1676. 
04 09 06 I David Falkner Jun' 

September 23, 1675. 
02 14 00 



03 03 06 



at the GARRISON AT DUNSTABLE. 

December 20, 1675. 



Richard Hawkins 
John Gary 
Thomas Webb 



Anthony Baker 
John Carv 



03 06 00 
03 06 00 
05 02 00 



James Matthews 
John Maloone 
Richard Hawkins 



January 25, 1675-6. 
06 15 04 

February 29, 1675-6. 
03 03 04 



04 13 04 
04 08 04 
02 00 00 



Samuel Selsby 
John Gary 
John Maloone 



Robert Parris 



John Maloone 
Robert Parris 
Abraham Parker 



Samuel Read 
John Bush 
Samuell Bull 



June 24, 1676. 

01 04 00 
05 12 02 
08 15 08 



Jonathan Crisp 
James Mathews 
Thomas Webb 



August 24, 1676. 
04 10 10 I Abraham Parker 

September 23, 1676. 

03 18 00 James Gar 

04 12 06 John Barnard 
04 12 06 Ephraim Sawyer 

AT THE GARRISON AT GROTON. 

November 9, 1675. 
01 16 00 I John Largin 
03 07 08 Timothy Forgley 
.02 04 06 I Samuel Whitney 



November 30, 1675. 



Thomas Ghamberlain 
Jeremiah Morse 
Thomas Bancroft 



02 09 08 
02 02 00 
00 10 00 



John Wood 
Josiah Wheeler 
Hugh Taylor 



02 07 00 

03 18 00 
05 10 00 



04 10 10 



02 14 00 
02 14 00 
02 14 00 



02 04 06 
02 02 00 
00 04 04 



01 13 04 

02 12 02 

03 01 08 



360 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



Jacob Dane 
David Church 
Shuball Stemes 
Thomas Wood 
William Gill 
John Hawes 
Onesiphorus Stanly 



John Codington 
Jonathan Parker 
Ephraim Bemish 
Timothy Frogly 
John Tedd 
Samuel Hagar 
Israel Hill 



03 00 00 

04 10 00 
03 00 00 
03 01 08 
03 07 08 
01 10 00 
03 05 02 

December 
01 15 02 
03 08 00 
03 08 04 

01 16 00 
03 06 00 
03 06 00 

02 06 02 



John Dammon 
Daniel Starling 
Jonathan Sprague 
Thomas Dunnell 
Jacob Winslow 
Pelatiah Smith 
Thomas Micheson 

20, 1675. 

Daniel Canada 
Nathaniel Domton 
Sebread Taylor 
Thomas Frost 
Samuel Allin 
William Doule 
William Halford 



03 01 08 
03 03 04 
03 00 00 
03 00 00 
03 06 00 
03 00 00 
03 05 02 



04 10 00 
03 00 00 
03 00 00 
03 12 00 
03 09 04 
03 00 00 
03 18 00 



January 25, 1675-6. 



Benjamin Simons 
Lot Johnson 
Samuel Bull 
Samuel Cleaveland 
Daniel Canada 
Jacob Dane 
Jeremiah Moss 



02 08 


00 


03 00 00 


02 


02 


00 


02 


08 


00 


00 


18 


00 


00 


18 


00 


00 


06 00 1 



Simon Stone 
Samuel Hager 
Ephraim Bemis 
Subaell Stearnes 
Thomas Frost 
Timothy Frogly 
David Church 



03 18 00 
00 18 00 

00 12 00 

01 10 00 
00 07 08 

00 07 08 

01 06 06 



February 29, 1675-6. 



UNDER CAPT. WHEELER AND AT GROTON GARRISON. 



Nath Hill 


01 12 10 


Samuel Fletcher Jun"" 


01 12 10 


Jonathan Hill 


01 12 10 


Eleazer Brown 


01 19 04 


Joseph Foster 


01 12 10 


Cyprian Stevens 


00 14 03 


John Waldo 


01 12 10 


Benjamin Graves 


01 19 04 


Francis Dudly 


01 12 10 


John Bates 


01 12 10 


Samuel Fletcher Sen' 


01 04 05 


Stephen Goble 


01 12 10 




Apnl 2 


i, 1676. 




Thomas Foster 


03 00 00 


Jonath Crisp 


02 10 06 


Eleazer Ball 


00 06 00 


Daniel Adams 


00 06 10 




June 24 


, 1676. 




Zachary Crisp 


02 15 08 


John Hands 


01 06 06 


Mathias Smith 


01 06 06 


Morris Truelove 


01 06 06 


Nathaniel Green 


01 12 06 


Joseph Pollard 


01 11 00 


William Clough 


01 06 06 


Moses Wheat 


02 08 00 


John Goff 


01 11 00 


Humphry Millard 


00 06 10 


James Chever 


01 11 00 


Thomas Region 


02 14 00 


Edmund Gage 


01 06 06 


Timothy Cutler 


02 08 08 


William Bordman 


01 02 03 


Richard Grififeth 


01 16 10 


Benjamin Graves 


00 10 00 







HADLET AND MARLBOROUGH GARRISONS. 



361 



July 24, 1676. 
Richard Pasmore 04 04 00 i John Potter 01 04 00 

John Bush 01 02 00 | Symon Willard 00 19 03 



AT THE GARRISON AT HADLET. 

June 24, 1676. 
Benjamin Chamberlain 06 12 00 



John Chub 
John Records 
Joshuah PhiUips 
Isaiah Toy 
Tryall Newbury 



Jacob Hewens 
Thomas North 
Benjamin Poole 
Robert Coates 
Nicholas Dourell 



July 24, 1676. 



08 


12 


02 


09 


00 


00 


13 


04 


00 


05 


11 


00 


14 08 


00 



Joseph Smith 
Philip Kertland 
Thomas Chard 
John Upham 
John Chamberlain 



August 24, 1676, 



07 05 


04 


10 


16 


00 


09 


18 


00 


09 


14 


06 


08 02 00 1 



Ephraim Regiman 
John Hadlock 
Thomas Staines 
John Largin 



12 03 04 

03 17 00 
05 17 00 

12 06 00 

13 06 00 



07 09 02 
11 04 00 
04 01 04 
04 00 00 



Thomas Bryant 
RicTiard Snowden 
John Strabridg 
Joseph Griffin 
Robert Bardell 
James Moult 
Thomas Pore 
John Whitteridge 
Stephen Grover 
Moses Morgan 
John Prat 
James Verin 



September 
13 10 00 

10 16 00 
02 00 00 

07 16 00 
16 07 00 

11 07 00 

13 16 00 
11 08 00 

14 07 00 
05 13 00 
16 16 00 

08 08 00 



23, 1676. 

Jeremiah Clothar 12 06 00 
Benjamin Lathropp 03 18 00 

Hugh Pike 14 11 00 

John Tucker 06 00 00 

John Fisher 08 06 00 

WQliam Chub 06 04 00 

Joseph Hovey 00 08 06 

Moses Dudee 04 04 00 

Henry White 14 14 00 

Thomas Jones 14 12 00 

John BiU 11 15 00 

Archebell Forest 05 18 00 



William Batt 



AT HATFIELD. 

July 24, 1676. 
03 00 00 



Robert Dawes 
Edward Bishop 



September 23, 1676. 
08 18 00 I Jabez Musgrove 
06 17 00 I Richard Smith 



14 12 00 
14 15 00 



Darby Morris 
John Dunster 
William Turner 



AT THE GARRISON OP MARLBROW. 

September 21, 1675. 



01 13 04 

02 00 00 
01 19 04 



Thomas Owen 
Joseph Barber 



04 13 04 
02 14 00 



362 



KING Philip's war. 



October 19, 1675. 



James Cheevers 
Thomas Turner 
William Blockwell 



Timothy Laskin 
WUliam Ferman 
Samuel French 
Richard Young 
David RofE 



John Baker 
Richard Young 
Henry Gibbs 
John Nash 
Jonathan Jackson 
Obadiah Searle 



Robert Rownden 
Thomas Owen 



Richard Young 
Thomas Hopkins 
Daniel Wright 
Timothy Laskin 
Morgan Jones 



02 14 00 

02 12 02 

03 02 06 



Henry Gibbs 
Richard Roberts 



November 30, 1675. 



04 


13 


04 


02 


08 


00 


03 


00 


00 


03 


12 


00 


03 


02 


00 



Jacob Adams 
Jonathan Jackson 
Daniel Wright 
John Figg 
John Broughton 



January 25, 1675-6. 



03 08 06 
03 06 00 
02 19 00 

00 18 00 

01 05 08 
06 08 00 



Daniel Davison 

" Commiss." 
Jonathan Orris 
Richard Roberts 
WUliam Turner 



February 29, 1675-6. 

07 04 00 I William Farman 
02 18 02 I Gustin John 

March 24, 1675-6. 
00 13 00 

ApHl 24, 1676. 
00 09 00 I Benjamin Pannater 

June 24, 1676. 
02 09 08 I Thomas Dennis 

July 24, 1676. 
02 09 08 I John Bulges 

September 23, 1676. 

08 02 00 I Joseph Davis 



AT THE GARRISON AT MEDPIELD. 

April 24, 1676. 
Thomas Davis 02 02 00 I John Howell 

Humphrey Richards 01 16 00 I 



June 24, 1676. 



Clement Maxfield 
James Parker 
Thomas Davis 
Vincent Shuttleworth 



00 18 00 
02 08 00 

01 15 00 

02 11 04 



Thomas Sherman 
Elisha HoUaway 
Charles Cohon 
Thomas Jones 



03 07 00 

04 04 00 



04 13 04 
04 13 04 
04 13 04 

01 10 00 

02 12 02 



05 06 00 

03 12 00 
02 16 06 

04 16 00 



03 17 00 
01 19 04 



02 03 08 

01 05 06 

03 00 10 
06 00 00 

02 02 00 



02 11 04 

05 04 06 

03 18 10 
03 04 02 



MEDFIELD AND MENDON GARRISONS. 



July 24, 1676. 



James Harrington 
Charles Cahan 
James Parker 
Moses Hubbard 


02 11 04 
01 10 00 
01 10 10 
00 18 00 


Edward Goose 
John Belcher 
Darby Morris 
Samuel Smith 


02 16 06 

00 10 02 

03 03 00 
03 06 00 


Samuel Procter 
Alexander Mackenny 


August 24 

01 08 00 

02 02 00 


L, 1676. 
Anthony Hancock 
Samuel Smith 


06 13 08 
01 17 08 


Daniel Meginny 
Thomas Sherrard 
Edward Goose 
Darby Morris 
James Harrington 


September 
00 18 00 

00 12 00 

01 16 10 

01 17 08 

02 12 02 


23, 1676. 

John Richardson 

Israel Hill 

James Marshall 

Vincent Shuttleworth 


04 04 00 
02 14 10 
02 05 04 
02 01 00 



AT THE GARRISON AT MENDAM (mENDON) . 

September 14, 1675. 
John Harrison, Serg* 02 06 06 I David Landon 
Henry Tite 01 10 10 | Thomas Hansett 



00 18 00 

01 03 00 



Jonathan Dunning 
John Tuckerman 
Samuel Moore 
Joseph Griffin 
John Gosse 



William Bosway 
Jonathan Dunning 
John Roulstone 
William Jaques 
Richard House 
Richard Godfrey 
Jonathan Torry 
Thomas Beedle 
John Weld 
Thomas Hanchat 
Israel Leavitt 
Brian Morphy 
Joseph Griffin 
Gilbert Foresight 



Thomas Andrews 
Henry Pellington 
Thomas Jones 
Thomas Brideltine 



October 

01 00 06 

02 12 03 

03 02 06 
02 04 06 

00 11 00 

December 

04 14 02 
04 04 00 
04 04 00 

04 16 00 

05 06 10 
02 02 10 

01 14 02 

02 02 10 
01 10 00 

01 13 04 

02 08 00 
02 08 00 
04 07 00 
04 01 00 



19, 1675. 
Thomas Pinly 
Henry Pettington 

(Pellington) 
John Starr 
Edward Barton 

20, 1675. 
John Andrews 
John Sawen 
Simon Stone 
John Stearnes 
John Willington 
Samuel Goff 
John Gepson 
Samuel Thacher 
Stephen Cooke 
Thomas Browne 
James Waumesly 
John Long 
Thomas Crassell 
John Ellis 



January 25, 1675-6. 



04 04 00 
04 04 00 
00 13 04 
00 18 00 



John Low 
Theophilus Gushing 
William Cole 



00 11 00 

01 12 06 
00 11 00 
05 02 06 



04 11 06 
00 10 00 
00 10 00 
00 10 00 
00 10 00 
00 12 00 
00 10 00 
00 10 00 
00 10 00 

00 10 00 

01 07 04 
00 10 00 
00 10 00 

05 06 03 



02 02 10 
02 02 10 
01 16 00 



364 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



February 29, 1675-6. 
Wmiam Cole 01 10 00 ] John Tuckerman 00 06 00 

June 24, 1676. 
John Rowlstone 01 10 00 | BenjammDyer 00 12 00 



AT THE GARRISON AT NORTHAMPTON. 

September 23, 1676. 



Samuel Souch 
Philip Matoon 
William Halford 



14 11 00 
08 02 00 
10 16 00 



John Rowlston 
Samuel Tiley 
John Roberts 



08 13 00 
08 02 00 
08 19 06 



John Paison 



AT PUNCKAPAUGE. 

March 24, 1675-6. 
00 13 00 



James Pemerton 
John Clark 
Samuel Trescott 
Joseph Adams 
John Basse 
Joseph Long 
John Spurr 
Joseph Holmes 
Thomas Swift 
Robert Braine 
Thomas Holman 
John Winchester 
Stephen Gulliver 
Samuel Wadsworth 



April 24, 
00 09 03 
00 09 03 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 15 00 
00 09 00 
00 13 00 
00 09 03 

00 09 00 

01 16 00 



1676. 
Benjamin Badcock 
Robert Parker 
George Witty 
Samuel Maxfield 
Clement Maxfield 
Samuel Gulliver 
Jeremiah Hall. 
John Daniel 
Henry Roberts 
Samuel Clap 
George Lyon 
Samuel Picher 
Thomas Lawrence 
Jonathan Picher 



00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 13 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 12 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 



June 24, 1676. 



John Riply 
Martin Sanders 
John Thare 
Thomas Drake 
Jacob Nash 
Joseph Penniman 
Isaac Griffin 
Moses Pain 
Samuel Pain 



00 


13 


00 


00 


13 


00 


00 


09 


00 


00 


13 00 1 


00 


13 


00 


00 


13 


00 


00 


09 


00 


00 09 


00 


00 09 


00 



Joseph Crosby 
Samuel Hall 
Christopher Webb 
John Mills 
John Belcher 
Ebenezer Williams 
Thomas Modsly 
John Ripley 
Martin Sanders 



00 13 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 13 00 
00 06 04 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
04 10 00 
04 10 00 



David Walsbery 
Isaac Umpphre als 

Humphrey 
Hopestill Clapp 
John Wells 



August 24, 1676. 



00 09 


00 


00 09 


00 


00 09 


00 


00 09 


03 



John Minott 
Ephraim Newton 
Israel Meade 
John Herse 
Roger Bulling 



00 13 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 13 00 
00 13 00 



SPRINGFIELD GARRISON. 



365 



Edward Brinkf ord als 

Linsford 
Thomas Berd 



James White 
Joseph Tucker 



00 06 04 
00 07 06 



Hopestill Humphry 
Joshuah Hinsher 
Robert WiUts 



September 22,, 1676. 
00 13 00 I Charles Davenport 
00 09 00 I Thomas Davinport 



AT THE GARRISON AT SPRINGFIELD. 

February 29, 1675-6. 
John Lowden 01 10 00 

March 24, 1675-6. 
01 04 00 



Jonathan Tainter 



Samuel Irons 
John Pitcher 
Joseph Holmes 
Josiah Rockwood 
Joseph Willington 
John Pinchon Maj' 
William Pilsbery 
John White 



John Bradshaw 
Samuel Jewell 



June 24, 1676. 

09 01 16 

10 15 00 
10 07 04 
10 16 00 
13 17 00 
21 14 03 

10 07 00 

11 18 00 



John Cragge 
George Seddon 
Isaac Gleson 
Joseph Pike 
John Smith 
Gershom Swan 
John Lowden 



July 24, 1676. 

10 14 04 I Matthew Abdee 
13 05 00 



00 09 00 
00 09 00 
00 09 00 



00 09 00 
00 09 00 



08 13 00 

11 09 08 
17 04 09 

10 01 04 

09 01 06 

11 06 00 

12 09 00 



12 02 00 



Daniel Galusha 
Jeremiah Norcross 



Nathaniel Lyon 
Thomas EUiott 
Isaac Cakebread 
Thomas Friend 



August 24, 1676. 

14 05 00 I Roger Prosser 03 02 06 

12 03 00 I 

September 23, 1676. 

Benjamin Knowlton 16 12 00 
Thomas Bond 13 10 00 

John Mirick 14 12 00 



13 


16 


00 


16 


16 


00 


16 


16 00 1 


08 


08 


00 1 



John Langworthy 
Samuel Alcock, Doct'. 



Solomon Bates 
Abraham Kingston 
Joseph Chamberlain 



AT THE GARRISON AT WESTFIELD. 

July 24, 1676. 
13 01 00 I Joseph Dudly, Chap^ 



04 05 00 
August 24, 1676. 



12 06 00 
12 06 00 
14 08 00 



John Lamb 
Nathaniel Osbom 



17 02 08 



12 13 09 

16 05 08 



366 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



September 23, 1676. 



George Manning 
James Hadlock 
William Rogers 
Thomas Norton 



Daniel East 



Jonathan Freeman 



Daniel "Wight 
William Arnold 
Daniel Hawes 



Samuel Colbron 
Nathaniel Weare 
Ellis Barron 
Richard Benner 



13 


05 


08 


02 


07 


00 


13 


02 


00 


13 


18 


00 



Robert Hastings 
Thomas Watts 
William Peacock 
Fearnot King 



THE GARRISON AT WOODCOCKS. 

August 23, 1675. 
00 11 02 

September 3, 1675. 
00 10 04 

September 14, 1675. 

00 10 04 I Samuel Guild 
00 12 08 John FuUer 
GO 10 04 1 

June 24, 1676. 
00 10 02 

July 24, 1676. 
00 19 04 I Henry Chamberlain 

August 24, 1676. 
00 16 02 

September 23, 1676. 
00 10 00 



Thomas Mudg 
Simon Grover 



James Kidder 



John Stan- 
John Mason 
John Allin 
Thomas Phinly 
John Goff 



AT THE GARRISON AT WADING RIVER. 

September 14, 1675. 
02 10 06 I John Leroby 
02 10 06 I Benjamin Bridgham 

AT WAMESICK. 

January 25, 1675. 
00 12 00 

GARRISON AT WRENTHAM. 

November 20, 1675. 

John Hammon 
Thomas Wadduck 
John Ellis 
Edward Gross 



04 


16 


00 


05 


06 


03 


05 


06 


03 


04 


16 


00 


04 


16 


00 



06 09 00 

07 10 00 

14 14 00 

15 16 00 



00 10 04 
00 10 04 



03 18 00 



02 10 06 

00 18 00 



05 06 03 

04 19 04 

05 06 03 
01 11 08 



ASSIGNMENT OF WAGES. 



367 



January 25, 1675-6. 



Anthony Hancock 
John Ellis 
John Mason 



John Parker 
Isaac Heath 



John Starr 
John Hammon 
Clement Hamlin 



John Bacon 



John AUin 
Robert Ware 
Mark Baker 



01 18 06 

02 02 00 
01 16 10 



Thomas Hoppin 
Israel Hill 
John Hammon 



February 29, 1675-6. 
02 08 00 

April 24, 1676. 
00 07 08 I John Ellice 

June 24, 1676. 



02 01 00 
02 08 00 
04 04 00 



David Faukner 
John Parker 



July 24, 1676. 
00 12 00 

September 23, 1676. 



02 14 00 
02 01 00 
02 02 00 



02 19 00 



01 04 00 

02 07 00 



05 02 00 
04 16 10 
00 12 00 



Peter Buckly, of the 
Traine 



00 18 00 



ASSIGNMENT OF WAGES. 

The following lists show the custom of the times. The towns 
assumed the payment of the wages of their own soldiers, to their 
families left at home, the families thus receiving sure and im- 
mediate aid, and the towns being credited to that amount upon 
their colonial " rates," or taxes. It was doubtless a means of 
great help to the families, and of saving to the towns, as it 
secured at once the support of the families without public 
charge, and at the same time the prompt payment of taxes. 

The value of these lists to the historical and genealogical 
student will appear in the evidence they afford as to each man's 
residence at that time. The proof might not be positive in 
every case, yet in general it may be concluded that where a man 
assigns his wages to a town, it is because he considers that his 
place of residence. 

Augxist 24, 1676. 



£ 8. d. 

Braintree-Towne Cr. By Sundry accp'^ Viz. 42 17 06 


Edward Bishop p*^ him as per 

Assignment 06 09 02 
Richard Evens " 01 14 02 
George Witty 00 09 00 


Joseph Adams 00 09 00 
John Bass 00 09 00 
Jonathan Pitcher 00 09 00 
John Belcher 00 10 02 



KING Philip's war. 



Samuel Irons 
Robert Parker 
James Franklin 
John Lamb 
Abraham Kingston 



01 09 01 
03 09 10 
03 18 06 
10 18 10 
09 03 09 



James Atkins 
Caleb Raye 
Samuel Spencer 
Martin Sanders 



Dorchester-Towne Cr. By Sundry accp*" Viz. 



£ 
37 



James Haughton p*^ as per 

Assignment 
Samuel Maxfield 
Clement Maxfield 
Benjamin AUin 
Jeremiah Hall 
Henry Leadbetter 
Samuel Rigby 
John Spurr 



r 

00 


19 


08 


00 09 


00 


01 


07 


00 


01 


16 


10 


00 


09 


00 


02 


11 


00 


03 06 08 ! 


01 


18 


00 1 



John Pason 
Samuel Triscot 
Timothy TUston 
Jonathan Atherton 
Samuel Blake 
Thomas North 
John Smith 
John Minot 



Dedham-Towne Cr. By Sundry acep" Yiz. 



£ 

70 



Timothy Dwite p^ him as 

per Assignment 17 00 00 

Samuel Guile 
Daniel Wight 
David Falkner 
David Falkner Jr. 
John Day 



John Day 
John Bacon 
Ephraim Pond 
Daniel Hawes 
Jonathan Gay 
Samuel Colborn 
Thomas Bishop 
Nathaniel Weare 
John Batle 



06 08 04 

02 09 08 

03 17 06 
02 15 06 

01 13 06 

02 14 09 

00 12 00 
02 08 00 

01 06 06 

02 08 00 
02 04 09 

07 06 09 
00 19 04 
00 12 00 



Jeremiah Fisher 
Benjamin Wight 
Ephraim Wilson 
John Thurston 
Nathaniel Farington 
Edward Sewell 
John Groce 
John Coockow 
James Hening 
Peter Woodward 
Richard Bennett 
John Ware 
John Aldis 
Benjamin Mills 
David Freeman 



01 03 06 

00 16 04 

01 01 04 
00 06 10 

s. d. 

00 05 
05 03 00 
00 09 00 

02 05 00 
02 15 00 

02 05 00 
09 00 04 
00 12 09 
00 13 00 

s. d. 

07 02 
00 12 00 
00 12 00 
00 12 00 
00 12 00 
00 12 00 
00 12 00 
00 12 00 
00 04 02 
00 05 00 

00 17 02 

03 11 00 

01 14 03 

02 08 00 
01 03 06 
01 03 06 



Ditto. 
Hingham-Towne Cr. By Sundry accp*° Viz. 
Paul Gilford pd. him as 
per Assignment 



John Chamberlaine 
Samuel Gill 
John Cutler 
Thomas Thaxter 
Samuel Nicholson 



01 


03 


10 


10 09 


11 


02 


09 


06 


15 


00 00 1 


02 


16 


00 


02 


11 


04 



John Dunbarr 
Paul Gilford 
Richard Francie 
Benjamin Bates 
John Jacob 
John Bull 



56 



18 02 
02 03 11 
02 19 00 

01 00 00 
05 15 02 
07 17 00 

02 12 06 



August 24, 1676. 
Hull-To wne Cr. by Sundry accp" Viz. 



James Chever pd. him as 

per Assignment 00 18 09 

Henry Chamberlaine 03 18 00 
James Chever 02 05 00 



12 



John Angell 
John Jacob pr. Nath' 
Bosworth 



13 09 
03 12 00 

02 00 00 



ASSIGNMENT OF WAGES. 



369 



Ditto. 



Milton-Towne Cr. 


by Sundry Accp" Viz. 47 


11 09 


George Lyon pd. him by 


John Daniel 


00 09 00 


Assignment 


00 09 00 


John Pitcher 


00 12 10 


John Redman 


00 18 00 


John Fenno 


00 15 04 


Samuel Wadsworth 




Richard Silvester 


00 18 00 


per Abigail 


16 15 06 


John Pitcher 


03 17 07 


Henry Roberts 


00 09 00 


Thomas Voss 


07 10 00 


John Jourdan 


00 07 00 


Samuel Pitcher 


00 09 00 


Walter Mory 


00 07 00 


Thomas Holman 


02 18 10 


Richard Silvester 


04 12 08 


Ephraim Newton 


00 09 00 


Benjamin ;§adcock 


03 09 06 


Thomas Swift 


01 02 06 


Samuel Gullifer 


00 13 00 


Benjamin Badcock 


GO 09 00 




August 24, 1676. 




Medfield-Towne Cr. by Sundry Accp'' viz. 14 


04 06 


John Plimpton pd. as per 


Josiah Rockwood 


03 14 08 


Assignment 


02 14 00 


Vincent Shuttleworth 


02 11 04 


John Hammon 


02 08 00 


Edward Grose 


02 16 06 




Ditto. 




Roxbury-Towne Cr. by Sundry Accp'° Viz. 51 


17 01 


William Davenport pd. 


as 


John Scott 


00 10 09 


per Assignment 


02 10 00 


John Weld 


10 16 08 


Samuel Williams 


05 01 00 


Henry Bowen 


00 15 00 


Joseph Smith 


09 13 02 


Samuel Williams 


01 17 06 


Isaac Johnson per his 




John Weld 


03 06 06 


widow- 


01 05 00 


John Watson 


00 18 00 


John Curtis 


02 08 01 


Richard Hall 


05 10 06 


Onesiphorus Stanly 


01 11 03 


John Newell 


00 17 08 


Jonathan Fairbanks 


03 01 00 


John Pason 


00 10 00 


John Clark 


00 09 03 


John Weld 


01 11 00 


Hugh Clark 


01 05 00 


Joshuah Lamb 


02 02 10 


Joseph Lyon 


01 06 05 


Andrew Levins 


01 10 00 


John Whitney 


00 18 00 


Robert Seaver 


01 02 06 




August 24, 1676. 




Weighmouth-Towne Cr. by Sundry Accp'" viz. 52 


01 10 


Benjamin Poole pd. as 


per 


Joshua Philips 


09 19 05 


Assignment 


09 18 00 


John Record 


04 00 00 


Thomas Bayley 


01 16 10 


John Pinchon Esq' 


10 00 00 


John Pinchon Esq' pr. 




Richard Adams 


03 17 06 


Samuel White 


12 10 01 








Ditto. 




Bradford-Towne Cr. by Sundry Accp" viz. 04 


01 03 


John Griffin pd. him as 


per 1 William Smith 


03 02 00 


assignment 


00 19 03 







370 



KING PHILIP'S WAR. 



Ditto. 
Beverly-Towne Cr. By Sundry Accp'* viz. 



John Dodge pd. as per 

Assignment 01 10 00 

William Dodge 01 00 00 

Joseph Eaton 05 18 06 

Jonathan Mosse 01 05 10 



John Rayment 
John Hull 
John Clark 
Samuel Hebert 
Mark Hascall 



31 



01 06 

03 11 00 

04 14 02 

03 08 00 

04 00 06 

05 13 06 



Ditto. 



Glocester-Town Cr. By Sundry Accp*' viz. 



17 



Benjamin Jones pd. as per 

Assignment 01 04 00 

John Fitch 02 15 10 

John Stanwood 01 02 00 



Philip Stanwood 
Samuel Stanwood 
John Day 
John Hascall 



05 10 

03 08 06 

02 11 06 

03 15 00 
02 09 00 



Hampton-Towne 

Edward Colcord pd. as 

Assignment 
Joseph Cask 
Benjamin Molton 
Ephraim Matson 
John Lovitt 
Israel Blake 
Abraham Drake 
Morris Hobbs 
Francis Jennings 
John Sleeper 
Isrel Clifford 
Micael Towaly 



August 24, 1676. 
Cr. By Sundry Accp'^ viz. 50 14 03 

per William Sanborn 01 04 00 

02 00 00 Thomas Roby 01 04 00 

03 08 06 John Browne 01 04 00 
03 01 02 Palmer 01 08 06 
01 03 00 Joseph Smith 01 17 06 

00 14 00 James Hobbs 03 05 00 

01 00 00 John Palmer 04 19 04 

00 13 08 Ebenezer Perkins 01 15 00 

01 04 00 John Browne 06 12 05 
00 19 06 Benjamin Sweett 05 01 00 
00 18 00 Samuel Colcord 01 01 04 
00 00 00 Michael Towsly 01 15 00 
00 17 00 Thomas Browne 03 08 04 



Ipswich-Towne Cr. 
John Chub pd. as per 

Assignment 
Alexander Alhor 
Samuel Bishop 
Joseph Fellows 
Isaac Fellows 
Simon Grow 
Joseph Marshall 
Samuel Ingols 
Amos Gourdine 
Edward Neland 
Josiah Clark 
Simon Adams 



Ditto. 
By Sundry accp" viz. 



67 15 09 



06 


04 


06 


02 


10 


06 


01 


10 


00 


01 


15 


00 


01 


05 


06 


02 07 


05 


04 


00 


00 


01 


10 


10 


01 


00 


00 


02 


00 


00 


02 


16 


06 


06 


03 


00 



Joseph Proctor 
John Browne 
John Potter 
Richard Pasmore 
Jonathan Wade 
Thomas Smith 
Thomas Dennis 
John Line 
John Pengilly 
Joseph Jacob 
Isaac Pei'kins 
Thomas Philips 
Jacob Wainwright 



00 17 00 
02 08 00 

01 04 00 

02 12 05 
06 00 10 
01 13 04 

01 05 06 
04 02 06 

03 18 03 

02 09 10 
00 15 04 

04 11 06 
02 14 00 



ASSIGNMENT OF WAGES. 



371 



August 24, 1676. 
Linn-Towne Cr. By Sundry Accp'" viz. 



Samuel Ireson pd. as per 

Assignment 03 03 03 

John Linsly 00 18 00 

Philip Cartland 04 17 08 

John Man 02 08 00 

John Burrell 03 06 00 

John Moore 01 10 00 

Thadeus Berry 03 03 06 

Thomas Browne 03 11 00 

Isaac Wellman 02 05 00 

Samuel Graves 01 13 00 

Eliazer Linsey 01 16 00 



59 19 11 



Isaac Lewis 
Thomas Barker 
Robert Coates 
William Dellow 
Joseph Burrell 
Samuel Fisk 
Elisha Fuller 
Thomas Leonard 
Moses Chadwell 
Daniel Johnson 
Timothy Bread 
James Robinson 



03 02 00 

04 16 09 
07 08 00 
03 03 06 

01 04 00 
00 16 06 

02 02 04 

00 15 08 

01 01 00 

03 04 00 
03 03 06 
00 11 03 



August 24, 1676. 
Marblehead-Towne Cr. By Sundry Accp'' viz. 



Gregory Sowder pd as per 

Assignment 04 03 00 

Ephraim Jones 05 14 00 

Rowland Ravensbee 01 07 04 
Enoch Lawrence 03 00 00 

Thomas Russell 01 14 00 



25 



George Cross 
Walter Emmett 
Augustine Ferker 
John Parmer 
Mark Pitman 
Thomas Stanford 



10 10 

01 16 08 

02 10 00 
01 04 00 
01 00 06 
01 16 10 
01 04 06 



Ditto. 
Newbury-Towne Cr. By Sundry Accp*' viz. 
Jonathan Emery pd as per John Wil